tv [untitled] May 12, 2012 6:30pm-7:00pm EDT
own raids. activities. she is commander of them. clearly a commander, when you get into a discussion on the group that was in chatham. making trips to chatham. often they will talk about whether they should have followed john brown. well, delany, or harriet tubman, mary ann shadd-cyar had never done anything operationally fo that we know of. for them to say you should follow john brown is to say they should follow a captain. why did i say that? if you retd frederick douglas, martin delany, mary ann shadd-cary. they refer to john brown as a captain. what does that mean? john brown wrote his own constitution. he viewed himself in that way as a general. captains don't lead generals. captains are tactical, not strategic. this organization already had a plan, it was to end slavery in
league with the constitution, not write a new constitution. however they found, they found tactical value in what john brown did. and any one subordinate to the captain they would encourage them to follow john brown. you have to be subordinate to the caption. it is tactical. you don't send strategically important folk on a tactical operation that may be a suicide mission. they do view john brown as a martyr. in many ways it was a suicide mission. onech ari can african-american. osborne perry anderson would return. he would return to chatham. originally from pennsylvania. he returns to chatham. when he returns to chatham. i would look to say he submitted this report. when you examine who published his report it is mary ann shadd-cary. she published his report after he came back.
these are champions, they were champions in this model. they're champions. those who lead by exam pull. another one of the champions in the air rachlt sera. i am going to call her a public relations kind of officer. a propagandaist if you will. her name is francis ellen watt kins, or francis ellen harper. born in maryland. she was actually raised in the family of her uncle, william watt kins, watkins. francis ellen harper would write political essays and poems. in one of her political essays, called, our greatest want. she says our greatest need is not gold or silver.
but true men and women wecht have millions of our race in the prison house of slavery. but have not yet a single mose in freedom. so she is calling on those to take a stand. if you read it a little bit further. she often compares, when she talks moses. she is talking about somebody who has given up something too. moses could have lived in the palace, she argued. instead of that he goes to live with the captives and to deliver them out of captivity. that's what she is talking about. looking for the sing m le moses. when i read her poetry it's not just a poem. it's like a journalist writing a report of something that happened. using poetic verse. she would write about margaret garner, gardner, garner, excuse me. margaret garner was a runaway. had the made it all the way to ohio. in 1856, she is, clear she is
going to be caught with her, with her children. she decides freedom for her children is death. francis ellen harper will write "i will save my precious children from their darkly threatened doom. i will hew their path to freedom through the portales of the tomb. ma margaret gardner did kill one of her children. they made it to her before she killed the rest. she would rather kill them. her cry, her moan was so loud, that she would rather kill them to see them returned to slavery. maria stewart would say the cries are being heard by god. and that god was going to answer. there is a tremendous day in the future. but if we want to appreciate just how, how clearly the african-american community knew the civil war was coming. clearest forecast was in 1858
speech in boston delivered. and the doctor was an 1852 graduate of the american medical college in philadelphia, a physician, dentist, school teacher and first african-american lawyer admitted to the bar. he gave a specht ech in boston before open hostilities in the civil war begin. he says, i quote, sooner or later the clashing of arms will be heard and the black man's services will me needed. and not all cowards and fools. and 750,000 slaves wowed with enthusiasm caused by the dawn of the glorious opportunity of being able to strike a genuine blow for freedom will be a pous that they will respect. will the blacks fight? of course they will. close quote. three years before the civil war. the african-american population is clearly preparing for what they believe, believe will be ate genuine opportunity to strike a blow for liberty.
when opponenten hostilities begin, april 28, 1861, fort sumter, charleston harbor, america's, african-american population, those want knowledge circles, within the o.s seeking to end slavery. they're overjoyed. they see this as the the fulfillment of prophecy or simply their forecast. francis ellen harper would write -- there is a curse upon your land. fearful signs are in the air. as if thunder bolts were forging answers to the bondsman's prayer t they viewed the civil war as an answer to their prayers. they had anticipated it and -- and paid for it. but when the war begins, there is an attempt to keep african-americans out of the
fray. now, john s. rock and others, mary ann shadd-cary, would counsel people, y'all just need to be patient. maria stewart the same thing. maria stewart trying to make her way to washington. she had gone to baltimore before the war. and would make her way to washington early in the war. but in july 1861, the house and the senate would pass resolutions that stated why the federal government was going to war. it was, quote, to maintain the supremacy of the constitution and to prep serserve the union not interfere with the domestic institution of the states. the words slavery. president lincoln affirmed the resolutions. so the federal on jek tigovern k objection je objective was the same.
it was not legal for men of african to join. it wasn't legal for african-american men to join the federal army when the civil war begins april 1861. it had been illegal since 1792. fame sis it was against the law. president lincoln, had no legal authority. it is going to take an act of congress. allen pederton, he observed, although as yet prevented from taking up arms in defense of their rights, these colored men had banded themselves together to further the cause frif dof f. ,000 these persons of african descent. men and women. heap would refer to their organization as a national organization called the loyal league. that's, what pinkerton would refer to it as. the loyal league. some members of the secret organization would refer to themselves as the legal league. they believe in leak with constitution they would end the tyranny of slavery. some members of the organization, mississippi valley, would refer to them as
lincoln's loyal legal league. this secret african descent organization would become the single most important source of tactical and strategic intelligence during the civil war. this secret african descent organization would provide the most prolific recruiters of africans for the union war effort. this secret african descent organization, had as its express goal to end the tyranny of slavery in league with the constitution. and they understood congress would need to take action if things were permitted as we see in the frederick douglas article, august 1861 when he tells his readers in his monthly that "we have very good evidence off to the fact that the administration in washington, lincoln administration, notwithstanding appearances, stands ready to enforce a policy in the rebel states that will eventually abolish slavery just as the people require it. >> as soon as congress, people, voice of the people is congress. as soon as the people require
it. douglas would admonish his leaders to lobby congress. visit their congressman if they can to get the laws changed. president lincoln did not believe congress would make the change until it became a mill terry necessity. use of african-americans early in the war. men or women. was not something that was authorized. not even, interestingly enough as laborers. the confederates however, do use african-americans as laborers from the very beginning. three african-americans, baker, townsend, mowry, they would enter union lines on the day that virginia votes to secede from the union so now it becomes a rebel state. may 23, 1861. they arrive, union lines, fortress monroe, southernmost point of the virginia peninsula. and they would meet with the general seeking refuge.
he would give them refuge. when a confederate officer wanted property back. butler would argue these persons you claim is property. are being used to wage war against the unls. -- united states. i will confiscate such property as contraband of war. in 1861, congress would pass the first confiscation act that only applied to those being used in the effort. just any body couldn't enter the camp. butler at fort res, fort monroe. one cartoonist would call it the fort monroe doctrine, receiving the contraband. butler would allow women and children in. the children and the wives. of the soldiers, not soldiers, contraba contraband, confiscated. he would allow them in. you have really the first contraband camp of the war forming at fort monroe. butler would also be in
association with abraham galloway as he returned to work with uncle sam. the confederates use african-american lay bore ebor. and allen pinkerton would say that was one of the best sources of information. those engaged in hard labor for the confederacy. those individuals, those colored men, persons of african descent are best source of information. and one african-american woman is noteworthy in the information she brings early in the war to the union. her name, mary luveste, she would leave norfolk and bring information critical to the union navy to washington. she was the servant of an, confederate engineer that was taking the -- "u.s.s.merimac" and converting it to an ironclad," css virginia" it would be called.
and mary louveste, or trueveste would take tease plahese plans, them to washington and turn them over to the secretary of the navy, gideon wells. gideon wells would say she encountered no small risk bringing ininformation. the confederates were 90 days ahead of schedule on their ironclad. when she brings this, the conversion of the merrimac to an ironclad. she brings the information they're 90 day as head of schedule. this prompts the union, department of the navy, to expedite the production of their own ironclad. and for that reason, the "u.s.s. monitor" was seaworthy almost 90 days ahead of schedule itself. and was able in early march of 18262, to make it down to the chesapeake to neutralize the "c.s.s. virginia."
pinkerton would say what she did was critical in saving the blockade early, especially in the chesapeake. african-american informants were critical to the success of the general's earl in the war. butler, general butler had benefited from them. a great deal. in maryland he benefited from the intelligence network provided by african-americans. and when he even goes down, when he is at fort monroe. burnside would take over for, for, for butler, after butler in august of 1861, with the help of abraham galloway, captured hatteras inlet. from hatteras inlet, general burnside would conduct an expedition into eastern north carolina. with, according to burnside, because of the good information he received from, anch a african-american operative, he
takes roanoke island, in 1862 with little or no problems. his next objective is fort macon. but on his expedition to take fort macon he goes into newborn, north carolina one of the most populous cities in south at that time. called the athens of the south. one of the most progressive. had a rather relatively large for a southern city its size, african descent population. 13% of the population was free, should say free population. the african population was 50%. free population was 13% there in newburg. when burnside gets there he find a very friendly population. not only of the enslaved people but the free persons and the stanley family, john caruthers stanley is very wealthy as well. he find a very friendly population. he appoints vincent collier as the head of refugees and the poor people that are coming in. and collier would almost
immediately, april 1862, establish a school in south, in north carolina -- newburn. also in newburn was aunt charlotte. aunt charlotte made the newspapers. aunt charlotte becomes what i am going to call the prototype cook for the sanitary commissions. so in newburn, she becomes, this is early on, this would be dupe lip ka -- dupe lip kalicated througho south. a bit of a nurse. soldiers from massachusetts, new york, new jersey, they would, they appreciated a great deal, her, her cooking when they were sick. and they would say, it helped heal them, and relieve their suffering. so she becomes the prototype cook. you will see numbers of cooks like aunt charlotte, throughout the union army. for the rest of the war. also, a major event in, in, in, in newburn. we are going to compare this, or let's say, in south, north
carolina, we are going to compare this s to what happens in virginia. fishermen are organized by abraham galloway. and they put the union army on boats, in april, 1862. and in the early morning, of april 23rd, 1862, those boats with union soldiers would go right by fort macon with small arms fire. the next morning, the citizens of buford, north carolina, and the union is occupied. no gunfire whatsoever. that's how successful this intelligence was. and by the end of 1862, you have contraband camps. camps for runaways in this circle. and washington, plymouth. in newburn. at beaford, and roanoke island. compare, compare what burnside's
experience to that of general george mcclellan. in the spring, burnside is experiencing this great success and in intelligence, clearly wink the intelligence war. mcclellan, has the largest army. takes them from washington to the virginia peninsula where the fortress is. mcclellan is not friendly to runaways. he won't talk those being used by the confederate war effort. he will return them. the league, african-americans do not like mcclellan. they do not provide him good information. mcclellan would march his army within ten miles, rebel capital, 1862, down in south carolina. susie king taylor, a teenager learned to read and write in secret schools of savannah, had run away and was at hilton head. she said in the camp it was a gloomy time. when mcclellan was close to
richmond it was a gloomy time. they did not want mcclellan to succeed. it was a gloomy time. in richmond, pinkerton would name john scobell, one of the operative of the league, and pinkerton would have his own operatives, hatty lawton, and timothy webster. john scobell does not get arrested. pinkerton now is heavily dependent on the league operatives to give him information on what lee's forces are like. and we also know that at that time, there was an intelligence organization, if you will, or a cell there, ran by european american woman by the name of elizabeth vanlou that could have been providing mcclellan information. but they did not. and she had african-american women like mary elizabeth bouser some believe was inside the
confederate white house. but this information does not get to mcclellan. when mcclellan gets by january -- june 1, 1862, within ten miles of the capital, general lee took lee was able to deceiving mcclelland that the army was four times the actual size. he was able to deceive him that the quaker guns were real cannons. lee deceived and outmaneuvered mcclelland. because lee won the intelligence war and mcclelland lost it. why weren't these african-americans providing this valuable information to mcclelland? the pro slavery general. why weren't they? because his success was considered gloomy times to them. when word gets to washington, july 1862, that mcclelland's army is in full retreat suffering a humiliating defeat, congress passed the militia act
of 1862, giving lincoln, this election was on lin con's desk for signature in 1862. another important piece of information was on his desk that day. it is referred to as the second confiscation act. in section 6, congress gave president lincoln the authority to seize all property of persons and states in rebellion. in section 9 of the second confiscation act, congress declared forever free all persons held as slaves by supporters of the rebellion. when president lincoln signed both the pieces of legislation into law on the 17th of july, 1862, every person that was in -- every so-called contraband that was in these camps in virginia, south carolina, north carolina, louisiana and kansas were free. they were freed by the act of congress no longer do you have contraband, they're now free persons. that's by law.
they are freed persons. lincoln would meet with the cabinet on july 22, 1862, explained that he was going to issue the emancipation proclamation immediately. one of the members, secretary of state, he himself had helped some individuals escape along the underground railroad advised lincoln not to issue that at that time. he tells the president that after these great disasters of the war, after these humiliating defeats if you issue that proclamation it will be viewed as the exhausted government, a cry for help. the governments extending out to hands out to ethiopia rather than under the government. the secretary said to wait for a military success that would mass, that would hide the cry for help. president lincoln calling it a practical war measure considered this wise advice. lincoln waited to claim his victory and he'd claim it on the
bloodiest day. september 17, 1862, called the battle of antietam. september 17, 1862, 12 hours, 22,000 casualties. well over half of those casualties were union soldiers, lincoln soldiers but the rebels under robert e. lee withdrew. five days later, september 22, did i say july before? i should have said september 17, 1862, bloodiest day in american history. on september 22, five days after the battle, president lincoln would issue the preliminary emanse nation proclamation, if they did not return to the union he was going to declare freed the slaves. but they don't believe he can make good on the threat. they called the battle of antietam, a draw. where the generals had captured harper's ferry. you have a victory, he called it
a victory. they're not about to return to the union. president lincoln issues the final emancipation proclamation for suppressing said rebellion. i want you to pay close attention, he does not pretend this is a moral or humanitarian document. it is a practical war measure. a fit and necessary war measure for accomplishing the paramonth objective of the war which is to preserve the union. he declared forever free all persons held as slaves in the ten states that were at war with the united states for their independence. and the five slave holding states that received him as president, it did not apply because congress did not give the authority to president lincoln to seize property and declare free slaves in states that were loyal to the union. only in states in rebellion. states that had to be brought back to the union but the army needs help. in the emancipation proclamation, that's where lincoln asks to receive all men of african descent into the
armed services. and though it says persons, but it's men of african descent. the emancipation proclamation did not simply free the slaves but made it legal for the enslaved population to free themselves if they helped save the union. accomplish the paramount objective of the war. that's exactly what these soldiers did. and african-american women would be a part of that group of soldiers. some as cooks like aunt charlotte. in fact, i believe that in some regiments we need to do more research because we have cooks in some regiments like the 49th united states troops where the cooks' name is martha freeman. i never met a man named martha. but there's a martha freeman as a cook in the 49th. african-american women are serving as nurses now. all nurses during the civil war are contract nurses. working mostly with the sanitary commission. they're contract nurses and hundreds of african-american women serve in these roles with
the army and with the navy. however, five african-american women are legally enlisted in the navy as nurses. and they serve aboard a hospital ship in the mississippi called the red rover. anna stokes, even receives a pension later in life. so we have very good documentation of her service in the navy, legally enlisted as a nurse. a teenage nurse down in south carolina is susie king taylor. she's a teenager. she goes into the headquarters there at hilton head, and becomes a part of the first south carolina infantry of african descent later renamed the 33rd united states color troops. she would become a nurse for the regiment and a teacher. she had learned to read and write. she was teaching the soldiers how to read and write. she would marry one of the
soldiers in 1862. she would say that while in the regiment, i learned to handle a musket very well while in the regiment and could shoot straight and often hit the target. susie king taylor also writes a memoir so we can hear her voice in her memoirs. another one of the school teachers down in south carolina is a diaryist, from a wealthy family in philadelphia, james fortin, that's her father. and charlotte fortin would go down to teach in a school that looked very much like this. this is a photograph of one of the schools where she taught. in her diary she'd talk about the various people she would meet and she would meet one as daphne, an african woman who was over 100 years old. she had 65 great great great grandchildren and three great great great great grandchildren.
and she would ask her how do you feel that they're now forever free, and she just smiled and says, yes, missy, i feel good. two girls that she writes about who were 10 and 15 years old who when their so-called owner took them inland, they decided they wanted to go back. and so they went back to port royal on their own, spent two days in the swamps without eating anything. 10 and 15-year-old girls seeking freedom. she talked about meeting with harry yet tubman. and she'd talk about the soldiers and coming back from the raids and their success and some of the personalities of some of these soldiers and talk about how eager her students were to learn. the second confiscation act of 1862 opened the floodgates up to many of the contraband camps even to the district of
columbia. camps in the district of columbia were established after 1862 when the contrabands were no longer contrabands. i'm actually misspeaking, it should be properly said a friedman camp or village. in 1862, what we now call georgia avenue was the 7th street turnpike. literally thousands of run aways were coming down the road. like a huge parade coming in to washington city and when they got to washington city they had to have a place to house them. you have all the refugees in the summer of '62 arriving in washington. so what do they do? they move the military out of the barracks at a place called camp barker here in the northern part of the city. where garrison elementary school is today. vermont and "s" street. they would move it in. this is an outline of the camp. this not just any camp. this camp is in the nation's capital.