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tv   Deep Thinking  CSPAN  July 30, 2017 10:50am-11:57am EDT

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communication in the imo g code and william and mary professors robert archibald and david solomon asked for the future of american education in the road ahead for america's colleges and universities. look for these titles in bookstores this coming week and watch for many of the authors in the near future on book tv on c-span2. >>. >> hello. let me get the microphone a little set up.
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good afternoon and welcome to the commonwealth club of california, the place where you are in the know. you can find the club on the
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can you just give us insight into what it was like to be a dissident input and led russia and how that kind of crackdown on civil liberties and participation intensified? was it gradualtalk to us about how that happened? >> it's funny , eight months ago i was here in south pacific and i traveled across the country promoting my previous bookk. >> which we'll talk about also. >> everybody wanted to ask me about ibm and the blue. [laughter] so now i have a new book. and i don't think it's inescapable. but somehow it's the two are connected because a lot of
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russian stories are connected to cyber security, to, it's not ai but interference using new technology. >> now, regarding the situation in russia, it's, it's also quite extraordinary moment. i just arrived here today and just in the square board and while i'm waiting for of course, i looked at the news from moscow, from alex diwali. a colleague for big rallies on june 12. it seems that in four days time we had massive rallies in russia. there are 211 cities now, just people taking 11 russian cities. there were these expressing their desire to join these rallies but of course this is vladimir putin. the reason i mention that is because i have this question
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i'm being asked all the time. vladimir putin is so popular. what can we do? you're inthis country, you can measure the popularity of a politician . maybe it's plus or -3 or four percentage points but it cannot be, you cannot mix state is about 30 percent. so in britain's russia, first of all you have to recognize that people are being asked anonymously, what do you think ofvladimir putin , they are uncomfortable. they're very uncomfortable because many of them were born in the soviet union or have memories about the soviet union and asking about a kgb dictator, by a foreigner on the street,, it's kind of image important. when they say 80 percent of russian people will be asked about support him, my
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question is i want to look at the remaining 20 percent. so there's 20 percent of people who are so unhappy that they are not afraid to say what they think about him. i wouldn't pay any real attention to these polls because the true popularity of could be measured by the factthat so many people are willing to join his rally . they're marching here in san francisco or new york when you are being protected by the police, most likely confronted by russia and people realize that all the risk, they are still willing to show their affection, their disagreement and their willingness to seek change. when putin,'s regime and cronies try to organize big rallies like supporting the annexation of crimea, they bring people from the state jobs, there often just, they often give money and its many of those recorded because
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they couldn't have it in 2000, they saw they had to pay for it. so england is eating 90 percent of people almost willing to take action. through actual level support with enthusiastic support. >> it's not reflecting. >> what led you go to your decision to leave the country, what were the factors that led up to that? >> invitation. >> to visit the russian analog of fbi. >> so it was invitation to be the, it's like be a weakness witness on one of the many cases that they set up at the time so that was in 2,012. there was a crackdown and many of my colleagues that would be arrested or being investigated and when i received it i was traveling abroad. my mother received it and i called the late boris denzil, my friend and colleague, an
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ally and asked him if he and boris, he said gary, stay away because you enter the building and if you leave the building, you will not be a witness anymore but a suspect. so i wish you would have followed his own advice because it was apparent at the time that a regime would not play by its own rules and he wanted to eliminateany opposition . and looking at the list of people who marched with me, 10 years ago, five or six years ago, on moscow street, they either are in jail, in exile or worse. >> you wrote the book winter is coming talking about is a real danger to the world and you were critical of theobama administration for not taking that threat serious enough . >>.
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>> which we had thought about. we should have listened to you a little more at that time but you also say we should beg trump showing how fragile our democratic systems are. >> i think this is looking at what's happening now, it's this from, it he's not capable to destroy but to show the weakness of the system could be exposed. >> and also as a wake-up call. so there's a lot of people thought that in this country, they thought that democracy is taken for granted. all the rights that we enjoy forone and two centuries , i remember that two years ago i was at the show and i tried to raise this issue with putin and the threat and he was so dismissive. and he ended up this conversation by saying look, wake me up when he takes over poland. i almost jumped out of my chair. responding that i heard similar comments about eight years ago and we all know what was the outcome.
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and after november elections, bill has changed his views and became, a crusader, smashing putin and russian interference and i couldn't help tweeting that it seemed that skipped over all of them . >>. >> and we are, but also its when i say, you could see the backlash against nationalism in europe. it's because of trouble i believe, trump is an expensive case, we saw the collapse of nationalists in poland. the old rule that many believe was poised when the elections were totally crushed and by the way, it was crushed in the election because it eight percent of those people voted. and the other majority voted, the slow majority, you could see that they share a vote is
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not as impressive as it looked. then we have friends, france is, that was by the way a big setback for putin. they believed that they would win because they had let then, they had also postponed and sean from post-left, all all of them lifting sanctions and they are about bringing russia out of the cold and plotting a new era of cooperation and putin lost macro one, i think trump, again i thought it was a significant moment to make another joke saying that built three cards out of four and he lost his bed. he seemed he was running out of trouble cards. >>. >> one more question. masha gibson was a journalist who also had to leave russia for her safety like you did. recently last week wrote an op-ed in the new york times and she said we imagine the villains of history as
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cutting strategist, brilliant masterminds of war. this happens because we learn about them from history books which we've narrated that retrospectively in events like logic. making them seem predetermined, historians and the readers bring a perception by authority. if a historical event caused some shocking destruction, then the person behind us and i must have been a correspondingly giant monster. terrifying as it is to contemplate the catastrophes of the 20th century, it would be even more frightening to imagine that humanity has assembled unthinkingly into its darkest moments. so then i'm going to say as someone who spent years studying mister and as one of a handful of journalists who have had conversations with him i can vouch for the fact that he is a poorly educated, underinformed, incurious man whose ambition is vastly out of proportion to his understanding of the world. to the extent he has any interest in the business of
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governing, it is his role on the world stage or on russian television that concerns him. whether he's attending a summit, piloting a plane or hang gliding with siberian cranes. it's the spectacle of power that interest him. and when i read that, it made me wonder how you compare the persona of president trump with vladimir putin. >>. >> speaking of trump as we had a conversation before, looking in his face and i can repeat it here. that i think we are lucky that it was trump who actually exposed the weakness of the system. a man with no plan, no strategy and now we can deal with that because we see is flawed and there are so many weaknesses in these administrations, that we are being formed properly and i think it will help america to get stronger.it's like with a virus.
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a virus attacks the body, that will weaken the immune system so if it doesn't kill you, it makes you stronger. >>
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.... to underestimate putin, that's a big mistake. and she's right describing him as poorly educated. everything she said was right, but he had instincts. the fact is that the man stays in power for 18 years, tell you that he's quite a savvy dictator. he knows how to manipulate people around. he won these battles in russia among his cronies. but most important, he instinct i havely learned that -- instintively learned it's a brand new world, and you can use technology. you can use the free speech, the free environment of the democracy to promote your own agenda. and he knows it's not about substance. he can lie all the time. he understands that his advantages, he's not going to be called by a special counsel to testify under oath ott. he can do whatever. and he can confess, yes, i lied, as he did with crimea. remember first, oh, how dare you. i'm a man of peace. next statement three months later, oh, maybe there were some russians, you know, vacationing patriots. [laughter] then few months later, oh, how could we let
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these brave people fighting alone? some form of tacit approval. and then eventually a year later, full recognition, bragging. of course it was us, and pinning medals on the russian troops that were part of invasion. now, in his mind he did everything right because he was a kgb guy. and we all remember even before cbecoming president when he was acting prime minister and meeting his former colleagues at kgb headquarters in moscow, he said once kgb, always kgb. and lying is a part of his job. and he is amazed that he keeps lying, and people are still buying it, still asking him did you do that? no, i didn't. [laughter] by the way, by saying i didn't, he just, you know, he's looking back at russian people thinking, of course, i did it. [laughter] >> they don't get it. >> so let's sell this nonsense to them. and it's all about his appearance. and as long as he's being treated as the most powerful man on the planet -- by the way, two consecutive years, "forbes" magazine, that's what counts.
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he knows not because he read books like us, but because he has these instincts that no one ever in historyattacked a strong dictator. as long as dictator looks strong, there will be no uprising. >> well, let me get to the point about lies. you tweeted, i think yesterday, the point of modern propaganda isn't only to misinform or push an agenda, it's to exhaust your critical thinking and to annihilate truth. and i think that my concern is how can our sort of democratic society withstand this level of mendacity and chaos? what advice do you have to americans right now? >> again, first of all, you should realize that the threat does exist. i think it's better late than never.
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and also putin, putin found out that he can weaponize this fake news industry. and by the way, i could see that for a few people that speak russian in this audience, more than few, they should be aware that this business of creating fake news industry started in russia many years ago by confronting russian opposition, by creating this fake presence on internet to lead people who are looking for alternative news, who were not happy with channel 1, channel 2 propaganda machine. so it worked. it's because if you show up on internet and you look, if you're browsing there and you find a web site that looks decent and has some news, but it also sells you not 100% lies as channel 1, but it has its own window where it has to make sure that while you buying the credentials of web site, you will also, you'll not notice that some of the elements of the story, they are just fake news. then putin went beyond russia to the russian -- to neighboring countries, russian-speaking world, and it worked again.
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and, of course, he decided he could use it globally, having create troll factories and also many lobbyists. and finding quite successful -- because, again, he's a kgb dictator -- finding these weak spots in the free world because you can line hundred different ways. and now with all this social media channels, you can manipulate public opinion by amplifying these are the fake stories can -- >> a.i. . >> exactly. someone will pick it up. and it's more difficult to tell truth, because there's only one way. >> and it's nuanced. >> it's -- exactly. for instance, when russia, russian missile hit the plane, it was not just a blunt denial. they came up with ten different versions. yeah. oh, it was i ukraine and missile. now, it was ukrainian jet fighter. no, it was a plane full of dead bodies sent from holland.
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it just -- [laughter] ten different versions. by the way, it was amazing, russian television two different channels, they both confronted the report of the dutch investigators, and they had two different versions of truth, quote-unquote. one talked and with all the diagrams showing it was ukrainian missile. another one talk about ukrainian jet fighter. almost at the same time. again, it doesn't matter. because you construe this nonsense to all different alternative versions to the public, and somebody will buy it. it's somehow, i would argue, even more dangerous than propaganda, because he doesn't
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have to sell you anything. the soviet propaganda was limited because they had a story to sell. they had to convince you that soviet union wants peace, and they could support only certain political groups, left, far left, anarchists communists. putin? doesn't matter. he can go with far left, far right, anything that disturbs status quo. anything that spreads chaos is good for him. and he can sell whatever. he knows how to weaponize whatever. refugees from syria? fantastic. let's push more of them to europe, because they will disturb political balance and create problems for mainstream parties like angela merkel, in france, in other countries. so spreading chaos with putin's resources and with openness of the west and total, being totally unprepared for this kind of onslaught, that worked for him. >> so what's your advice to the ordinary americans? >> first of all, you understand that this threat does exist. and it's not, it's not a minor threat. i understand there's isis, but you should look at putin as the main source of problem because of his ability to attack you
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simultaneously on many fronts. you should recognize -- >> you think putin is more dangerous to american society than isis? >> you kidding me? [laughter] are you asking now? it's, even -- not today, but some, few days, couple weeks ago when concern. [inaudible] was on -- was comey was on senate floor, he said russia is most dangerous because of its intentions and resources. isis comes and go. we can spend a lot of time talking about conspiracy theories and how many potential kgb infiltrations there, because you look at the officers that work with russia, then you have many field commanders that mysteriously, you know, came to
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syria. then it's about very strange relations between assad and isis. because they're not fighting each other. and by the way, russian planes never bombed isis. when you rook at putin's operation -- look at putins' operation in isis, he always bombed american-backed, western-backed rebels because he knows assad and isis are all helping to create chaos. is you have to fight back. there are many ways you can hurt putin because as long as you look strong, he will be challenged. but you have to make him look like a loser. and the many things that you can do, start hurting them where it hurts. look, follow the money. oh, yeah, sanctions. yes, yes, sanctions, but as long as let's say united -- [inaudible] one of the top oligarchs, as long as his wife can run his business from yes geneva, of course, he can be
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denied visa access to europe. big deal. and the same. macron can say many tough things facing putin, but as long as -- is making business with russia, putin doesn't care. so putin's empire depends on the west complacency and willingness to make money no matter what. and we still yet to see the proper response from the united states and europe just making sure not so much for putin, but for his cronies that the continued aggression will have a very high price. >> what do you miss most about living in moscow? >> my mother. she lives in moscow. she's 80. it was too hard for her to to move outside russia. she has two sisters, nephews, nieces. so i have my on also -- my son also from a previous marriage. that's, you know -- >> people. >> a lot of relatives there. my wife and our kids, they are in europe now. coming back and forth would be ideal, but for me now it's one-way ticket. >> all right.
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let's turn to "deep thinking. " artificial intelligence is already changing so much about society, about work, and yet to get to the 2016 election again, we were having debates about, you know, coal mining jobs and manufacturing sector rather than how do we adapt to this future that is not just coming, it's here. and you're an optimist, which is wonderful. i love that about the book, that you really think that if we combine machine power with human-powered thinking, that that's going to be good for the future. can you just talk to us a little bit about how you frame your thinking around machine learning and a.i. , artificial intelligence? >> the idea behind the book was to combine a few themes. one is it was my personal story. it's being part of this human-machine competition and what i learned from that. another one was the story, it's a history of human-machine relations. and i thought it would be important to write it in just plain language, explaining that it's a natural progress. and you have to demystify that, because there's so much panic based on this disfor thed version from hollywood --
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distorted version from hollywood, the terminator, the matrix. look at the problem objectively. and, of course, looking into the future and promoting the what i believe is the future scenario, human plus machine cooperation. and that was the outcome of my matches with deep blue when i just realized you can't beat them, join them. [laughter] but what it is, i think as you mentioned again the elections and politics, it's always bothers me this kind of hypocrisy. because machines for centuries, if not millennials, have been taking over all forms of manual labor. now, when machines were taking over jobs from, you name it, manufacturing jobs, that's
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natural. now the only difference is machines coming after people with college degrees, political influence and twitter accounts. [laughter] and it's a big story. but again, in the history timeline, it's just, it's just another, it's just a leap forward. and we just have to realize that many, i would say more, you know, aspects of cognition will be taken over by the machines. now, of course it's fear, oh, what's it going to do. there's still so much room for us to amy our creativity with machine intelligence. that's the subtitle of the book. because what i learned, and i could try to put it in just
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internal formula. anything that we do, and we know how we do this, machines will do better. now, the emphasis is on we now how we do. there's -- >> you can program. >> codify. something you can codify and send to the machine. now, there's so much we are doing without knowing how we do that. and it's not just simply emotional things, it's just a lot of decisions were made to base on like parallel tracks. and machines always know the odds. they will not be able to make decisions, because they will have to compare incompatible things. it's, recently i just had a speech in amsterdam about ten
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days ago for a bunch of a.i. experts, and i wanted to come up with something that's a vivid example. . >> >> and tune make that precise calculation. the machines will never give you the right advice. and then to make the most efficient decision. and beyond that extreme situation and if you want to buy something but with a budget that is too expensive. and then you can add this little thing. and then to combine them with a decision end of that 20 or 25 years ago i am sure the grandchildren will think they were driving cars? the greatest cause of death. is now that i think about it will happen.
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is now that i think about it will happen. >> it is happening. >> we have to know what we want to do. and it's about saving jobs for our because that flows down the cycle. because before any technology would create jobs you will start a new cycle also with new sustainable jobs. we have to take care of our people especially my age or
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older to find out if there is enough opportunities and then try a to slow this down >> you are listening to the commonwealth club we have human-rights activist and former chess trivium. gary kasparov of. so let's go to a question from the audience how did you get interested in playing chess?.
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>> nobody was there to treat this moment. [laughter] that is what i cannot tell you exactly when that happened. may be a winter evening 68 or 69 watching my parents. many people remember the newspapers and i was captivated. so i was lucky son learning those basic rules and that was the moment. >> talking about your match with deep blue a human's crack under pressure and machines don't
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humans can dream but machines cannot. is >> but just one comment about the machine competition while it is useless to fight machines and every game eventually will be cracked with isn't about solving the game of chess is a that is more that all atoms in the solar system. but to make that first move it is about winning the game making less mistakes than your opponents.
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so we always make mistakes so that is why the pressure is too much so it doesn't tell you that we're dealing with them because that is is non intelligence as your alarm clock. [laughter] but seriously it was very successf
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successful the speed was phenomenal and precision still is. when you look at the way the machine made decisions, it could offer very little input into the mysteries of human intelligence. machine didn't need intelligence to play the game of chess. chess was vulnerable to the brute force once hardware got fast enough and algorithm got smart enough. people say free chess acts on the mobile phone is stronger than -- trust me. >> so i war in europe not to expect paradise because we haven't reached that level. >> look, i didn't lose many.
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>> you needn't need to develop a technique. >> no, it is -- that is a good question. first of all, i believe that every game, whether i won or loss was an important piece of information i had to learn from. in one of my earlier books i spoke about the success and we know we have to learn from our mistakes and losses but we believe if we want it because we are great. i had to learn about it and make sure next day i am armed with new ideas because my opponents lost will find those mistakes and come back with new ideas. loosing the game, which was fei painful, i confess in the book i
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was a sorry looser. but you have to play personal. you made a mistake, you have to find it, you have to kick yourself in the head but it is coming back the next day. it is more painful but at the end of the day it is about learning. i was angry but thought i have a choo chance to come back stronger. what i learned from my childhood chess wasn't about winning or loosing, it was about winning, of course but the post important is it was my chance to make a difference. i know if i can make the difference i'm on the right path.
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>> there is a quote in your book i love which is hard work is talent. >> absolutely. i am not happy when i hear all the time this person is talented this one is less talented but he is a hard worker. that is part of talent. >> i love here. here is a question from the audience. i am mostly using the ones doing big print because i left my glasses back stage so sorry if i am having a hard time reading them. how do you see ai, or do you, taking part to eliminate bias discrimination? >> it as a big mistake considering this device as something that is good by definition. >> he is holding up his smartphone. >> it is either good nor bad.
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it is agnostic. you can connect with friends and business and also unfortunately you can do terrorist networks. same with ai. if it is in the hands of putin or isis it will not work for positive things but it will serve as destruction. so that is wie i think it is a big mistake trying to sort of shift our responsibilities to ai. it is in our hands. we have to make sure they will sell our community, world and mankind because there are always people that will try to use the same technology to destroy.
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you can have a nuclear power station or nuclear boat. the same is here. i warning you not to expect paradise. >> that is our you say we have to combine human intelligence and compassion. >> that is indispensable and it is in just humans having passion but it is about purpose and machines have the best algorithms but they will never have a purpose and we do but we don't know what it is we will never share the secret with the machines. [laughter] klay spinning disk another question from the audience of falwell the delta and real to of artificial intelligence has arrived?. explain the touring test.
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>> thinking that in the moment you will not be able to tell the machine from a human by asking questions that is artificial intelligence. ironically, during and other founding fathers of computer science they believe chess was an algorithm test. they were wrong. deep blue won the match and we have many small computers playing great chess. but you cannot call them intelligence. i don't know of it is a watershed moment to believe it is intelligent it is in just one day of the calendar talk about intelligence to leave the department of science so what is
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intelligence and when real looking for machines is it the result for the process? perhaps it is that coming up with a resolve to make sure that happens in a way that we can understand it? so to take a similar path. i am not an expert but my opinion is we would get early incarnations of ai or any other chess engine you find out the origin of the decision but if
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they will ever tell you this so from proving so i would not be too fearful about it. it is good and bad. it is good because it is deep learning and self-improving but if it gets bugged you will never find out what it s. new challenges. i wouldn't be too fearful about it because it is part of the process. we just have to get adjusted to it. >> why do you think chalices is a powerful and in during metaphor?. -- enduring. >> i was going to add in the western world if you look at
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japan or china. chess is the most poplar game in japan. chess is being played around the world. we don't know what happened with the game moving into different cultures and social situations. and even today ended is a history of almost 400 years you still follow the game?. there is a list of people considered to be the smartest in the nation.
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>> do you still enjoy playing chess? >> love the game, watch it, follow it, play some exhibitions and as you mentioned the foundation is very active in this country and around the world and i am an active part of this process. it is not only working with blueprints and schools and promoting the game as important educational tool, which i think it is another big discussion about that but also problems with rising stars and after ten years of our work with young americans this country has the strongest in the world. and next month, between st. louis, missouri, there is a match between u.s. juniors and the rest of the world.
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chess will always stay in my life. i would say it is 25-30 percent of my activities are somehow connected to the game of chess and i am very happy with that. >> another audience questions. as the population ages and many have less mental abilities, can ai come to the rescue? i hope the answer is yes. >> the answer is yes, but you have to find a way. it is a new technology. it is not just kill jobs but it will create opportunities. and i think the opportunities are unlimited. there are many things on our planet we could revisit because
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we have such a powerful alliance with intelligence machines. >> somebody wants to know if you play go and if you can talk about the differences and similarities? >> i don't play go. i know the rules. but you have to be very cautious comparing chess. what i understand is that the game was played between the deep learning machine from google and the two matches with top, top players. go is very strategic you may say more complicated than chess because it doesn't have the same tactical resolutions and the game goes longer. even if alpha go, i feel it is
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fought as powerful as the chess engines. we are talking about absolute numbers. but the human performance of go is way below the average performance of the world champion. i think that the current world champion having wide pieces against the machine, if he wants to make a draw, i would bet on him. in go, i don't think there is a chance. they are doomed. they cannot exercise the same control of the game as the world champion can do in chess. >> here is another question from the audience. do you think chess has been tri
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trivialized by computers? >> if you look at the number of people playing today versus years ago the answer is no. it depends what you expect. yes, it was criminalized because they can follow the matches of top players. being highly critical. i remember playing games and grand masters were cautious even to criticize us. you can hear people laughing around the world watching the game if the machine shows a big blunder. so, it also means millions of chess fans can now follow the game not being fooled by the presence of the world champion.
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they look at the calls of the moves and follow the game realiing what is happening on the board. >> i read that the program did not know what to play a played random moo shu were taken aback of a logical move?. >> buy the book. it is -- >> there is a follow up. >> this is one of those fake news stories. [laughter] >> here is another question i lose the game after a couple of moves. how do i control that? >> i think the problem is you are way beyond chess. chess is an area you have to win
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a few games. >> here is another question that live exhaust critical thinking we're predictions for natural intelligence of critical thinking?. >> going back to politics politics, there is no easy answer because they look like real story is not a lie. so you should educate yourself so you can try to do is look at competing sources that is one of the ideas of the fake news avalanche from one or two new trusted sources.
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>> when we knew there is one way to brainwash with no information now is exactly the opposite. you cannot verify it. so look for competing sources and at the end of the day it should be your opinion. so try to make a distinction. so it is a story but has the opinion inside. and the opinion they want you to buy.
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>>. >> i don't like the term fake news as a practitioner i cannot comprehend. >> but that is the art of the problem with the do technology that allows of bad guys to promote the agenda to find those destructive evans. >> here is another audience question what is truelove ai and data to target individuals? that gets to the weaponization. >>. >> absolutely.
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that is one of the key lessons. and also from the experiments. the machine will always be the machine. but the human behind the machine should be the greatest expert war over you would rather have a good operator. >> explained that more. >> so in terms of ratings like those 28 cities it was 2861 and early 2800 the we're talking about this category. to dave machines play at the rate of 2300. you don't have to be a very
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strong player. you would rather have a 2000 player to assist the machine. and the savings have been.
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because it is very important for us to understand the role. and we know exactly what we can add. and also with the of fake news or propaganda a very important battlefield where that perception becomes reality. >> another audience question control a wall street will be led takeover the government as well?. >> i am not sure about wall
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street. and to those algorithms. >> but with my limited knowledge of those certain groups they used that combination but speaking about the future looking into the distant future, you have to look at the current moment to make sure you were not jumping over to think about the strategy of the end game. so my answer is so instead of panicking about too much artificial intelligence we should be truly concerned of the lack of intelligence of the people.
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[laughter] >> this is also a question from the audience. there is a lot of concern expressed rand to talk about that some people have proposed that basic and come so people can deal with the fact that ai is taking over so many jobs. >> i would said go beyond that. the best scientific problem or social problem. and guess these are happening in also that people live longer with better medicine but the more jobs that are entering the market that allows them to learn.
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so with that comprehensive solution think about people and how we integrate back into the world. we have to make sure to find something for them to do even with more resources. it is about finding the way the peoples in their forties or fifties or sixties some jobs will be lost but some opportunities will be found. so the worst thing we can do >> is essentially this is what we're doing.
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>> absolutely. at this same time to debate climate change and saving jobs setter clearly and contradiction. no. >> how do we bring back coal jobs? it is what we are doing. >> trying at the same time to debate climate changing and saving jobs in competition with coal. it is not hypocrisy. >> say something that is very hopeful to do our best thinking under pressure and we're under a lot of pressure right now.
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solyndra these debates we should be having?. what are the big questions you think we should be asking? >> so let's let's start with this metaphor to explain certain political moves in that annoyed me. i heard during the crisis momes in syria, obama played checkers and putin played chess. now dictators don't play chess because the game of strategy you don't know what your opponent is planning.
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>> it is a level playing field. >> dictators look for the game they can enjoy where they are not constrained by the parliament, free press or opinion. for the country, democracy should enjoy the advantage. it is about building the strategy and building the future. institutions that will work beyond the president or a senator or so far the political debates are centered around the short term. what will we do now to get roads in the mid-term elections? that is not a to move forward.
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democracy of the free world must come up with the vision of the future. what will the future look like 10-20 years from now? we can make it happen. it is important for us to start discussing the parameters of that and looking for long term strategic solutions contrary to the tactical responses to the problems that have been popping up all the time. >> and we are just about out of time so i will take the opportunity to just quote from your book which is that you trust young people who are growing up with technology to be smart about this. and your add vice to the rest of us is you hope we will take this as an invitation in creating the future you want to see. >> democracy offers a unique
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kansas to -- chance to participate. you can see how your action changes things in the right direction and incorrect actions make it in the wrong direction. >> our thanks to garry kasparov of the human rights foundation. [applause] >> former world chess champion and author of the new book, which i highly recommend, "deep thinking: where machine intelligence ends and human creativity begins." i want to thank our audience here on radio, television and the internet and for all your great questions. copies of the book are on sale in the lobby and he is pleased to sign the books on stage following the program. if you will remain seated. immediately following this event, a member of staff will
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provide details on the signing. now this meeting of the commonwealth club company, the place where you are in the know, is adjourned. thank you. [applause] >> booktv recently visited capitol hill to ask members of congress what they are reading this summer. >> congressman burns, what is on your summer reading list? >> at the beginning of the summer, i went on a congressional trip to vietnam and read a number of books about vietnam including some books from the vietnam war era which kind of reminded me of things i had to read in college. great book called farm to lake that is an interesting history of vietnam and the war. here in the middle part of the summ summer, readinok

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