tv Ronald Reagan CSPAN November 11, 2018 2:52pm-3:41pm EST
>> next, from the southern festival of books on booktv, it's a look at the life and presidency of ronald reagan. >> good afternoon. i want to welcome everyone here who is with us today in nashville and those on booktv to the 30th annual southern festival of books. before we begin in introducer author come under some housekeeping things that they've asked me to share with you. after the session is over we will be meeting in the writers: not for columns if you'd like to talk about or find out more about this book. you can meet us there. also, if you want to support the organization up with some event companies in the humanities tennessee.org and learn more about what they're to the desired and how to support them.
bob spitz was born, lived and went to high school and college on the same street in reading, pennsylvania. once a straight up the block, however, has life beard and too diverse and fascinating rounds. a longtime musician spits smith junior in 1971 where he met a promising young songwriter named bruce springsteen who he managed an occasionally played with the next six years. in 1978, spitz moved on to manage elton john in america, eventually retiring in 1980 to pursue his love of writing. he is the author of nine books, including barefoot in babylon, the eye-opening documentary of the woodstock music festival, which will be republished next year on its 50th anniversary. he wrote the beatles come has defended sln biography on the phenomenal supergroup. the screenplay the silent victim was made into a movie that he hopes no one ever sees.
his articles have appeared in almost every major magazine, including rolling stones, "the new york times" magazine, "washington post," "esquire," gq, condé nast in the oprah magazine. his best-selling biography come at the remarkable life of julia childs will be a one-woman show of writing on broadway in two years and is the subject of a documentary feature that is currently in production. we are here with us today to discuss his most recent work, "reagan: an american journey. please welcome bob spitz. [applause] >> thank you. i am sure you are very eager to hear about a time when there was a little more civility in washington and i imagine a few of you said to yourself, hold on a second, is the grover cleveland's biographer. i have a confession to make right at the outset.
i didn't vote for ronald reagan twice. that's right. carter mondale, to losing efforts. in fact, if i'm going to be completely honest with you, i should admit that i've never voted for a republican. sorry, i'm just not wired that way. which is why it might seem peculiar it is not downright inappropriate to some of you that i stand before you today as the biographer of ronald reagan, a man who united the republican party and broaden its appeal's in ways that few politicians can envision. if you're asking yourself how something like this could have happened, you can imagine the uproar sparked when i first proposed to write this book almost six years ago. by democratic and republican friends found one issue that they completely agreed on. you're crazy each faction announced in perfect harmony.
i tried reassuring both sides of the spectrum. i kept reminding my liberal friends that reagan had begun life as a democrat. it's kind of like reminding by krishan friends that jesus was jewish. they just don't buy it. my republican friends, and by the way, i have our republican friends than you might imagine. both of my republican friends thought that i couldn't be there. my agent suggested i take on someone more appropriate, more suited to my sensibility in my life, god bless her say she would support any choice that i made and then she brought up the possibility of a separate beds. why everyone wanted to know with a rich stop the subjects available to die, and bob spitz, lifelong democrat, biographer of the beatles and julia child, choose ronald reagan. i see a few of you out there
sharing the same skepticism. sit back and relax, ladies and gentlemen. it's a perfectly reasonable explanation. has the biographer, someone whose curiosity about a single subject is indistinguishable, i know a great story when i encounter one. i choose to write biographies about people who have made a dramatic impact on the culture. the beatles changed the way the world listen to music and julia child -- julia child change the way americans eat and live. when i was looking for a new subject, i realized ronald reagan was a figure who had brought about a dramatic shift in work and politics in way americans regarded their country and their government. he also happened to 11 extraordinary life. as the beatles rose from obscurity to become the voice of popular music and miss julia child morphed from a timid housewife without a sense of
purpose to become an american icon, so to ronald reagan's life story followed a remarkable three. three aspects of this saga worldwide catnip to me. reagan lived a great american rags to riches story that spans the history of the 20th century. two, he had an immense impact on this country. and three, he was widely admired even by many who disagreed with him in a way that would allow me to look at an all important question that remains central to our public life at any time. and that is what are the qualities that make a successful leader. i'm going to talk about each of those this afternoon. first let look at that life. ronald reagan was a beloved american icon to millions.
a controversial figure to others, yet the fascinating details of his life and private character are little known. his story was made for the page and i was itching for the chance to bring it to life. it was an extraordinary adventure spanning nine decades of encounters with the most important issues in the most influential players on the world stage. i was excited by the prospect of showing how his character evolved over the years, telling the story of the man, not just the face on the postage stamp. although the arena of politics is not my usual, i realized ronald reagan was the ideal subject for a deeply personal biography that explores the full life of the person rich in detail and drama as well as the full cultural context of his time. he has cited every day as a
political beacon and yet few people truly understand who he was as a person and as a leader. i wanted to study how a relatively humble person from and even humbler background managed to achieve things that few of us can imagine. he'd be the first to say that he wasn't the most brilliant person or perhaps the most informed in his world. and yet, he managed to rise to the top, the very top of four different and difficult professions, the early days of broadcast radio, hollywood stardom, corporate spokesman chip and ultimately the highest level of politics. it was a spectacular american success story. but first things first. if i was going to profile ronald reagan i knew the book would have to strive for object committee. i would have to step out of my
liberal mind that can be open to all points of view. in these polarized times, i thought my book must not be a partisan take, but a thoughtful evenhanded saga of a man come in the history that shaped him and that he shaped intern. that meant that i have to have an open mind. i have to see ronald reagan in the flesh metaphorically speaking. consider the other guard for this relatively modest self-effacing man's life descended from a line of poor irish immigrants, reagan was raised in a series of what were flyspeck towns in the u.s. by a pious mother and a reckless alcoholic largely absent father. his father, jack and gregarious salesman could never hold a job in the family frequently had to skip town under the cover of
night when ranking do. the series of homes were modest to say the least. often without indoor bathrooms and reagan and his brother, neil, often had to share just a single bed. awkward in severely nearsighted, young dutch as he was called lived in his own world. he found his first brush with popularity and even fame as a teenage lifeguard who legend has it saves over 77 people and captured many more young ladies hearts. thanks to his first love, his high school sweetheart, he imagined a way out and made the audacious leap at the height of the great depression to go with her to college. a modest school, but still light years above the lowly station. he was solid bases when it came to scores.
reagan was a cheerleader, captain of the swim team. in fact, he was the swim team. they start a theater troupe in a joined the football team as running back, last man on the bench. most important in college, ronald reagan found his voice. his proudest moment was when he was selected to give a fiery speech at a student protest over college policy. he rallied the crowd with his dramatic delivery, a skill that would come to define his future. by the time he graduated, his natural, jovial personality had transformed him into a man of great charm. yet he still had little experience with the world. still coming at the chutzpah to imagine a radio career and if he didn't get his foot in the door, landing a job at a station in
iowa. it wasn't long before he wedged the rest of himself in as well. soon he became the voice of the midwest. he was known throughout eight states for riveting play-by-play broadcast of cubs and white sox games, games he never saw that re-created and embellished from teletype dispatches. i love telling this story in the book and how in the midst of announcing the famous streak relays the college president, a well-known blowhard barged into the press box just as the long-awaited final race was beginning. the guys hog the mike in utah college policy is to the entire event that ended in a breathless photo finish. ducks after suing. without missing a beat he re-created the entire race having committed every aspect to
memory right down to the 482nd timing and gave his audience a heart stopping experience. when listeners wondered why there was no crowd noise, reagan said the crowd was too stunned by the action on the track. talk about resourcefulness. he was a gifted announcer. that much alone could've been a crowning achievement. ronald reagan relied on his natural confidence and personality to conquer other even bigger worlds. incredibly he had the effrontery to mention himself on the silver screen moving to hollywood where he became a bona fide movie star, hobnobbing with all the leading celebrities of the day by william holden, humphrey bogart and bette davis. he dated all the leading ladies, too. eventually married oscar winner jane wyman. i enjoyed learning how he broke
in by somehow wrangling the screen tester warner bros. and later of course won the role of the gipper over the objections and the producer and he did it by suiting up and throwing a few bullets had been his own college days forum. olivia to havilland, yes, the 102-year-old grand am told me how his midwestern manner always much to his chagrin landed him the best friend parts opposite flashier leading men like jimmy cagney. everyone gossiped about what a chatterbox reagan was. always pontificating about politics between takes. liberal politics by the way. ever since childhood, he had been politically minded, influenced by his parents as so many of us are.
their views paralleled principles that he was taught in church. let us not be weary in well doing. the kindly affection to one another with brotherly love and god love it the cheerful giver. school makes the bullock young dutch for his stance on compelling social issues. adopting his father's politics, he disapproved what he considered the robber barons controlling things in railroad and a fierce union advocate he never missed a chance to speak out for the working man. he was violently opposed to segregation. it inspired him that his boyhood cowboy movie hero opened his ranch for the benefit of the american public of every race and creed. young dutch was a champion of the needy and those affected by the epidemic of homelessness. my god, ronald reagan was a
liberal biographers heartthrob. by the time he was an established fact there can he become if anything more political. he loved sparring with his passionate republican buddies william powell and robert montgomery really going at it and then patching it up over words. reagan relished how they always called him governor and how robert cummings referred to him facetiously as mr. president. they consider that a joke. ronald reagan's colleagues respected he was able to talk politics without making enemies, so much so that they like him president of their union, the screen actors guild and not just once, but for six terms running. there was something about this young man, a quiet confidence and willingness to take risk
that lead people again and again to trust him to take on roles for which he seemingly had little experience. as union president, his calming manner proved invaluable during the violent intentions filled days of the blacklist, even as he stirred up animosity by setting a good his colleagues who were ostracized for their views. maybe that's because his once liberal politics have begun to skew to the right. until then, he had faithfully to the principles of his hero, franklin d. roosevelt, guided by his compassion for his fellow man. i followed the story how all that gradually shifted as reagan's movie career declined, influenced in no small part by his experience with studio politics and his growing distaste for paying taxes and for what he started to refer to as big government.
after world war ii, movies got darker and there were fewer parts for a hint of guy with a sunny days position was beginning to show its age. in the book, i go into his rap on him low in 1954 when he took a gig hosting a corny variety show in a las vegas casino. he was recently married to nancy and had a new infant daughter to think about. he had to dig deep to reinvent himself again. television seemed like a step down, the general electric offered him a new role as host of a sunday night anthology drama series and the companies corporate spokesman. reagan loved that the job entailed something new. speaking to ge workers around the country, espousing corporate positions on the benefits of free trade, small government and
even smaller taxes. he became a true believer in the message. ever restless for the next act, reagan began to crave something more meaningful. the leap into politics was easier than one might have expected for a movie star with no background in government. in 1964 as barry goldwater's presidential bid was thinking, the smooth talking reagan by now a polished speaker was approached to appear on goldwater's behalf. several of the california businessman paid for that speech to be broadcast on national television. the footage says it all. he was telegenic, charming, reassuring, all while promoting candidates that most of the elect or it had rechecked good. businessmen realize that the war
on candidate is on the ticket. they've decided to launch ronald reagan into politics that he committed himself to something much bigger than acting, serving the country that had given him so much opportunity. so began an unlikely request to become governor of california. he had another audacious move by a man who would frequently stepped into careers that were seemingly out of his leg. once in office, he backed such obvious conservative causes is cracking down on student protests and welfare recipient. some of his policies were more progressive by today's standards. he signed one of the earliest loss in the country that permitted therapeutic abortion and he backed bill after bill preserving wildlife in the environment that he so enjoyed at his ranch in the foot hills of malibu. let's look at that abortion bill. this was a night and 67, six
years before the roe v. wade decision. what was i to make of this? i called the late tony billiton, the the longtime california democratic assemblyman who had sponsored the bill and i asked him how he convinced ronald reagan to sign it. reagan was opposed to abortion he assured me any opposed the bill. that he was willing as governor of all the people of california to listen to both sides of the argument and to study the results of hearings held around the state to sound out the constituency. governor of all the people. that's a pretty stunning comment. in every state and every city, in every room, there were people with the opposing viewpoints and different ideals. as governor of a largely democratic state, reagan learned
that cooperation and compromise were the twin axes on which successful government turned. these are principles he followed once he became president. you could imagine how much pleasure i took from chronicling the latest president be. it was full of moments of high drama we are all familiar with. i was lucky enough to get behind the scenes and speak to many, many people come insiders who would never open up before. and about some of the more trains him at his moments of his administration. there was the attempt on his wife only weeks after he took office. i was able to talk to the doctors and nurses who attended him in was struck at how is chipper personality stayed intact throughout this life-threatening ordeal. nancy reagan's press officer sheila tate touched me with the story of their agonizing rise to the hospital as the life hung in
the balance. people who were in the situation room at the time gave me a blow-by-blow account of how chaos erupted there in the deepest recesses of our government. on the international front, reagan's closest advisers provided new and intimate details. for example, when the president first met gorbachev in geneva to negotiate nuclear disarmament, there is a tussle over the optics. jim caron, reagan's executive assistant told me how he refused to let the president be corby were in his overcoat. he worried if the 54-year-old gorbachev emerged from his limo without a coat and looking spry, the 74-year-old reagan all bundled up would get killed in the press footage. moments before the soviet delegation arrived, q. or bird
reagan to give them a coat. reagan refused. the argument went back and forth. he loved that coat. he wasn't about to give it up. finally, he tore that code and scarf off and he threw it. all right, god, how do your way he said. now looking every bit the aging ex-movie star and a gorgeously tailored blue suit. gorbachev, meanwhile, got out of his limo wearing an overcoat buttoned to the ears, and scarf muscled around his neck and a dowdy black fedora. as the two men stood side by side, their ages seemed magically reverse and for the rest of the summit before each event, gorbachev leaned in to whisper to ronald reagan, will it be coat song or coats off. i also got the inside during the iran-contra affair at the
national security officers open up for the first time about the covert story. michael was always to put my reader in the room where the action occurred and reagan's personality was most revealed. one of the most affect an example is this after he left office, the morning nancy, her chief of staff and the president stop or delivered the devastating diagnosis that he was suffering from alzheimer's disease. even the mounting confusion, reagan crossed the room, sat down at his desk in hand wrote a letter to the american people explaining his condition. throughout my research, i was fortunate enough to be the first person to see many of reagan's private files. i got to hold in my hand his famous three by five no card where he hand wrote many of his public remarks as well as the
handwritten letters that he wrote to many private citizens. nancy reagan was kind enough to share her family's private scrapbooks, including one should begin compiling as a teenager. there were of course moments in the public life where he did not make the right choices. the iran-contra episode tarnished his second term and he was slow to recognize the terrible toll of the aids crisis. of course, people were still debating whether his economic policies are paying dividends. what to me is notable about his five is that so many people admired the man and his style of leadership. why is that? i'd love to just make a few of my own observations. one was his relatively nonpartisan style compared to the divisions that we've seen since. even though democrats profoundly disagreed with his conservative
policies, the two sides often reached across the aisle to consult experts into compromise. ronald reagan never lost sight of the fact that four american government to work, it has to be a collaborative effort were people with opposing viewpoints were heard in respect that. he never questioned anyone's picture it isn't. he never vilified his opponent or disparage someone's looks or background. ronald reagan believed in honest government. he and the democratic speaker of the house, tip o'neill fought like cats and dogs over the major issues of the day of welfare, taxes, the budget, covert military operations and social security just to name a few. but they maintain respect for each other's positions and they got this done. they were bitter rivals, but only until 6:00 p.m. each day
when a cease-fire prevailed. often, reagan would call tip o'neill and say hello, tip, is that after 6:00 at which point they might chat companionably like to 7-year-old irishman were dipped into the president's liquor cabinet. ken duberstein who was president reagan's last chief of staff and coincidently my childhood camp counselor mourns the wonderful evenings the staff spent socializing, dining, talking in playing card with colleagues, most of them democrats. but those days are gone duberstein told me expressing great regret. today he said, if anyone is seen with someone of the opposite party, it could end their careers. there was also reagan's management style. he knew he wasn't the smartest man in the room and he was an
insecure that. he hired experts and when things got complex, he was humble enough to listen to them. then he made decisions based on a consistent study set of principles he held dear. he was in a deep thinker, but his thinking was deeply felt good the public also admired him for the speeches and symbolic appearances. in his public persona, his intention was to comfort and inspire. he saw his role as uniting force in troubled times. he had all the good to project that image. a warm raspy voice and top of the head to convey the feeling that he was speaking directly to you and also his willingness to use soaring language. who could forget his speech tonight when the space shuttle challenger exploded.
he stepped out of character and spoke directly to schoolchildren, it's leaning how sometimes painful things have been when it comes to expanding man's horizons. he insisted it is important to take chances to preserve the concept of scientific exploration and discovery. and of course, his famous line recalling the last time you saw the shuttle's crew, waving goodbye as they slipped the surly bonds to touch the face of god. one viewer recounted being overcome by the president's word. as i listened to them, i had a tear in my eye and a lump in my throat, tip o'neill admitted. ronald reagan's greatest service may have been in restoring the respect of americans for themselves and their government after the traumas of vietnam and watergate, the frustration of the iran hostage crisis in a
succession of seemingly failed presidencies, when critics describe reagan as dr. feel good, he took it as a compliment his greatest triumph may have been the restoration of american morale. what i learned most from all the five plus years of working on the biography was that ronald reagan had an ineffable sense of decency and integrity in everything that he did. i didn't always see eye to eye with his policies. okay, i really saw eye to eye with his policies. but i round up with respect for the way he can do it himself as a politician and as a man. as george shultz pointed out, his most endearing aspect with this fundamental decency. i came to admire the gentleness of his nature and his willingness to see the good in people and the enduring concept of america.
reagan never stopped believing in what he called the american mirror: the good people responsible for it. in his final address as president, he described that shining city on the hill as a place where people of all kinds living in harmony and peace. and if there had to be city walls, if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors on the doors were open to everyone with the will of the heart to get there. that was ronald reagan's america, welcoming and inclusive. he knew that part of what makes our country great is based on a common creed that all of those are created equal and we share inalienable rights. after delving into the past sweep of his 90 for your life, i came to appreciate how this vision grew out of his many
extraordinary experiences, the humble childhood, the soaring ambition, the self-made success, the bedrock of believes. through it all, and he held to the other man persona. an extraordinary privilege to bring his story to life in all its complexity and drama and to bring it to you and i hope you enjoy it. thank you very much. [applause] >> if anyone has any questions for bob, please feel free to come up to the microphone and bob will take those now. >> yeah, anybody have a question? here we go. >> i have two questions. one is he was such a father figure to america. what kind of father with you personally? the second question i'm curious about your own writing process or the project. >> okay, thank you.
she asked of course what kind of a parent ronald reagan once. i wish i had better news for you. ronald reagan wasn't the best parent and i think his kids feel like he wasn't there for him. he was really wrapped up in his career. his kids came of age while he was governor and president and he was really can do with this work. when he was growing up, reagan had to turn inward. his mother was involved with the church. his father was often not care. he suffered from alcoholism and reagan didn't get it -- he just didn't have a lot of input from his parents and i think that was reflected in what happened with him and his kids as well. also, he and nancy were like an island unto them elves. they had an incredibly strong relationship and i don't think there was much room in it for
anyone else. and so i think unfortunately his kids suffered for it. i've heard that from reading their books and from talking to them. as far as my writing process goes, they wish i could really tell you, but it's usually the same with every book that i read. they are all quite long of course. i usually spend two to two and a half years talking to people. i really like to make sure i have eyewitness input from people who are were colleagues of the people i write about, friends and family. i always feel there is new information to be had that we haven't heard before. i really called the globe for two and a half years. in fact, i had been corresponding with somebody who gave me a lot of interesting information about reagan's years
in hollywood and his role as the president of the screen actors guild. we've been going back and forth with e-mail and finally i said this person lived in paris. my wife and i are coming over. can i come talk to you directly. i had the incredible experience of spending three hours with olivia to have one on the cusp of her 100 earth day at the time and she was fantastic. she was more elusive than me. she really had a perfect memory about reagan in how he fit into the hollywood community and how he approached his job as leader of the screen actors guild during a very violent. in hollywood's history. she had all of her notes from it as well. she is ill have them intact. i was really fortunate. those are the kinds of experiences i had when i was
doing my research. ed meese spent about 80 hours of me. mcfarland and john poindexter, hundreds of hours. we talked long and hard about all the same in reagan's life. i do that for about two and a half years and then i write. my writing lasts about two years. i rate it seven days a week. .. how they behave. you can tell when a story is on the deck. when i come out of it, i feel like i've -- after one so much about american policy.
my wife recalls the night i sat there starting, the difference between the missile and the crews missile, when i went to talk to national security advisor, i didn't come off like a dense, i could ask good questions. it was difficult for me to write, unlike my other, it required a lot of information and knowledge about american policy. challenging but really rewarding. anybody else? another question? >> [inaudible question] >> you have to appear in front of the mic. >> you mentioned the new policy, or those? >> that i didn't agree with them? oh, i did. wow. that is a hard one. i will tell you. i thought it was brilliant.
it was interesting how it came about. one of reagan, he came into office as a radical when it came to the soviet union. he was also famously known for saying that soviet union was the evil tire. three of them got really quickly in office while reagan was in his first term. reagan felt like there was no way he could deal with the soviet union. he was building up the military and this was the height of the cold war. nancy reagan had one thing in mind for her husband drought both of his terms. that is, she had one eye on his legacy and she wanted the legacy to be as a man of peace.
so she set about from the very beginning when he took office, almost to the point of nagging him to make peace with the soviet union to find a way to reduce the tension between our two countries. and of course, reduce the threat of nuclear war. this is where i agree with reagan. reagan went -- he made the effort to sound out. he went to geneva. he got him to agree in sitdown talk. reagan always believed that if he could sit down i'm a man-to-man, across the table from each other, we could solve the world problems. i give ronald reagan a lot of credit for that. i found very quickly, and i began by saying, my wife is a democrat, didn't vote for greg in. i found very quickly in my research and my time writing,
things to really admire him for and this was one of them. this was definitely a big one. anyone else? here. >> during your introduction, you mentioned three different, you're it one about the beatles. julia child and the most recent one with reagan. did you see any similarities that behind the scenes, growth these people to become successful to rise up obscurities or anything you can mention about that? >> wonderful question. i always believe that you can't know anything about a subject until you know where they come from. so the first thing that i do, and each of my research strategies for the book, make a
deal on the hometown. the beatles came, i went straight to your. julia child, right to pasadena, california. reagan's case, i went to illinois and then to dixon, illinois and eureka where he went to college. i found almost the same thing in each of these people. they were either, not ignored by the parents but left to their own devices as young kids. he had to make it on their own. because of that, they were each dreamers. they dreamt about something much better for them. the beatles, certainly, in revocable, jumped about become rock 'n roll stars. at a time when that was an idiotic thing to say you wanted to be. nobody told their families that they wanted to be rock 'n roll stars. especially in riverport. in the late 1950s and early 1960s. julia child, definitely ignored
by her parents but with dreams of seeing the world of thinking that she had something special inside, and i think with both reagan the same thing. he felt from the beginning that there was something special inside of him that he needed to explore and he kept going into that. he could never really quite put his finger on it at the beginning but once each of these people got recognition, early in their careers, of course with the beatles, with julia, in france and with ronald reagan, being a lifeguard, growing up in dixon, illinois, and being written about as a hero in the local newspaper, i think that each found inspiration to dig deep and to make something of themselves something extra
ordinary. they felt they were gifted and they would not give up that dream. that is what is so hard for me about finding the right subject to write about. i always wanted to write about someone who is beloved, someone who has changed the culture and someone who was a great dreamer and just want to make those dreams come true. thinking can -- people always ask me, how did you write -- go from the beatles and junie childs to ronald reagan? there you have it in a nutshell. they're all similar. thank you. >> we are almost done. i have a question. based on your research, -- based on research, what message do you think that reagan himself would want our current leaders and our current politicians to draw from his life? >> you just through grenade at
me, right? [applause] without mentioning any names, i would say that ronald reagan more than anything, would say, we need to find some common language so we can get something accomplished in this country. we can't be on opposite sides. reagan would say, we are all americans. it would be horrified about the divide in the country today. as i said earlier, he was a unifier. he was not a divider. i think reagan would probably take to the airways and find some way that he could inspire the country to pull together and you know, use his shining example of america to go forward rather than go backward. i think he would have a big
problem with the way things are going. >> given your criteria, what is your next book project? >> i'm going to back to the music world. i come from music. music is a big part of my life. when i was writing about the beatles, and it took almost eight and a half years, i realized i was writing my life story in a way. so i look for another way to go back and tap into that. especially at the age that i am now. i'm going to do another book about another vehicle performer. unfortunately, i can't tell you what that is right now. in the meantime, i'm in the midst of producing a documentary based on the reagan book. the documentary and, it was
about julia child. so i'm involved in that. it's all happening. >> we are out of time. if you like to talk about work, please join us at the writing, signing at the memorial plaza. you can get a copy of his books and speak with them there. thank you, bob. [applause] you're watching tv on c-span2. top nonfiction books and authors every weekend. booktv, television for serious readers.