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tv   Book TV visits Riverside California  CSPAN  December 1, 2018 12:00pm-1:31pm EST

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the book makes it clear what happened there is a deep state i think it is when whoopi goldberg said what's the deep state and who's in charge. that's when i think the wheels fell off the wagon. the second was not so good. you can watch the full program as well as programs with stephen mark on my netbook
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tv.org. search their names at the top of the page. welcome to riverside california. it has a population of almost 330,000 and is home to the university of california riverside. founded in the 1870s it is known as the birthplace of california's citrus industry after the navel orange was introduced in successfully grown there. with help from our spectrum cable partners for the next hour and 15 minutes we will explore the city's history and literary life as we talk with authors can look at collections. we begin with author steve like. we learn about the history of the city.
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we are in the fox theater in downtown riverside. we would show a kids movie on as a or ten or 12 years old. we would come here to the fox i was born and raised here. of course it goes back several thousand years with the local indians here and we have a number of groups that were in this area really not one to specific because we are right along the river. a lot of groups use that river for their own sustenance so we have the queer indians. what they themselves called the tonga. they were part of the san gabriel mission. matt goes back probably in the nine to 10,000 year range.
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that really starts in the 1770s when a number of the spanish explorers are coming through the area and then that is later supplanted. and then it's planted by the american indexation of california. started in 1850. when we became a state. we have kind of this perfect storm of a number things that of things that were coming together at this time. we have the railroads coming to hear. obviously california is on the far west end of the country. and most everybody lives in the midwest and back east. the is one big thing because that becomes more comfortable for people to come out here. the claimant is another one we have a very unique mediterranean type of climate out here you could stay here
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in the united states. at a time when this is the industrial revolution. we had factories in our cities back east. and they are getting a lot of lung elements. at this time all of the doctors could do was to listen to your chest and say you are sick you need to get out of here and get to a more drier air and climate. there is that factor there is the agricultural factor we have a lot of land available here and if you are young and you live in new england you could be a farmer as well as people did. unfortunately they couldn't because most of the land was
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in atlanta and families at the time. but you cannot hear you could homestead for virtually free or you could buy a fairly cheap land and set up a farm informant. the last factor that was coming into play was really kind of this new love or romance of the spanish and mexican past. it is brought about by the publication of the novel. the woman who wrote it. he and she really wanted to highlight the plight of the indians dislike uncle tom's cabin did with the slaves. she died within a few months of this publication and she had written such growing accounts of what southern california was like that is
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quite a draw also to people that want to come out here when they read all my goodness it was always springtime out here. our agricultural opportunities and now we had railroads that can bring people out by 1873 we discover what became the washington navel orange and this was an orange that have come from brazil through to washington dc and the folks at the usda really didn't know what to do with it. they sent some of them to florida. they didn't work while. well. we the woman here named elijah tibbets. and almost immediately we get
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onto the fact that it was a perfect location for them and this was a perfect type of a crop. they have a fairly thick skin. because again most people lived back east. if are integral a bunch of these we have to be able to get them to it as something is something that bloomed very quickly because being a seedless torrent orange and has to has to be grafted. you can graft hundreds from just a couple of trees. by nearly the mid- 1880s we were exporting hundreds if not thousands of boxes of very valuable oranges. out to the midwest. in making quite a bit of money off of them. in this continue to grow really through the 1930s.
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and with an advent of a number of different industries with it. we became very wealthy community very quickly. by 1895 this is just 25 years after riverside started we have the highest per capita income in the country. after world war ii we saw the normal decline in that. it can give ways to it is happening nationwide. they are starting to decentralize and move to the suburbs. we are tearing up some of the orange groves. it becomes decentralized. as a downtown it starts to deteriorate with additional
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shopping areas outside of downtown. that are coming on. along with all of these suburbs. this is really happening regionwide in southern california. huge housing shortage. they liked the warm climate. so they don't necessarily want to go back to detroit or chicago and had to deal with winters again. so they're coming out here into the sunbelt. with their va loans. just like in many other cities. so we see a huge shift in land use. there is just a major shift going on here. we really start to see it starting in the 70s and 80s out here. and then atlanta becomes scarcer. and necessarily moves east.
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it happens in the 80s and 90s. a lot more houses. being built out in this area. we have most of our jobs are actually in the alley and orange county area. they necessarily had to get up early and commute in and back. it's not to say we don't have industry and jobs here but there are quite a few of them. also from the other towns here in the inland area. it's a medium-size city. about 325,000 people. we are in the inland empire we have a varied population.
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we go from we pretty much run the gamut. between anglo-americans to hispanics which are a large part of the populations. i think we mere a lot of southern california. we are becoming a denser community now they are giving way to urban land uses. multiple story things which you would not have seen here we are seeing a lot of that. there is a younger population that is coming and also we are
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getting a lot more land uses and businesses that cater to that demographic but we are seen more urban land use come into even a suburban setting. with a sense of what it was like and the people were like. when this was pretty much a barren plane as it was described. and they were able to set up a town. they give up their homes. and wherever there were. to an area that is described in diaries. and they made it work. they got their hose in the ground.
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and they brought other people out here and they made it work. the major thing is that riverside is really the seat of the navel orange industry and we added to not only our own growth by others. this really put us on the map. and when people think of riverside today it's more thought of as a sleepy inland community but this was really a hub of activity at the time. and it was for many years. people made a point to come out here has given way to other uses in businesses and demographics but that's where roots are. it dates back to 1910. and holds over a thousand different arts in species. they learn more about the research that goes behind the favorite citrus at the grocery
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store. so riverside was a planned community and met back in the mid- 1800s. the people that came here were looking for something to grow. a woman named eliza tibbets actually helped make it possible. we had one of the original trees on the corner of arlington and in manila. it dates back to 1867. it was beautiful and people were very excited about the washington navel. it was developed as part of a citrus experiment station that was established here in 19 '07. it started about 1910 it was
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established across town somewhere we are right now. where the experiment station was originally located. and it was brought here because there was a growing industry and there were a lot of things they didn't know. they advocated to the university of california up in berkeley that they needed an experiment station to answer some of the research questions are some of the things that they needed to know to continue their industry. they were written by an number a number of different researchers they were part of that citrus experiment station. and then became part when this
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became a university of california campus about 50 years after it was a citrus experiment station they expanded the number of faculty and then they became involved with teaching as well. there was an earlier version of it that was published back around 1949 but then they learned a lot more about the industry and more about growing citrus. and then in 1967 around then they published five different volumes in different years. this is volume five. and it is kind of cool this is a picture in 19 '07 with john henry reed who is the guy that
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actually advocated for this to be a cyst citrus experiment state. they were talking and down set town riverside. this is an important community it brought all sorts of people into riverside. this particular book is kind of dear to me. this belonged to debbie p betters who was a curator. he put these little tabs on each separate chapter different groups like limes, sweet oranges. if you open up the book and i'm not going to probably find a section now.
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he has written in the margins. there are some things underlined. he just circled the part that said no clad dragons. sometimes it feels like he is talking to me from beyond it was very critical and culminating knowledge. now we have other books that have a newer information about practices that are smaller books but now because we have and go online and look things up. many things are online. they connect to go for information there. it all started with people and researches. the industry when riverside got going was huge.
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it was the crop the people focused on. and it allows the industry to build around it. dad ago for ways to ship it. banking systems. ways to move water. they have to have labor to harvest it actually helped build a whole movement in this area. at one point this was one of the wealthiest communities west of the mississippi. california and florida are the largest producers of citrus in the united states. they think of it as a
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collection. it is the collection of many different kinds of citrus but also things that are closely related to citrus. it is one of the world's most diverse collections we had 29 of the 33 general. in the sub family most people say think of it as it has much more than that. we head about 850 different cultivars of those things. we have many different citrus relatives. they are not things that you may have ever seen before. when you're doing research or you're trying to breed the
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tolerance. things like having a diversity collection becomes very important. so the research that i'm involved with. and this is what i know best. it's research involved with breathing and the new cultivars for the industry. we actually are funding it's the market board. it is on breeding it will be resistance or tolerance. has moved it visits young
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leaves within that cycle. and then in the process of visiting those. and once that bacteria is in the tree. it will go down to the ritz and then in the process it will make it not taste good. it will just basically make it not suitable as a crop. this is what we are concerned about. it's have a huge effect on the juice industry because they had been devastated by this spread of this insect. the fact that they had have hurricanes, as well as not
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helped them. the fact that they didn't know a lot about the disease in the beginning. it did not help for them. and they ended up moving at that disease throughout florida in in virtually on some citrus relatives tree. and we are trying to avoid that in california now. those are working on various different aspects of this disease. this is one of the things in the collection. my am showing you this is it's critical that most people think of citrus has been orange they did not have a little bit there. it used to say we have things
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we have things that are bigger than your head. read citrus and blue citrus. and this one one of the things that is not so great about this is as it's grown is it's grown as an ornamental and florida. it actually carried the bacteria and they moved it to the nursery centers without knowing they were moving the disease as well. it was an ornamental. they did not think of it as a citrus crop at all. they are called and the cool thing is when we cut in half. and you open it up.
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the juice comes out like little bubbles you can see the seeds as well. it looks like caviar. so the common name for this is citrus caviar. so when you eat this. and there are a number of chefs that are using them on hors d'oeuvres in mixed drinks they would add these to that. when you eat them they taste like limes. they're really pretty and they have a slight pink tinge to them. these are called citroen's. this is what most of them look like on the outside. some are bigger and smaller and i will cut it up in a second.
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this is another cintron this one is italian citroen. it was a probably a small genetic change that actually generated at those thousands and thousands of years ago. each part of the section are separate. so has fingered like subjects and parts to it. if you cut it open this one is mostly used for flower decorations. it smells really strong. if you've ever have fruitcake at christmas time you know those are the squares. those are the various different colors.
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it's actually the peel and the inside the white part usually cut this on the grounds because it's really tough you can see that. so this white part here is cut into squares. some of it actually has a much thicker peel and that peel is candied but is actually sweet on its own right now. all of the lemons and limes that we eat. they are not in the original species. the actual hybrid between this
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is the love. most lemons are all yellow. these will turn all yellow they have different colors of green on them as well. the sun is not so district -- distinctive. it has a pigment called lycopene that gives us this peak -- pink tinge. it taste like a what do i want people to know that are not here in california and not
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here at ucr. a number of important things if you have you certainly don't want to bring in citrus from all parts of the world. that may have the bacteria that causes citrus screening in it. you also don't want to bring those and because it may have a disease that we don't yet had. there are some diseases out in different parts of the world that people could bring them in and not know about. you also don't want to share to propagate new varieties from other people in other parts of the state of california or in florida as much as we take this for granted. they could have a huge effect.
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this research is important and you should do things that help protect it. >> in riverside we spoke with the local author and political science record. about how they often focus on the interest of smaller groups of citizens over the majority population. it's kind of a riff off of this idea in it is concerned that the framers have with creating a democratic system one of the challenges is that the majorities may come to infringe on the rights and liberties of minorities. it was a central concern. and the justification of the creation of the government.
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the concern that we actually have a small minority who often rule over majorities as politicians often follow the well of the majority with a contrast to the opposition of the majority. that shouldn't happen. and that was something that they dismissed the minority could be outvoted. in practice we see the minority when he quite frequently. the politicians appeal to a small subset rather than the entire constituency.
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how do you win support from voters who typically are not very interested in politics. and not very informed about politics. by appealing to the social identifications the voters have and citizens had and they do that by taking particular issue positions. they feel more strongly. it makes them more likely to turn out. and participate and tell their friends or to contribute money. and as a consequence they are very likely to turn out. where as trying to appeal to people who are very engaged or interested would be frustrating and very expensive because they are not motivated to be turned out. you may find if you calculate the probability of getting
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them to turn out and support you. what you will see is that you actually get more voters by appealing to a minority who is very likely to participate then you went by appealing to a majority that is unlikely to participate. we all have these experiences that lead to different attachments so one of the examples in the story of cuban-americans. they have this really interesting rich history in one and one of the things that we see is that lyrical attitudes among cuban-americans to spending -- depending on when they immigrated to the united states. i show that there is a lot of in group cohesiveness among cuban-americans who imitated and those who imitated after.
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they have different life experiences. they were political refugees. they had relatives in prison tortured and in his allies. those who immigrated after our relative economic refugees. they are people who are looking for better economic opportunity live in --dash mike leavitt and socialist country. there's not a lot of economic activity. anselm the result of this. they have very different experiences in cuba they have different political attitudes today. in interesting ways. the early refugee group they tend to be much more supportive supportive many of
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whom still had close family members on the island and want to support them want to be able to travel to the island. they want to enhance trade. they think it will make their family members better off. the identity that has been their most recently. as the development of the white identity. in the fact that it has become salient for many americans in a very effective tool for the republican party to mobilize voters. there is a shared experience among some white people. it might be due to a feeling of threat. it could be that they have and it's been late for years. it has been activated by a lot of the policies.
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we have gone to implicit racial messages and really going back to nixon. and the other strategy to really much more explicit racist statements. we can see the results of this in the patterns of voter turnout. in the 2016 election. we saw a record turnout in many suburban and rural places. they didn't turn out at those rates even for mitt romney and george bush. i think the emphasis is one of the most compelling explanations for the ability to turn those voters out.
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one of the challenges that they face as a whole they aren't all that responsive. to the average voter. and in part that's because the average voter is a very engaged or knowledgeable about most issues. however, one positive implication of this theory is that they do tend to be responsive to those that know a lot and care about those particular issues. it differs from some of the more recent work on representation. on the other side. there could be there could be
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significant problems that arise from this when the interest of those extreme demand or's the verge substantially from issues that are crucially important to the american people as a mental block of voters in the center of american people. i don't think of it as good or bad. i think that they have always tried to play to the social identifications. they do so with more or less effectiveness at various times. i don't think they always recognize that they're doing it. it is not good to the extent that the identifications that are raised are ones that divide us. my concern personally for my research is when identities are raised that lead to the violation of the democratic principle. that the idea that all people are equal before the government. when we see examples like we've seen numerous states now.
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the attempt to strip people. what we're really doing is we are saying we think these people are not equal. they are less than those of us who should be voting. on the other hand to the extent that these appeals engage people and get them interested in politics those that speak to the issues that are important in their lives. i think that's a positive. because this is a psychological process i think assessing whether it's good or bad as besides the point. how do we use that to make society work better or achieve our political objectives and work to make the country more democratic so that here at the
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university of california riverside. it's here that we spoke with the laboring jj jacobson to learn more about the role the scientific plays. he was assigned action fan. a dr. in berkeley it was popping. in the bay area. his collection came to we bought from him this collection of 8,000 volumes of science fiction. it now has and holds about 300,000 items.
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not that quantitative measures are really relevant to what is great about our collection. in a research library like this one is what research can be done with it. and by any measure the magnificent in terms of the research that can be done here. this is the oldest book in our collection. it is utopia by sir thomas more more was a churchman he disagreed with henry the eighth about who was who -- who was have of the english church. before that, we actually upon
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it means nowhere or no place this book. it is not the first book about a better society. there is another genre that is big in science fiction. they really founded two major genres.
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they would jump forward 80 years. it's the english renaissance. elizabeth the first has been on the throne since 1558. in 1588 she defeated the spanish armada and it is flourishing. it was a poet. he really wanted to catch elizabeth i so he wrote a six book poem called the fairy queen. it's one of the great english language poems it follows the adventures of six different nights each of whom learns to exemplify a particular virtue is not just a nightly adventure. you don't just see the night
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running around and killing dragons and being perfect. you see the night learn to be virtuous. spencer have an educational idea in mind part of the education of the christian gentleman. one of the reason why this is important for science fiction and fantasy is that it imagines a world not as it is but as they would like it to be. because the world is fairyland. you look over the genre of modern fantasy. it takes place in a middle
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age. there are some that directly reference or draw on the fairy queen. i got that genre of imaginative fiction after a roaring kind of start. when it was published in 1818 was the three volume 19th century novel. the story of frankenstein is that a young dr. they decide they want to create life and this is at a time when electricity was perfectly understood thought to be and
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then it runs out on. when it's just opening its eyes. and eventually gets very angry. comes back to confront him, is rejected. he becomes very bitter and angry. the creature becomes a monster
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and then ruined the creature's life. murder several people important to victor. the story has endured the idea of the creature created by science and what goes on. there was certainly created creatures in myth and legend it was written by sir walter scott.
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they assumed that mary's husband wrote it. but scott spends a good part of this view from 1818 trying to enunciate what kind of book this is. it really was a sensation that's why it's considered by some scholars. as i said the story flatland is a story of a two dimensional being.
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you can bid these waves. it is marvelous. and, when the flatland was published. it was created.
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it's not a codex. it's not a book with pages bound to a spine. it is an accordion folder book. you can read it in two dimensions. this is the april 18, 1997 of the cosmopolitan magazine with the smallest story. a small story. by hg wells. adventure in the science fiction. but the impact it have the biggest impact it have came in 1938. where on halloween 1938 there was a radio drama of war of the worlds which susan wells was involved.
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from here i get a suite sweep of the whole thing. it's rising out of the pits. it lays down a small beam of light it was so realistic it was panic across the u.s. thinking it was a radio drama. it spread the idea of other planets in aliens martians far beyond the science fiction readers of 1938. not that they didn't now that it was out there.
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it put a science fiction scenario in the brains of nearly every american it reflected the time. thoughts of war and invasion and conquest they were very much in the news that was one really strong impact that this work have on the real world. sounding a science fiction. it's one of the great pulps. the cost 25 cents the first history of dianetics.
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a new science of the mind. he started writing science fiction. the other world view pathology. it became a church but this is where it started. it definitely participated in a change in american society. or a theology. things on that scale have it happened from science fiction this is a big one. this is one that we keep in the vault because this issue of astounding is very sought after by collectors.
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this is the electric sheep. so this book have a huge impact in bringing ideas of androids cloning artificial intelligence to the attention of a whole lot of people in america. with 1968. but when blade runner was made that conversation got a huge imaginative exposure the story of do androids dream of electric sheep is not exactly the story of the blade
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runner. but the bones are there what happens to an android with a shorter life span. what if there is an android who does not know that they are an android. what is being a person. what is consciousness. can be confrontational. as well as biological. the left hand of darkness is new wave science fiction you can see the progression the main thing the book is about is gender. the people of a particular planet are observed by a traveler who goes there not
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unlike utopia. unless they are reproducing. this reflected the world that was lots of talk about gender in 1969 and it also changed the world because gender had been maybe it have not been used in science fiction in quite this way quite the steps. one of the famous sentences in this book is the king being pregnant. that was the kind of social construct that as they so often did in a the career. set about to disrupt by the a
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magic tin magic tin work in her stories. you look at this run of novels and you don't see much about gender what is significant here is what is it really happening on the book covers. one of our faculty members is always reminding me that science fiction authors don't have a lot of influence over what goes on the covers of their books. this tells a story the story of how science fiction publishing chose to do deal with this explosive book in 1969. you 200 scientists who read it together. and has the reading and the conversation influenced you. as a scientist the answers
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would be somewhere between heck yeah and why are you even asking. he got his biology degree here in 1998. he went on to develop any number of insights about cancer one of the things we head on display in a case that's mostly about him rather than about his collection is his dissertation. he was one of the greats of 20th century science fiction his work was always extremely imaginative about science.
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one of the great works as the martian chronicles which is a series of connected stories about human colonists and what the encounter and they encounter and what they don't encounter. i'm not saying that he got any of his ideas from ray red barry he is an example of that kind of engagement was it was appreciated at the reader. the conversation about ideas the how you do or do don't extrapolate from current circumstances or technology anything that answers or asks
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tough questions. he is you situations that really make you think is important. because not becoming complacent is important the thing that is really important to you is an essential to who you are. they did a lot of that. .. ..
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read science fiction for that, what if. people who read science fiction and -- all sorts of other things, but these speculative genres, what is important to them when the ask the hard questions is they don't let us get complacent, get stuck. the thing about science fiction is it keeps you working intellectually, analytically, imaginatively, and that's an important part of being human. >> what start ode as citrus research facility in 1907, the university of california riverside is a school of over 23,000 students and hosts one of the countries most diverse campuses it's here on campus we spoke with awe cor cliff to learn more about the history of native americans in riverside
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county. >> a qwia indian, grew up on the reservation, the village in the town of ansa, and rupert came from a leadership family. his family were the nets, the chiefs are called nets here, and so he came from a leadership family of cattle people and so he grew up as a cowboy, and he attended college. he lived in the riverside area. he supported the formation of the university of california riverside when a small committee of people here in riverside put it together, rupert was part of that. always had this attachment to riverside, and over the years he work for caltrans, which is the agency that deals with
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transportation systems through the state of california. in the engineering department. and he and his wife had no children, and so they decided they -- when they passed, they would give their estate to the university of california riverside to establish a rupert costo chair in american anyone it has to do the work i'm doing today, as well as to establish a library of their materials. so, their materials included a wonderful book collection that is here in the library, that is open to all students, and in addition they gave a great deal of manufacture uscriptmers and alerts collected to the library, and so the special collections here at the university of california riverside has this collection and researchers from far and wide come here to study rupert costo, his collection, to use it as well as students on
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campus are in this space every day to use this library. it's a very rich collection that he left, and both he and his wife have left us, but their spirit is still here. the indian people here in southern california -- there are many indian people -- so, we primarily have -- they are classified as desert qualla people but had villages all over riverside county, all the way to the river you would find evidence of the quialla people to the south. and to the south are the lusanio and they are similar people and different as well. meaning their language family is similar but they are a different people as well. and then to the north of us there's serano people who had villages in the area. to the west or the tv ogg and
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then -- who lived in the coachella valley. on the colorado river is the colorado indian reservation, and they have lands in riverside county on this side of the river. the first settlers are the spanish passing through, one baptista came through riversides and riverside county early on. he had come from southern arizona, the presidio, through the colorado river and the tribe's, across the river, through the desert and up in through the mountains of candidate tee canyon, cualla area and then through what became riverside town, and on to the san gabriel mission. so early on the spanish are coming through but not settling and there is settlement for the
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spanish period out here to an extent, bringing cattle out here to raise cattle, and the missions all had large cattle herds that american indians their cowboys for these mission herds and in the riverside area and to the east of us, and to the north of us are great valleys and they would graze the cattle there and that was the first major interaction of native people in the inland areas with the mission system and with the spanish. during the mexican period, the mexican government provided land claims to a multiple people here, and ranchos were stabbed here. they had an imprint but not a lot of them, but once again the indian people often would work with and for the ranchos, and they were the cowboys moving cattle from different pasturages all over riverside county.
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the united states arrived here in the 1840s because of a war with mexico, and the troops primarily came into san diego and the los angeles area and to the north, toward san francisco, but that brought in the first folks establishing settlements in the inland areas. so towns like riverside and towns like banning and beaumont and hemet, these towns in the inland area are farming areas and ranching areas initially, and there's a continual intersection with indians because indians would serve as the cowboys or farmworkers. a very common theme. and that way they were being introduced to different crops that nonindians had brought here, but also with the enlargement of the white population and the nonindian
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population, there's going to be conflicts because the settlers assume that all of this land belongs to them through right of discovery, right of war, the mexican war, and the cities are established, the counties are established, and the whole process of having land title moves into a new way of being, and indians were not part of that. but in the 1870s the government decided to establish some executive order treaties so different presidents created these treaties that established the various reservations, and then in the 1890s, a reformer by the name of albert smiley -- albert smiley was a a member of the board of indian commissioners and went to the president, president cleveland, and said the indian people of southern california, many of them have no legal relationship to the united states and have no
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lands of their own, and so he asked for a mission indian commission to be established so the congress in 1890 established the commission, and this commissioner of nonindians, including smiley, went around to the different areas throughout southern california, riverside county, san bernardino county and san diego county to work with the tribes there and lay out a plan for a reservation be wherever their villages were located, and these were taken to the president and over time executive orders were given to create our reservations. here in riverside county we have multiple reservations but they are all executive order reservations. in addition to their languages, the indian people of southern california have unique belief systems about power, about how they came to be, their creation
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stories. they're very unique and still taught to young people. they're unique in their songs and there are bird songs that are sung socially. sing sing -- [singing] [singing] >> so the bird songs are sung by anymore of the colorado river, like the move a have vies and they're sung by -- in the san diego area, the cuhilla people, they also sing this unique song complex called bird song. in riverside county most indian people -- not all -- arer
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fortunate to have indian gaming. in the past, indian people had tried to sell, say, tobacco through smoke shops. they when the traditional economies fell apart because of white settlements, indians could no longer hunt and gather as they had before so they went to work and they worked on ranches, they worked on farms, they worked as cleaning houses, worked at gas stations just like everyone else working, and on reservations there were attempts to create some economy for them, but it was never really working until the 1970s and '80s when gaming came in here. so it's not to say all indian people of southern california and certainly of riverside county have gaming and have money as a result of that, but
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many do, and it's a major industry for riverside county. it's one of the biggest industries for the entire county. hiring numerous people on reservations today. one of the positive things that has come from the tribes themselves is a great deal of sovereignty and self-determination among our tribes in southern california. they have invested in language preservation in teaching their youth in encouraging them to succeed in college and providing tutors, providing money for young people to good off to colleges and universities. there has been an effort to increase the capacity of the tribes no, just through gaming but other economic development. some of the tribes, for example, have purchased hotels in
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washington, dc in various cities inch washington, dc there's the mariott courtyard is owned by several tribes, including -- so i'm not in a position to know about all their business dealings but they tried use money to diversify, and to hire their own people and to train their own people to do multiple things. very important that we know about the history of southern california indians and especially those people of the riverside county because at one time they lived in a very rich economy, through hunting and gathering. a great deal of movement of people to and from different areas and villages, a lot of intermarrying that went on and alliances that went on, but once the sentiment took -- settlement took place in the 1840s there was deinstruction of their economy and most people do not
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know that indian people in southern california went to work. they became the labor force of southern california here in riverside county. they work on the farms and the ranches. they worked in the cities. they did multiple things for numerous years, and so they were able to survive, which is a major theme on all our reservations, these are people who survived and protect their native sovereignty. so times have changed now, and things are better for some of the tribes, but for most people in our area, they think of the tribes only in terms of gaming, and there's so much more to indian people than gaming. very rich cultures that are sustained today. >> while in riverside we took driving tour of the stiff with historical consultant and former director of the riverside metropolitan museum, vincent
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moses. >> the riverside was founded in 1870, shortly after the civil war. by judge john westly norris, radical abolitionist before the war, who was on the nominate committee for abraham lincoln to be the republican candidate for president in 1860. he in fact ran lincoln's ohio campaign in the 18960s presidential election. that colony he founded with some like-minded individuals is a colony and their intent was to create a civilized, high-level, kind of cooperative commonwealth on the edge of the california desert it and lasted for a while. in fact riverside is a result of his work. but by 1875, he had wander lust again and left riversides for northern kaz to help found fresno. riverside really developed as a
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citrus town. the home of the naval orange culture, first naval orange trees introduced near 1873. made the community a really wealthy, prosperous place, and by 1900s surround by probably 20,000 acres of washington naval orange trees. we'll drive past california citrus state historic part and i'm proud to have been part of the planning for this park. we are think of real estate of the movies or oil is what made southern california. reality was citrus first. we're looking at california citrus state historic park who has 200-acres of bearing orange and late naval orange groves. it's not fully built as four as historical structures go but we're working on that. to interpret how significant the
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industry was not only to the economy of southern california and the state of california, but how it influenced the culture, creation of banks, land companies, transportation systems, the railroads. the california fruit growers exchange was so powerful, it's known as sun kyes and that was the trade mark and renamed themselves as sunkist. this man manages the groves for the states on contract. >> this is old riverside with thousands acres of oranges surrounding the city. >> with the orchards growing, how does that -- with the water situation, can you talk about lou that may affect the growth of agriculture here? >> yes. i can. this was a desert. semi desert right here, semi
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arid region. citrus required irrigation. this is not rain-based agriculture and it us not dry farming. citrus trees ire -- faithful orangeses require what's called 40 miners inches of water per year, distributed throughout the year, to grow and to produce a crop. so, early on, riversiders and other citrus communities, especially riverside first, lad to develop irrigation systems, and this is all watered by the famous gauge canal which was built beginning in the 1880s and completed in -- at the end of the 1890s but a british syndicate of the waterhouse family which brought out matthew gauge and owned his -- then purchased his 3500 acres of groves here and developed sits truss on their entire area.
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we're going down magnolia area. you'll see this is suburbanized now, but in 1920, this would have all been washington naval orange. oh, by the way, we're going by this tinted tree right here. this is the last remaining parent naval orange tree. >> the one covered. >> the one that's covered and it's covered for this reason. the university of california riverside citrus research center scientists covered that along with the city to protect its against the asian citrus, a tiny almost microscopic insect that carries bacteria called the greening disease. it's threatened citrus all over the world. it's from china. it's devastated the florida citrus crop and we now know it's in california and that tree, which was planted in 1873 and then moved to the site you just saw, is threatened by the insect and if it is bitten by a
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bacteria-baring insect, it's gone. so, the city and the university have covered it with mesh to protect it from the insect which is a pretty radical approach but this is the last remaining parent naval orange tree which created the vast citrus industry of california. we're on mission avenue now. originally seventh street. i wanted us to see this area because this is an historic district in two ways. it's a national register seventh street national registered district, and it overlaps with the mission inn historic district that spreads out away from seventh, and we're going now past the national historic landmark mission inn, frank miller's own contribution to the city of riverside. the mission inn is significant because it's the largest mission revival structure in california, maybe in the united states. the mission inn, though, has
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been visits by several presidents, who stayed there ronald reagan, nancy reagan spent their honeymoon night there theodore roosevelt spent the night in the so-called presidential suite when its opened in 1903, and then the next day presides over the replant offering one of the two parent naval orange trees in front of the new glenwood mission inn. it has been the scene of early peace conferences before world war i, international visitors from all over, including asia and europe. so quite a significant role played in southern california as kind after regional hub and a national winter resort. on the left is sherman -- is this sherman institute -- yes,
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this is sherman institute, one of the last remaining two bia-run boarding schools for nate at the americans and that little building, mission-style building, is the sherman indian museum. in the late 1800s, thanks to helen hunt jackson and others, there was a real move to try to americanize, bring them up to speed, up to, quote, civilized status, the native american population. by then'sing mainly on reservations. to americanize them and the way to do that, the government felt, the government reformers felts was to bring them into boarding schools around the country and teach them english, team e teach them skills to use in society, teach girls traditional stereotypical female skills, and the young men, the boys, male skills like carpentry and mechanics, that sort of thing. maybe not assuming they'd ever
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go to a university. sherman institute was originally established at paris, which is just to the southeast of us here. and the 1890s. frank miller, though, wanting to get -- because he was a real advocate of the hearts -- arts d crafts movement and his hotel was redesigned in the missionary bible style based on california missions roughly. wanted to get a real mission, he thoughts, or real indians to riverside and that's not to denigrate his intent, but he was always a promoter as well as a progressive for his time. so, he convinced the federal governments, they ought to move sherman institute from paris to riverside. riverside lost its stats tuesday as an elite city maybe about the early 1970s. but it's gaining its back again and as it gains its back it's taking on a 21st century look, mixed in with the historic
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district buildings. now we're kind of re-establishing and refocusing, like a lot of cities are, toward at the digital world ask the digital future. and clean energy. we're going to turn up here in front of solar max, the building was vacant for a long time and now, ching lieu, chinese entrepreneur, purchased this building and now -- now she manufactures solar panels in this building. >> it's vehicles nationwide. >> nationwide. she even brought a chinese manufacturing line to the united states so these are bone identified u.s. solar manufactured solar panels i. think i see riverside regaining its stats tuesday as an elite city -- status as an elite city in southern california. had been a competitor even with los angeles before world war ii and because of the naval orange
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culture, and lost its step for a while but we're regaining the stats tuesday -- extras tuesday because of the university level and clean energy programs and the fact we own our own utility and a have our own water and electric generating capacity. that riverside is now attracting a large population of the new generation of millenials. they're geared to the 21st 21st century and everything about it and all of its digital capacity and all of its international kind of ability to do online trade and online business i seed head that way. >> twice month c-span cities tours take book tv and american history tv on the road to explore the literary life and history of a selected city. we visit various literary and
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historic sites. you can watch any past interview and tour judge by going to booktv.org and schrecking c-span cities tour from the drop down at the top of the page or visit c-span.org/cities tour. outcome follow the cities tour on twit for behind the scenes videos. the ages @c-span cities. >>ichelle obama is on tour for her best selling auto biography becoming. here's a portion of her speak during her second stop in washington, dc. >> you know, we have been talk about there is and i've been thinking the extraordinary presidency comes to an end, you -- we'll talk about transitions and swerves in lifeout your time to make another transition and what you decide you want to do is write this book. >> yes. >> why did you do that?
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>> well, first of all, it was sort of an assignment because every first lady is supposed to write a book, and i think they've done it for quite some time. so it was one of those, case, i'm supposed to now write about this. and that's one thing. the other thing, as i've told some young girl is talked about issue thought but 0 this book and thought how many times does a black woman get to tell her full story herself, in a way that is going to be read potentially by millions of people. [applause] >> so i thought to myself, let me take this seriously. want to make sure this isn't just a chronology of things that happened in the white house because what i learned over the years, learned from my parents, is that to understand one's life, you have to understand the context of it. so, for people to understand what i got from the eight years in the white house, they would have to know all of my story,
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have to understand the neighborhood i grew up in, the family that built me, the values we were raised on, the challenge i faced and i wanted the book to be very readable. wanted it to feel like a story so that people of all backgrounds and young folks of all ages could follow this journey of this little girl, michelle robinson, who had very much an ordinary life but took -- it took many extraordinary turns, and as my brother said on the clips issue wanted my story to be an example to many that we all deserve and are worthy of an amazing, extraordinary life, and the stories that we all have in us. those small memories are really what make us who we are. it's not the eight years in the white house that define me. that just happened to be part of my journey.
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so much more of who i am comes in the first three sections of this book and i want the people to understand that. >> that was just a portion of her talk in washington. watch for more in depth cover of michelle bone been's book tour -- barack obama's -- michelle obama's book tour. >> you're watching book therefore on c-span2. television for serious readers. here's tonight's primetime lineup. first up the manhattan institute's oregon kansas takes a critical look at u.s. labor and economic policies and suggests ways to improve. that. after that, joshua hart reports on the corporate branding in college sports in the book called the university of mike tee. at 9:00 p.m. the look at 1,000 books to read before you die. on "after wordses" were at 10:00 p.m. an argument against open
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borders. and we wrap up our primetime programming with chris send -- that happens tonight on c-span2's booktv. 48 hours of nonfiction authors and books every weekend. television for serious readers. >> professor scott galloway, in reading you now book "the four: the old oft misquote itses a damage, what is good for gm is good for the country comes to mind. is that fitting? >> guest: well, we definitely -- there's a rest rick or narrative that has been fomented mostly by big tech that what is good for technology and innovators is good for america. it's an apt analogy. >> host: you write in your book, and the sub title is, the hidden dna of amazon,

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