tv C-SPAN Cities Tour visits Toledo OH CSPAN October 20, 2019 1:00pm-2:16pm EDT
leadership that use it as advantageous to pit us against each other and that worries me and i concluded the book with the call for us to come together across our political divisions as i must do in my own home but we need to do on a national level in order to strengthen and save our democracy and preserve our global leadership in national security. host: susan rice, "tough love", good luck with the book tour. guest: thanks, robin. host: takes for joining us. >> this program is available as a podcast, all afterwards programs can be viewed on our website at book tv.org civic c-span the city tour is exploring the american story as we take book tv in american history tv on the road with support from our buckeye brought down
cable partner traveling to toledo, ohio are coming up in the next hour we will speak with local authors about the city's history and learn how it came to be known as the glass capital of the world and in about 15 minutes the story of general mad anthony wayne and his role in the western expansion into ohio and later that toledo crash of 1931 we begin our special feature with the city's mayor. >> i think places like toledo are taken for granted and that this shame because there is such a wonderful history here. over the years people of toledo have built things, known as the glass city because the first big break that this region got was when the glass pioneers moved from the east coast primarily boston to toledo in 1800s drawn by natural gas and also sand, edwin drummer baby brought his new england glass company to toledo
and opened a plant's on at street north toledo and it's on the exact same site today p or that was 1988 and owens corning here downtown toledo a fortune 500 company invented fiberglass, literally so the glass industry was big and important and toledo understood that bad as the economy stay-- changed we started to build other things. about 120 years ago a hundred years ago when automobile started to come to market people from toledo very quickly started doing bad and the company was the largest employer for a number of years. toledo wins built and created the world's first suv. 1941 when the federal government was looking for the vehicle that general eisenhower felt he needed to traverse
the rocky roads to berlin, the overall and company and north toledo when that contract and created something we now know as the jeep. that was the first off-road vehicle ever and it's important part of our history and it's still a primary employer so now manufacturers is so crucial but we diversified into healthcare and other fields that are more sort of white-collar and protect us from dips in the auto industry. frankly i think we should market ourselves as the water bill, toledo and other cities in the great lakes region are sitting on 20% of the freshwater on plant it for. 20% of all the freshwater planet earth is located in our backyard of the great lakes and i believe if this region can hang on them look for creative ways to reinvent itself by the end of the
century when water is a desperately sought commodity, scares not only in this country but across the globe it won't be a bad thing to be sitting on top of 20% of the earth's freshwater capacity and i think at this region if the country can harness it we can see a real growth that can sort up turn the tables and tilt the scales in our direction. toledo ohio is ignoring as the glass capital of the world. up next, we learn about edward libby and his role in turning toledo into the glass city. >> the city of toledo has been called the glass capital of the world and referred to as the glass city and that's because of the influence of four major international corporations all producing some aspect of
glass and that has been the case since 1888 when the edward drummond libby brought the first glass factory to toledo. in 1868 jessop w scott who owned much of what is today downtown toledo , a real estate broker investor wrote an article for a magazine called hans merchant magazine and the article is titled the future greatest city in the world and at that time toledo was really struggling. toledo was founded in 1837. the state of ohio was created in 1803 so there was like a three-year period when nothing was kind of going on in northwest ohio so it was kind of an arrested development thing so just sub scott came in and bought up lots of real estate what is pretty cheap and he decided he was going to write this article which would define where the
next future great city of the world would be located and it would be bigger than london and rome and new york. it was going to be the biggest city ever and not surprisingly mr. scott decided that the future great city of the world was going to be toledo, ohio, where he happened to own a great deal of real estate so they started to work for what is that magic bullet, what is that thing which will take the city which is struggling and make it the biggest city in the world, 71887 they found natural gas just south of toledo that 30 or 40 miles away and that was the way toledo city fathers said this is our destiny, this cheap they are available form of energy. so, businessmen set up a
committee called the toledo businessman community and they started to advertise this gas to all kinds of industries around the country really like and economic development promotional campaign and they particularly targeted class companies because glass required a huge amount of energy. you have to melt it to 22400 degrees to make it malleable, so glass seem to be the kind of industry that could make use of this natural gas so they sent out promotional brochures and contacted glass industries and one of the factories they contacted was the new england glass company in cambridge, massachusetts. that company was owned and operated by a man named edward drummond libby. he had inherited the committee from his father here: a b glass was known for among other things brilliantly
colored glass, bright reds. they had this colored glass which was interesting because it was kind of gold and slowly turned into bright red. that was really really popular with the consumer. they made tumblers, vases, kind of high-end glassware products so in 1888 the toledo businessman committee approached mr. libby with this incredible author-- offer at a time when his company was struggling to deal with the cost of energy and his workers and they stayed we will give you money. you for your company to toledo ohio. we had cheap natural gas you can take advantage of and we welcome with open arms jerk mr. libby took him up on the author, closed his factory in cambridge, loaded up his workers, the equipment and self on a train and came to
toledo in august, 1980-- 1888. things did not go well. the first two years of the libby glass company the company really struggled. in new england they were known for their brilliantly colored glass and glass depends upon a recipe, certain amounts of this chemical to get those colors and to get that brilliance and it wasn't working in the furnaces in toledo and they were struggling with quality issues. they were also struggling because the workers who had lived it near boston, where suddenly stuck in this sort of backwards town of toledo, ohio, with none of the culture and things they were used to and they weren't happy and a lot of that went home. also, the chief natural gas-- cheap natural gas mr. libby was promised didn't come through and with much more expensive and he got into some
disagreements with the people who promised him the chief natural gas so was really struggling while the company was struggling edward libby got this great idea that he was going to open an exhibition at the worlds columbian exposition in chicago in 1893, the world's fair in chicago. 's board of directors but it was the craziest thing in the world. it was going to cost $250,000 to the company was in debt at the time, but libby thought if it was successful this would make a national brand for libby glass and this would be the thing that propelled the company forward. millions of people came to the fair, millions of people went through that exhibit hall and millions of people went back to read they came with these little trinkets that said libby glass and so it was a brilliant marketing scheme in retrospect that mr. libby did
because it's something that saved his company. that exposition save the libby glass, made it into a national brand and libby came out of there with hundred thousand dollars in profit after he had paid off all of his expenses. so, that brought him back to toledo and really kind of cemented the company here, security here whereas if it had failed he might have gone bankrupt, might have moved elsewhere and i think that was really nothing that began to identify toledo, as the glass capital of the world. it was the thing that saved libby's company and set in motion a series of things that would lead to two three other corporations with their roots in mr. libby's company. mr. libby decided first about we had to replace his workers so he went to west to this glass manufacture to recruit
people to work his factory. their destiny did happen, i think. mr. libby meant a young man who had been working in the glass industry since he was 10 years old. his name was michael owens and the winds started out as the person who shoveled: to the glass furnaces, worked two shifts a day and this was the life of a child worker in the glass industry at the time. so, he knew glass from the bottom up. he had done every aspect of glass production. he was a difficult person to get along with , but he was very demanding, so he offered to become superintendent of mr. libby's factory in toledo, but his real interest was in automating ways to make bottles because the bottle industry, which was what michael was most familiar with was very labor-intensive and
not only that, it's require lots of young boys working in these hot unsafe conditions to make bottles. basically, what it was was you had one skilled glassblower and three or four boys working with him took the glassblower would pick up the glass on his pipe. the boy would stand at the bottom and put a mold around the hot molten glass and then the glassblower would blow into the mold and then the boy would open up the mold another boy would take the red hot bottle out of the mold and take it to the kneeling layer to cool and it was incredibly labor-intensive and at that time it's estimated 24% of the employees in the bottle making industry or children, so almost a quarter of the people work your
children in these conditions were of it all on ball-- abominable they were dangerous and hot and they were treated poorly by the skilled blowers and there was little chance to move up in the hierarchy of the industry, so owens have a known that as a child was very committed to try to figure out a way to automate the bottle so that these young boys didn't have to have this kind of life. so, libby took some of the profits from the world columbian exposition and he gave it to owens and created a new comic in 1895 and exclusive reason for the company was to exploit some of the technical-- technological innovations of michael owens michael and was given his own company and said go forward, work on this automation and design new technologies that will
change the way glass is produced. so that's what mr. olmstead and the two of them teamed up to produce automatic bottled machines which is called the biggest improvement in the production of glass in 2000 years. once they started making flat glass, once people began to experiment with fibers are glass in the 1930s and that spun off as owings corning, those four comedies shape the city in ways that will always be a part of who we are. i say that toledo, never succeeded at being the future great city of the world. we can chuckle about it. it's a good joke, but in some ways that vision up jessop scott, of this destiny for the city, it's perfectly situated
geography, the fact that we were able to attract the glass industry here i think in some ways did fulfill that. >> the toledo war was an interesting boundary dispute between ohio and michigan, which particularly said-- well it began its early roots in the early 1800s and that really would have involved surveying problem because they were different surveys as to where the boundary line with the. where did the boundary line be north of toledo or would it be south of toledo? obviously, michigan when it is south of toledo so it could claim toledo as the prize and ohio want to did as well. the reason toledo was such a prize at both states wanted it was because if you think about the geographic location of it, it was
at the very western end of the lake and the largest tributary of the legs so it was really-- toledo was seen as a real economic plum strategically, economically and geographically, so that was the genesis of this thing and then it really began to percolate and then about 1834 it started when michigan of course was a territory that time in ohio was a state and what happened was that michigan got a little bit more aggressive and decided we are going to start arresting people if they try to do anything and claim that toledo is in ohio so they formed a militia. then ohio decided to form a militia as well to defend itself so they formed a militia. that's when they decided we need to get the federal government to step in because we don't
really want anyone to get hurt here and so what happened was andrew jackson was present at the time. remember, this is 1835, andrew jackson was looking for we elections update. ohio was a state. ohio had electorate votes. michigan was a territory and had none so guess who one? ohio was eventually given toledo and toledo and the bc behind me would have been in michigan had it not been for that move in 1835 very possibly we would have been standing in michigan, but as it turned out ohio was given toledo, and a michigan was given the upper peninsula. but and i say but because it really wasn't over at that point took in fact, the ohio michigan war, the toledo war which really began
and took place in 1835, 1836 was when it was a settled, it really wasn't settled until 1973 and the reason for that was that the boundary and lake erie because lake erie, michigan and ohio shared shoreline on the western end of lake erie. where does the boundary go when it hits the late? does it go straight across the lake or the curve? well, as they eventually decided and it took the supreme court to do it in 1973, decided it actually curves so there's a little tiny island called turtle island in lake erie which for many years had been half of michigan and half of ohio. after the court ruling and 73, it all became part of ohio. probably people in michigan that would dispute that, but that's the story anyway.
>> for my anise, was built in 1794 by british troops in what was then considered the northwest territory. it with you we spoke with mayor stockwell about general anthony wayne and his march 2 drive the british forces out of us territory. >> when people hear the name anthony wayne in this area there is a combination of well, we know him, his name is everywhere and we ride his big highway into the city, but knowing specifically who use if you taught people-- asked people who he was, the only thing they can probably say is that he was mad anthony so that was my inspiration to write this book and to bring it to light in a way that had not been done before. anthony wayne was born in transylvania, wealthy young farmer born outside of philadelphia, new year's day, 1745.
he joined the american revolution and a politician in 1775 joined the continental army and bounded into washington's on my island april, 1776. washington said he's enthusiastic, is any. he fought in battles and canada, he thought out washington's aside from brandywine into your account. as a general, he had to learn to be a general. rethink of these men as either they won this battle or that battle and we forget when the american revolution started most men had no experience. the only thing anthony wayne knew about were was what he read that julius caesar had done so he drove washington mad telling washington if we do this or that it will be like caesar and we will be the british. it never quite worked. people said about him that on the battlefield
as soon as it began he kind of came to attention almost never lost his cool. he could retreat better than anyone, which washington needed a lot, but then he had a terrible campaign and was sent to georgia with a complete physical and mental breakdown there. pulled himself back together. he kind of had a ruined a life after that. he could knock about to his family. sort of like the best years of our life, i can't settle back into the routine of living. he had a plantation in georgia, that was a failure and almost bankrupted his family. he was in complete disgrace, thrown out of congress for having his friend stuff ballot boxes to get him elected in georgia. this was 1791, his life was ruined and his family no longer felt anything for him. to george washington desperate for a general and against the wishes of his cabinet and about
everyone else he picked anthony wayne. we have of course we have the 13 original colonies on the atlantic and this is now the 13th state, but the british have given us the land from the appellations to the mississippi river including north of the ohio this valuable ohio country we are at today. the indians had signed for major treaties allowing the americans to cross the ohio and go up to about halfway to what is now the state of ohio. americans to the south and indians remain to the north. george washington said if we don't cross the appellations, if we don't cross the ohio and build a nation with opportunity especially economic opportunity and a land, how will we survive. crossing the appellations, crossing the ohio is our future. we are now surrounded by the british, the french, the spanish and the indians who despise us so his plan was simple, cross the mountains,
negotiate with the indians, recognize they own the land and we will buy it from them not just once, but every year. they were called annuities. we will trade and eventually we will be one happy people, the united states of america and a chief by the name of little turtle rises up and said i didn't sign these treaties and he puts together this massive confederation of the union's north of the ohio and he tells washington's administration you censure young men across that river and it will run with blood. little turtle was able to defeat to armies and george washington has to make a decision, do i try again or give up and he does not give up on policy, but he needs another army. he's going to hold it in check and has be perfectly trained and if negotiations fail then that army has to move against the indians. washington when he's trying to decide who to
pick yes a list of the 16 generals who were still alive from the american revolution and he said i need someone active, brave and sober and he said these men are all sick, old and tired. only 10 years since yorktown, where will i find someone. he could not remember anything good anthony wayne had done on the battlefield. he remembered his mistakes. his cabinet, many people come to him and go wayne is a womanizer, wayne drinks too much, wayne is sick, wayne lost almost all of his money, wayne just got thrown out of congress, you need a gentleman, pick lee, don't pick him and washington had to go through his own mind and say what is good about wayne. well, he's devoted to me he wrote me letters before every battle in the revolution cheering me on. when i lost, he wrote a letter to me telling me
it doesn't matter we will win. he's been advocating for me too be president of the united states writing letters to everyone saying we need a washington. i have got that and he also says he loves his country, so with accommodation of things, the loyalty, dedication and also wanting the job and begging for anything to help the government washington ignored his cabinet and takes a chance. he was given the job in the spring, 1792, appointed commander of the legion of the united states and told they are going to give you 5000 soldiers. the previous army had been slaughtered in the fall, 1791. he was told he must train these men coming your way. all the officers of the army were pretty much dead from the last battle with the indians so you must raise the officers. he sent first-- then he
was sent down river to port washington by cincinnati and finally sent north and builds ft. greeneville about a hundred 20 miles at the cincinnati all the while he's told train your men perfectly in this new strange organization henry max came up with the legion of the united states which is you have to trade for separate armies. train them so perfectly that if washington says go, you go and win but you can be so aggressive in your training that you frame the indians because the negotiations could be hindered. wayne waits until he's not ordered finally appear until the spring of 17-- until summer, 1794. the battle comes about in the summer of seven-- 1794 after george washington negotiated with indians for two years they had told him no we want to the ohio as the border between us
, get out of the ohio country in way never knows that george washington is so worried that we will not win that he even offered the ohio river to the border washington at one point with the indians said you can have it all and they still say no. there is great hostility we have got the backing of the british, stay out of our country forever. what really sets george washington off is this place. in the spring, 1794, when he's negotiating with the indians the british come down from detroit. they shouldn't be in detroit, that's american soil. they come here and build for miami here and you can still see at least once the remnants of their forts. they come down here claiming we are protecting detroit could they are coming down here to harm and align with the indians and support them in this coming battle and that's upsets washington and he said all right,
negotiations have failed anthony wayne, take your army from for greenville and don't go to the capital of little turtle , come up towards the river and make a right and head for that british fort. somewhere between grenville in the british board we were on a certain indians would attack and you have got to win decisively and keep marching, so he was getting quite an assignment. wayne marches north, keeps marching, marching, marching. wayne keeps sending runners, coming, make a deal, treaty, we don't have to fight and finally they are marching on the way up. they know they will get to the british fort took august to 20th, 1794, it's only a few miles and they are marching,
marching, marching and they get up to the bluff about 4 miles from here and they see the gorgeous rapids down to the river and wayne and harrison a young kid, that aid to wayne writes up to wayne and says, i think you are going to get so excited if a battle or give it-- begins that you will forget to give me the orders. .. .. panicked at first and then they did exactly what he said and he had trained his men at the first sign of attack lineup paralleled the army and his men in five minutes had lined up
across the half-mile front. the battle did not last long it lasted about an hour. the indians came first on the american right and then the american left and then they tried up the middle. given the training of his med and his artillery and the rifleman who came on horseback, they push the indians back to these fallen timbers from a tornado, pushed them back up to fort ãthe indians fled the battlefield and run to the fort thinking the british who built it to protect them would allow them to come into the fort and instead they closed the doors and the indians ãbclosed the door in their faces and say, we don't know you, we don't have any problems with the united states of america. the aftermath of the battle is for at least and a half a year wayne doesn't think he
succeeded. he suffers from depression and goes back to fort younger at th capital of internal confederation he goes and sits and waits for greenville. the anxiety is low overwhelming and then he's a beautiful letter writer, everything he is feeling his walking back and forth saying, i can do this again. i cannot raise another army i cannot face another enemy. we beat them once we will never beat them again. where are they? finally, blue jacket, the leader of the shawnee he's the true leader little tartar doesn't run the battle, it's blue jacket. blue jacket and the shawnee coming to fort fort greene bill and says it's over. you won. we turned our backs on the british we are going to accept that wine americans can settle across the ohio will be on the other side and trade with you. the fighting is over. in the summer 1795 one year
after the battle of the rapids he negotiates the treaty of greenville. he says, i've got to bring peace and of got to get my people to settle across the ohio. there is no united states of america. he thought too, there would be peace with the indians. what this would do for us america, kicks open the door. across the ohio river the poorest of the poor. you can people from new england, they come up from the virginia, many people in virginia finally freed the slaves and african-americans, and live along the western part of the state. poor southerners come from the backcountry. people start trickling in from great britain. it's the beginning of this huge migration. what he has won is really 10
years of peace. in 10 years ohio will enter the union of america will start looking west but in 10 years the last young man, a shawnee who runs away from the battlefield and runs to the sport and gets the gates slammed in his face he says we are going to try again.i'm going to put together the biggest confederation in history, bigger than little turtle, bigger than blue jacket, ãbin 1805 he starts his confederation. who's gonna have to defeat him? the young aide fighting at the side of wayne at fallen timbers henry harrison who would be the great general who rise up. 10 years of peace before the war of 1812 where is finally settled this country belongs to america and the british let go and the indians let go.he is giving us time to build our nation. anthony 1796 he wants to come across the lake to pittsburgh
that was his headquarters. he had been a surveyor in his youth he said, there's a giant triangle between pittsburgh, cincinnati, and detroit. if anything goes wrong my mission needs me in a week i can be at one of those points. that was his goal and he thought he would be general for at least another year.coming across the lake he gets an attack of gout. he has gout he's been suffering from malaria and all kinds of diseases. the gout goes through him and he dies in december 1796 and what's interesting is, it's not like the nation says, how sad we are we lost anthony wayne. anthony wayne is many ways he was the revolution and open the door to the west but it will all be forgotten in the coming battles of the first the war of 1812 in the mid ãout west in the civil war. it's gonna take a while to
remember this country was hard-fought and we didn't win it inevitably. there is no massive destiny in the ohio country except we will fight anyone >> where we are standing now used to be the site of the electric auto light one of the many automotive parts manufacturers that were located here in toledo has the automated industry began to really take hold here in the 1920s and 30s. it was significant to why this park is here. this park represents really crescendo a point in the great labor movement in toledo. in 1934 what happened was there was a strike. a lot of the unions were trying to organize and get recognition from most factories. had the strike that began by a part of the af bell and a thousand workers went on strike because they wanted better wages better working conditions
that's what they were going for. you have to remember this is set in the middle of the depression. we have thousands and thousands maybe one out of three workers out at work in the city so there was a lot of pressure and tension. the people went out on strike it was really easy to find strikebreakers and back in those days because there was no union and nothing to stop that, except the strikers themselves, they would come out and in this case with the auto light plant what they did is they would mass at the gates and they would try to stop the strikebreakers from going in. we had some very difficult and tense days and then it kept getting worse. it wasn't getting any better. the strike loomed on for what started in april 1934 and lingered on well into may. toward the end of may it got to the point, without getting too deep into the weeds of who did
what thousands of people turned out here to join in sympathy thousands of unemployed people turned out in this street and with this keep peace because they were in simply with the strikers. many people involved with the factory didn't want the toledo police here so they brought in the sheriff's department. they were also private deputies that were hired and the national guard was called in, they didn't call in the national guard from the local area because they too were in simply with the strikers so they had to call them in from other parts of the state.
they had to call them in from 200 miles away to try to keep the column here but it was very difficult there was an incredible amount of violence going on they were mixed throwing, punches throwing, teargas. what they called vomit bombs. for three days discontinued, the fifth day they got 2000 people that came out to sympathize with the strikers. the next day they got another 2000, then it was four or 5000 and as many as 6000 to 10,000 people showed up. it became a scene of mass confusion of great violence the national guard that was called and was trying to keep the peace but it was very difficult. finally the national guard was given orders once the strikers started to move on the national guard the national guard was given orders that they could fire. and they did. they opened fire on the strikers and the sympathizers. two people were killed.
eventually the plant recognized the union and eventually they got the bargaining rights they wanted. it was a win for the labor movement. that's what this represented was probably in labor historians will tell you this is probably one of the most important strikes in labor union history in america because it really opened the
door for the united auto workers to begin unionizing in other factories as they did with 1935 the great strike against chevrolet which open the doors there. >> join us the first and third weekend of each month as we take booktv and american history tv on the road. to watch videos for any of the cities go to c-span.org/cities tour and follow us on twitter on c-span cities. exploring the american story. >> for c-span cities tour is in toledo ohio to learn more about its history. we speak withauthor frank ãabou role in the work ã
>> there so much myth and mystery of the death of to come see. primarily because there are so many accounts of what transpired. the history books all say that richard m johnson was the man that took out to come see. they had a slogan the first official presidential campaign slogan of the day it went you to realize at that time he was the fiercest warrior of him out midst of the battle and in combat no less when he was considered so adept it was a feat tecumseh was born in ohio they believe around chillicothe ohio. he was part of two very significant events that transpired here in northwest ohio he was here in 1794 in a
battle called the battle of fallen timbers. as a result of that battle the greenville treaty was signed a year later. they ended up giving away to the americans about three quarters of what today is ohio. except for, ironically, this northwest corner of the state. it was called the great swamp at that time. with the signing of that treaty and tecumseh did not sign the treaty. the other chiefs in his tribe and about a dozen other tribes did sign the treaty to give the influence away but tecumseh didn't believe in the sale of land. he believed the land was given to the ãbby the great spirit to all people. he was getting more and coaliti
through those years from the battle on timbers until 1813 he had been successful in joining a couple dozen tribes from basically all over the continent to take up this site. we are currently standing in the middle of fort mag which was built in the winter of 1813 and became ãbtecumseh came back here about 20 years after the battle of the fallen timbers had happened. this time it was in the context of the war of 1812. he was in line with the british particularly the british were being led by hillary factor and tecumseh was leaving the indian coalition and they made two attacks on his fortress. both unsuccessful. over the second attempt there
he never showed up did harrison commented along the way that he was gonna make a definitive ã he said we got them and three weeks later he showed up somewhere else. you have to understand that no one in the american forces could recognize tecumseh. only harrison had met with him a few times over the years previous to try to negotiate peace settlements and discuss things. they fought against each other in fallen timbers when they were younger. aside from harrison there is only one key person that could identify him and that was guiding anthony shane. he was a white man kidnapped by the indians when he was young and coincidentally kidnapped into the exact shawnee tribe that tecumseh belong to. they grew up together and they were best friends as teenagers they fought alongside each
other and worked as an interpreter that was his position at the battle of the thames he was an interpreter. when tecumseh was killed they called on him and harrison the only two people that can make an identification of the body. the problem comes in is that most of these reports say that ãbi was with anthony shane when he pointed out the body of being tecumseh or with harrison. the conflict then becomes some say that body he pointed out was shot in the chest with two bullets he was wearing a tan buckskin outfit and he was scalped. another report said, he was wearing blue dragons bare chested and three knives and a tomahawk. another one said, no, he had a couple pistols on his side and whatever the case may be, all the reports whether it was his
dress, weaponry, anything else on his attire or even where he was located on the battlefield change. that's where the conflicting stories came in. that's really a study in human psychology because he had so many people looking at theoretically the same event and coming away with different interpretation. when it comes to tecumseh the ultimate significance of it is that the indian coalition died with him. no one came up, stepped up to take his place, tribes dissipated they went their own ways they started arguing amongst themselves. some decided to go with the elders basically the elders were right but just acquiesce to the american lifestyle. others just moved on as they would trying to hope that they
would get at least some reservation or something within the land they used to have free reign over. i have a personal ãhe was legitimately trying to keep the land that his culture had had for centuries and he was right in doing so and did it legitimately he did it dramatically at first and then if it meant going to war he was not afraid to do so. >> where we are standing right now is actually the site of what was probably one of the oldest automobile plants in america. well over 100 years this was the site of an automobile factory that produced many different models of cars but probably most importantly and most famously this was the home of jeep.
this is where the jeep started and rolled off the assembly line to help america when world war too. in about 1940 the u.s. government wanted to have a utility vehicle so they what they did is they went to three different auto companies they went to ãhere in toledo they went to ford motor company detroit and bando motor company in pennsylvania and they said here are the specs, give us a vehicle you think would meet these specs to become an all-purpose utility vehicle to be used by our military. but they came back with was ford have some good ideas, not only a good idea but they had what was called the willies go double engine a very powerful little engine. they also had a great design from ãmotor company out of pennsylvania. the government essentially became an automobile by committee. in the jeep was born. the jeep used a lot of the
board designed to use part of the benton designed for the body and much of the mechanical and engine design from willies and willies death contract. at that point willies became the birthplace of jeep.toledo is where the jeeps were made and churned out here by the thousands. hundreds of thousands of jeeps were built here for world war ii. after world war ii of course the jeeps then turned to civilian use and this was the home of jeeps for many years. this factory was named a viable factory a working factory pretty much every jeep that ever came through here weather was a jeep wrangler, the wrangler series are the cherokees all built in this town at this particular factory. the smokestack you see behind us is still remains. it's well over 100 years old and it's really the symbol of what took place here.
it would eventually sell to kaiser, kaiser would eventually sell for american motors american motors and then fiat and that's where we are today. the jeep is still made in toledo, probably made ãb probably made here. a different location not far away we still make the wrangler and also about to make a jeep pickup truck. it is still very much the part of the city and this is where it started right at the spot where they are standing. >> the c-span cities tours on the road exploring the american story. our visit to toledo ohio continues as we take a look at a book that documents the worst banking crash of the great depression. in the 1920s toledo was the fastest growing manufacturing city in america. in some ways it's sort of like the silicon valley today. the auto industry cutting edge technologies were all center
here at the time and as result the manufacturing base was just going gangbusters. toledo seemed to be one of the brightest economic spots on the whole american map during a decade that was a decade of prosperity. in 1931 the entire house of cards collapsed on one week and five of the six largest banks in toledo all failed at the same time which made it the largest banking failure of the great depression the banking industry was perhaps more corrupt than other places and that contributed to its catastrophic collapse. it was the 27th largest city in america and its economy was rather diversified for a city of its size. it was an up-and-coming major producer of automobiles it had one of the largest automobile companies. producing cars here. he was also a city that had a
large manufacturing base in the glass industry. in fact, not only did it have probably the most glass production of any city in the country, it's companies owned all the important patents to glass technologies. any bottle and any window painting made in the world some of those royalties came back here to toledo. the banking system in toledo is similar to the banking system throughout ohio and maybe even the country. that the banks were mostly chartered by the state government not the federal government.that is significant because it means the federal government didn't regulate or inspect them, instead the inspections and the regulations were all done by the state of ohio. that unfortunately allowed banks to pretty much pursue a wild west atmosphere of investing. they really didn't have much constraints on the type of loans they would give out and they didn't have many
constraints on any business decisions they made. what eventually happened is that the banks pretty much escaped even state regulation. just on the eve of all the banks collapsing the state inspectors certified them all as being healthy and the bank that's right next door the security home bank was put on the outer role of ohio banks even though it hadn't made a profit in over a year and even though the inspectors discovered that they were at least $300,000 short on their accounting. and the bank directors had given themselves dividends illegally in spite of all that they still put it on the honor roll banking that's how weak the banking regulations were here. we are standing in the former toledo trust building which was the only bank that survived that period and it largely survived because it was part of
the federal reserve system and it was federally inspected, which meant it had to actually have good accounting and wasn't able to escape the regulations that were put upon it. when the bank crisis occurred when the banks began failing this bank could call upon the federal reserve in cleveland and have an armored truck fill up with $11 million in cash and driven out here at a high rate of speed so fast that it got into an accident and had to transfer its entire stock into a different armored car to make the trip. so to put the depositors at ease that had money. the problem, all the banks in the city were all owned by local investors. and controlled by local directors. the major problem that leads to the bank values is that these directors and owners were also involved in other companies. they were often times the owners of some of the big manufacturing companies in town oftentimes bank directors would be directors on two or three banks at the same time.
all the bank directors are heavily invested in real estate companies because one of the primary contributors to the bank crisis here in toledo in the 1930s, just as it was in america in 2007 was the overinvestment in real estate. real estate speculation reached ãb1925 there was 435 real estate companies in the small city. they developed 67 subdivisions which could hold over a million people for a city of a fourth of a million people. clearly overleveraged and over invested and the reason these real estate companies could do that is because they were largely owned by the directors of the banks who by loading the money were essentially giving themselves money.
the interlocking directorate of different banks and real estate companies and manufacturing companies meant that there was always incentives for bankers to give out loans when there really was a collateral your good business reason to do so. i 1931 that overhang of bad loans finally the bill came due and on june 6, 1931 rumors began swirling around the city that the banks were about to fail. and crowds of depositors began lining up outside these doors demanding their money. little did they know that when they lined up outside the doors the people inside the bank, the directors and owners and the people invested or already removing their money ahead of the depositors. leaving them very little. toledo after the bank crisis of 31 went from being a city in a recession to being a city and a catastrophe. by the winter of 32 it's estimated that as many as half
of all the workers in toledo were laid off. things got so bad that the city of toledo, which went quickly bankrupt itself, couldn't afford to buy new light bulbs for the streetlights so every day the city got darker and darker. they couldn't afford to replace the fire trucks so the number of fires that were allowed to burn uncontrolled increased every year through the great depression. by 1934 a sixth people in the city were on federal relief. and federal relief was so tight for toledo that dietitians began calculating the minimum number of calories needed to maintain life. that's what was allocated to individuals. it could've actually been much worse from that sense. the city was very much closed by 1932 as a result of the bank crisis. toledo was very much in this state of economic catastrophe through most of the great depression. it wasn't until 1935, 1936,
that the programs of the new deal began to have an effect. by the late 1930s a very high proportion of the workforce in toledo was federally employed. it was federal new deal relief that eventually got the city back on its feet and of course as is true throughout the country and the great depression the coming of the war 1940s invigorated the economy. toledo retooled for the war and it began making the famous wartime release jeep began converting more of its ãband by the early 1940s toledo was essentially running on full employment again. but the economy would never rebound the way it was in the 1920s. in the 1920s it was one of the fastest growing cities in the country and in the 1930s actually lost population. even after the war in the 40s
and 50s and 60s toledo's rate of growth fell behind the national average. and never really recovered from the great depression that's pretty much the single event of the city's modern history. the banking crisis of 31 has a long-term effect on toledo and in that i think it converted the city which was on the way to being one of the economic powerhouses of this region into being an economy that's not very different from the rest of the region. the reason the realtors and real estate companies were willing to invest such money in this city to the point where they overbilled the city by 400 percent is because their projections were that this was going to be a major metropolitan area in the very near future. those hopes were not unrealistic. but they were destroyed at the very investments that were being made to realize them.
where we are standing now is sort of the confluence of the maumee river just before it turns into lake erie around the mommy bay area where the very northern part of the city very close to lake erie. this area represents i guess the maritime aspects of the city. for all intents and purposes, for shipping, the maritime interest for the oldest industry in toledo bar none. the city started as a port city. the first settlers, the first pioneers, first explorers came here by boat. the shipping industry grew from there because this was a significant waterway. when the first settlers came into this area they realized not only was this a good waterway but there were plenty of trees here. this was the great black swamp.
so they set up sawmills and they started to make lumber and started to build ships here. this also became a major point for shipbuilding. it was a dream to be able to open up the port to ocean freighters. eventually that happened. they were able to finally by 1959 developed the st. lawrence seaway and open up the wellington and allowed the salty's, oceangoing quakers to come in.toledo at this time is still a major port city. we have overseas terminals here. and there is a lot that happens on this river in toledo ohio on the ãbif you don't get around
this and you don't see these boats and the ships, you can kind of forget sometimes that we are really a port city and an important port city in the great lakes.>> the c-span city tour is on the road exploring american story. our visit to toledo ohio continues as we next catch up with author ãnelson in his book on the politics of free speech. >> i think the biggest misconception about the first amendment is that it applies in all situations across the board whether you are talking about private speech, public speech, at work, and something that involves government but the first amendment only applies to government actions. it says congress shall make no law which means somehow or another the state has to be involved for it to be first amendment issue. i think there's definitely a difference between free speech and first amendment speech.
i think the first amendment speech is covered by the structure of the constitution, the precedents from the supreme court, from laws passed by states and the federal government, a whole set of institutional and legal factors that tell us what the first amendment does or i can make the first amendment claim and go to court. free speech is much more diffuse. a kid at home might make a free-speech claim. mom says stop singing at the supper table. mom, it's my free speech. no first amendment there, right? but the kid does definitely feel a grievance about not being able to sing at the supper table. public universities are bound by the first amendment because they are part of the state. public universities cannot keep speakers off-campus except for in relatively limited
situations. they are able to raise first amendment claims they can go to court and sue the university for infringing on their first amendment rights. everything is the same except a private university instead of public university there is no first amendment claim. there is no way to ãhe might have a speaker has been kicked off of this public campus and then their next talk is a private campus across town, one is a first amendment claim and the other is not. another example of a faulty first amendment claim would be to say that facebook or twitter is censoring you. they might be censoring you but not in a first amendment relevant way. because twitter and facebook are not part of the government. they're not owned by the government. the first amendment doesn't really apply their. you can still complain about what's going on and there are lots of valid complaints to make. about the way that private companies might restrict your
speech but those are free-speech claims that don't trigger first amendment analysis. i think there's two main areas the president's speech on twitter particularly raises. one, he is defending himself in court now because he's blocked a bunch of people on twitter and they're claiming that's first amendment violation that as president as a principal agent of the state is restricting their ability to engage in debate with him because he's blocked them. that's an important first amendment case. that one is directly first amendment because he's the president.he's definitely part of the government. that's one thing that's very interesting and we've never seen that before we never had to deal with that. the other thing is sort of the consequences of his speech. in terms of what it does. if i were to walk into class and just repeat some of the things that the president says going to be down in hr a half-hour later really catching
hell. he's being held to a different standard than a lot of us in workplaces and the public are maybe going to be held to. it's difficult to figure out. he does have free speech has more free-speech than any of the rest of us. the president always does. he's always the center of attention for media and pretty much the president wants to get a message out whichever president we are talking about. the rest of us have things to say about what the president says so part of what we are wrestling with is how do we respond? what are the consequences of the things the president says he's a very influential person. president obama was a very influential person.president bush was a very influential person. the effects of that speech may be difficult to nail down directly. coming up with hard evidence or
proof that this tweet led to this consequence, that's very difficult to do just in terms of we know things and how do you prove that something followed from something else? do we think there's a tendency toward some things that are negative social consequences? violence or discrimination or something like that? we think yes there is a likelihood there is a relationship but living that is very difficult. and thinking about speech often has harms or often has negative consequences we predicted anyway so we have to factor that in as well. people have a pretty hard time thinking about free speech without thinking about the first amendment rules. i don't think overall we will get to a point where every understand the distinction or this difference. we all went free-speech. you hardly ever will will find somebody who says i'm opposed to free-speech or am opposed to the first amendment.
but you will find lots of people who are opposed to free speech about issue x or issue y or first amendment protection for this group of people or that group of people. we end up arguing a lot but we created the umbrella, we love free-speech. we support free-speech. but whose speech about which issues both world action is. >> twice a month c-span cities tours textbook tv and american history tv on the road to explore the literary life and history of a selected city. working with our cable partners revisit various literary and historic sites as we interview local historians, authors, and civic leaders. you can watch any of our past interviews and tours online by going to booktv.org and selecting c-span cities tours from the series drop down at the top of the page. or by visiting c-span.org/cities tour. you can also follow the c-span
cities tour on twitter for behind-the-scenes images and video from our visits. the handle is ãworks you are watching booktv on c-span2 number tonight in primetime career of late republican house leader congressman bob michael of illinois journalist megan widger will argue that the left must rebuild to state and local elections in order to increase its political power at the national level. fox news legal and political analyst greg garrett will offer his thoughts on the mueller report. former fbi agent mike german will take a critical look at the bureau and jennifer bloch will report on the state of women's healthcare. that all starts at 6:55 pm eastern tonight on booktv. >> here is a look at some books being published this week. in trump versus china, former speaker of the house newt gingrich suggests china
possesses the greatest threat to the six. journalist pamela newkirk argues that corporate diversity initiatives have largely failed in "diversity incorporated" in three days at the brink fox news anchor brett bear recalls the teheran conference a secret meeting in iran where franklin roosevelt, winston churchill, and joseph stalin plan military operations to end world war ii. in "it shouldn't be this hard to serve your country" david shelton describes his time as secretary of veterans affairs and the challenges he faced. also published this week historian hw brands recalls the settling of the american west and "dreams of el dorado". journalist joel stein contends that elitism and expertise serve important roles in society in his latest book "indefensible elitism". in edison the late pulitzer prize-winning biographer edmund morris recalls the lesser-known achievements of inventor thomas edison. look for these titles in bookstores this coming week and watch for many authors in the
future on booktv on c-span2. recently on booktv journalist caitlin moscatello examined the rising women running for public office. here's a portion of the program. >> the majority of political reporters in this country covering politics are men, typically white men. we also know that there ãb they magnify each other on twitter. they magnify each other so they retweet each other and share each other's story. the way modern media works is a lot of the ways that stories take off is one person starts tweeting something and the next thing you know there's like six stories about them. the kind of in the same vein and have the same opinion. the example is that right after the 2018 midterm one women made history by flipping the house
and nevada is now the first female majority state legislature in the country and there are more women in state legislature than now than ever before. and not just women, diverse women, i can't stress that enough.women of color, immigrant women, women with young kids typically ã [inaudible] these are the women who run. these are the women who energize people and got them to the polls. it was really frustrating as someone who covered this the immediate conversation among white male journalists, some white male journalists is data versus bernie versus biden. i really just sat there at my
computer. [inaudible] it really just struck me because i thought, in this moment where we just witnessed history women business and women are the ones who energize borders would never turn out in the midterms last year where the turnout for the women. i thought, who were not screwed. >> to watch the rest of the program visit our website booktv type caitlin moscatello or the title of her book "see jane win" at the search box at the top of the page. >> welcome. my name is carlos rosado on the nonfiction book critic at the washington post. which is a charter sponsor of the festival. it's my great pleasure to be here