tv [untitled] May 19, 2012 1:30pm-2:00pm EDT
finally in early april lincoln decides he's got to resupply anderson, okay? but here's lincoln's problem. he doesn't want to start this thing. he's hoping that everybody's going to kind of get wrapped up in the middle of a speech, you're at a gathering and there's like the electricity to the crowd, amazing speech, everybody's all excited, yeah, all right. you're ready to go do it. let's go do this, man! then you wake up the next morning and you're like, oh, god. you know, let's just talk about it, okay? you know, just a little crazy, guys. i was kind of in the spirit there, but let's just chill out. a lot of these states are looking around like, we only got seven. i thought we were going to get more than seven. i thought tennessee was with us. missouri was serious. they were going to come. we've got seven. that's not a lot. we have seven out of 33 states. we were hoping for more. so what they're going to have to do is try and figure out, do we keep going? do we back up? i don't want to back up. that's just embarrassing, all right? i do believe in what we said,
but i don't know if maybe we should have gone with a different option, okay? so what lincoln's hoping is that enough confederate leaders are going to start to say, look, let's see if we can't come up with a compromise. he does not want to give them a crisis to rally behind. when you are trying to talk a guy down from a fight, y'all are going to go to parties this weekend, all right, and it'll happen. if it didn't happen this weekend, it happened last weekend. two guys are going to want to get in a fight, all right? hopefully some of you guys are going to be, guys, come on, seriously, back down. the way to stop the fight is not to sucker punch one of the guys in the face, all right? lincoln's saying, don't do anything. everybody just chill out. okay? but he's got to provide some sort of support to major anderson. so on april 6th, april 6th, 1861, lincoln's going to send a message to the governor of south carolina and say, look, his last name is pickens if you're curious. francis pickens, governor of
south carolina. he's going to say, look, we're sending a relief ship down. this is not an act of aggression. got fresh food, fresh water, medical supplies. we might put a couple guys into fort, take a couple of guys out. this is just a relief expedition. we're not reinforcing the fort. this is not an act of aggression. the governor is looking at the situation and basically decides, i don't know. i'm going to pass this up the chain, see what everybody else says. they send the message to davis and his advisors. jefferson davis and his advisors talk about this two days later, on the 8th of april, 1816. 1861. they're debating it. they say, look, let the relief expedition in because we do not want to fire the first shot. the confederacy's whole argument is we're not starting this thing. we don't want a war, we just want to break away. we're not trying to overthrow the government, we just want to break away. if they start the thing by firing on a federal
installation, that weakens their whole position, okay? problem is, you've got a u.s. fort inside of confederate territory as far as they're concerned and you can't let that situation continue. you have to come up with some sort of a solution, and they don't want to let the fort get resupplied. they do not want to let that relief expedition through, okay? so on the 10th of april, two days later, on the 10th of april the confederate government tells beauregard, no, we have to demand a surrendered. beauregard, who he is? we don't name our kids that well anymore, p.g.t. beauregard. making life simpler for history students everywhere. all you have to remember is p.g.t. beauregard, he's the confederate commander on the ground in charleston. confederate government's going to tell him, look, you have to
contact that fort out in the harbor and tell them, forget about it. we won't let a relief expedition through. you have to surrender. here's the really weird situation. remember the guy i told you in the fort, major anderson, he was the artillery instructor at west point when beauregard was the student. now the student is demanding that the professor surrenders. he says, look, you have to surrender the fort. beauregard would have been anderson's favorite students. they know each other well. look, sorry bud, but i've got orders and you're in the wrong as far as beauregard is concerned, you have to surrender the fort. anderson sends a message immediately back. he says, look, i can't. i'm under orders to hold the fort at all costs and i will, but i can't hold out much longer anyway. we are really low on food. we are really low on water. we're going to have to leave here soon anyway so maybe we can
come up with some sort of a compromise. let's not get a whole bunch of guys killed over nothing. beauregard gets the message. you can just imagine. he's like, i wasn't expecting that. soon? how soon is soon? you have to leave soon? he sends a message back out to anderson and anderson says, i tell you what, if i'm not relieved by noon on april 15th, i'll have to leave the fort. what beauregard knows is the relief expedition is going to get there before then. anderson will get relieved and we're going to be stuck in the same old situation all over again. it will just continue. you get the chain of events. lincoln sends a message to south carolina on the 6th saying we're going to send a relief expedition down. this is supplies. we need water, fresh food, medical supplies, that's all it is. governor pickens sends the message on to president davis and the confederate cabinet. what do you want us to do? no, we can't have a relief
expedition. they tell the military commander on the ground, p.g.t. beauregard to demand the surrender. he contacts his friend and says you need to surrender the federal forces inside that fort. anderson says, no, i can't. i'm under strict orders to hold out at all costs. don't start shooting at us over nothing. i have to leave soon anyway. i can't just surrender when you ask me to right now. beauregard writes back and says, you know, i always imagined who are the guys running these messages back and forth? i always think about these things. so beauregard sends a message back, soon? how soon are you going to have to leave the fort? what are we talking about? anderson says, noon on the 15th. if i'm not relieved before noon on the 15th, i'm going oh have to leave anyway. beauregard knows though, that federal ship will be there resupplies the fort before the 15th. we'll be back in this purgatory that they've been living in for months. this has to come to a head.
beauregard sends a message back saying, that's not going to work. you have to surrender the fort. anderson sends a message back saying, i can't. as long as i can hold out, i am under orders to hold out. so at 4:30 in the morning on the 12th of april, 1861, confederate forces inside charleston open fire on federal forces in ft. sumter. that is the shot that starts the american civil war. okay? in four years you're going to have 620,000 americans dead. that doesn't include wounded, okay? that's just dead. 620,000 in four years, north and south. again, remember, but we know that. nobody else knows that now. what a lot of the sides are hoping, there's worries that this might be longer than they think it will be.
a lot of folks are hoping this is going to be over quick. one big fight, southerners are convinced, the north, the north is a bunch of clerks who work in factories, what do they know? they don't hunt, they don't fish, they can't survive in the youth doors. that's what southern men are all about. we'll punch them in the face, they'll run home to momma. northerners are looking at be all done. southerners, yeah, great, you guys got drunk and went gambling one more time. this time you decided to break up the country. way to go, geniuses, thanks a lot. both sides are figuring it's going to take one fight, we'll settle this thing once and for all. now when confederate forces in charleston open fire on ft. sumter, that convinces lincoln, okay, i need to do something. you need to understand, lincoln has been under a heck of a lot of pressure, all right? a lot of northerners who want this war who are saying, look, we have tried compromise, we have tried everything, all right? a lot of them -- there's a great line in one of the northern
newspapers that says lincoln stands like -- can i say that? like an ass between two bales of hey wondering what to do. he's under all sorts of pressure, you know? come on, do something, man. we didn't elect you to sit there and stare at the last couple of presidents did that. he's desperately trying to find some sort of a peaceful solution. once confederates open fire, on ft. sumpter, u.s. military troops, u.s. military installation, no, that's not going to work. lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers. war starts on the 12th. 15th of april, three days later lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers. okay? he says, look, we need you guys to help put down this rebellion. now the way it works, every state that's still part of the union is going to have to give a portion of that 75,000, okay? if you're teeny state, not a huge population, say vermont's
not going to have to come up with as many guys as new york or virginia, okay? but everybody's going to have to put a portion into that 75,000. and therein lies the rub. virginia's going to have to help give to that 75,000 and go invade south carolina. tennessee is going to have to contribute to that 75,000 and go invade mississippi right across the border. you have a lot of family and shared experiences. what's going to happen is four more states are going to say, i can't invade and attack fellow southerners. we can't do it. it's not in us and you can't force us to do it. the federal government is overstepping their bounds when they try to force us to do this, okay? and so what's going to happen, go to this one again. see these gray states here? what's going to happen is those gray states, upper south states, the last four that will join the confederacy, arkansas, tennessee, north carolina, and virginia. they leave in response to that
call for 75,000. they do not leave because of lincoln specifically. okay? virginia met and voted, okay? virginia leaders voted on whether or not they wanted to secede earlier in the secession crisis and they said, no, we stay. after lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers, they vote to leave. that's why the upper south goes. we are not march on fellow southerners. we will not forcibly keep fellow southerners in the union. we weren't going to leave because of the election. we were going to stay and try and work within the democratic process but you cannot force virginians to invade and march on south carolinians. as much as northca carolinas bless you love south carolinas, we're not going to do it. that's how you get those last four states into the confederacy. remember that. that's classic material for your chronology section when you think about cause and effect. it's classic material to include in the essay. the other thing to remember, what about those green, teal, whatever color that is, all right?
those are slave states that stay in the union. missouri, kentucky, maryland, delaware, slave states that stay in the union, okay? everybody has kind of in the back of their heads, all right, the slave states go in the confederacy, the free states go in the union. no, you have those border states. that lincoln has to deal with. his whole presidency he has to deal with more states going into the confederacy. all right. and any position he takes against slavery he has to worry about losing those slave states and potentially more. so this is going to be a constant thing he has to think about. the other thing i want you thinking about, okay, look at these areas for secession and against secession. mississippi, there are pockets in mississippi, particularly in poor areas, particularly along the river systems where they fear they're going to be right along the route of invasion where they are just not so sure about this whole confederate experience. jones county, county to the north is definitely going to be not necessarily pro-union but not so sure about the
confederacy. there are pockets where you have these sections that, again, are not necessarily pro-lincoln, they're not abolitionists, but they're no so sure they're confederates. a lot of them will decide they absolutely are not. even as the confederacy is formed, even as more states are joining the confederacy, jefferson davis is also going to have to balance the fact that you're going to have these divisions, all right? he's going to be constantly worried about governing sections of his own country. now last but not least, okay, lincoln, what did i tell you, 15th of april lincoln calls for the 75,000 volunteers. 19th of april lincoln calls for the federal navy, the u.s. navy to blockade all southern ports. that, by the way, is when he recognizes the union. you can't blockade your own country, right? so by doing that he actually recognizes the existence of those southern states as a
foreign country. he was actually furious about that one, that his advisors didn't correct him before he did that, but, all right, 19th of april, 1861, lincoln says the u.s. navy will blockade all of those southern ports. nothing goes in, nothing comes out. any of that money from cotton, any of that money from trade, we're not going to let those southern states benefit. we won't let those southern states get support from foreign countries, weapons, money, anything. the idea is we're going to cut the south off. that's when you're going to see more and more of these divisions, when that upper south will not contribute to the 75,000 and where a lot of people are going to have to decide who they are going to side with, okay? robert e. lee, the guy in the bottom left-hand corner of the slide, hopefully most of y'all recognize him, he's got a big decision. he's one of the most well-respected commanders in the entire u.s. army. he's a graduate of west point. he's been superintendent of west point. he's a hero of the mexican war. you guys know arlington national cemetery. that was his wife's family's
home, all right? she is tied by family to martha washington. robert e. lee's father rode under george washington during the american revolution. huge ties in his family to the founders of the country. and lee's kind of split. there's this very famous quote that i wanted y'all to see where he talks about how ica not raise my hand against my home, my children, all right? and a lot of folks have argued that lee by nature was a virginian. more than anything else, americans during this time period tend to identify themselves more as mississippians, more as new yorkers, more as virginians than americans. they define themselves by their state first than by their nation. lee, once virginia goes, yes, he has a national view, particularly as a man who served in the army, stationed down in texas, he has not spent his whole life in virginia, all right, but he says, you know, when it comes down to it, that lee very much viewed himself as a virginian. part of it has to do with, too, that lee is a slave holder.
he has been for a long time. yes, he did emancipate a large number of slaves. he emancipates more slaves that hein herrits from his wife's family. but he's also -- remember what i'm always talking to y'all about. don't try to make people 21st century people. view them within their times. lee was very much a man of his times. he very much believed in white supremacy. very much believed -- remember the paternalistic argument we talked about when we talked about slavery in the old south. very much argued about the role and the responsibility of southern white male leaders within the community and that the basic social and racial organization of the south was how it should be. remember winfield scott when we talked about the mexican war? the landing of veracruz? remember that? winfield scott calls robert e. lee to washington and he says, look, i want you to take command of these forces that we're organizing, the u.s. forces. lee thinks about them but then he writes and says, ica not march on fellow southerners. he goes home.
he resigns his commission in the u.s. army and he will later rise to the leadership of the army of northern virginia and eventually to the leadership of all confederate forces. that's the situation by the time we're in late -- once you have the secession of all the upper south, by the time we're in late may, june 1865. when y'all get back on monday is when we'll pick up with the start of the war. now do you want to go ahead? we can open up the mic if you want to be able to record any of the questions. y'all are going to freeze at this point. don't make me talk on television. all right? do you have any questions? go for it. >> ft. sumter was held by the north? >> it's a u.s. military installation. it would be like fort hood in texas. if texas secedes and you have a u.s. fort in this country. yeah. >> they were guarded by the north? >> it's all the united states.
the question is ft. sumter is in south carolina but it's the north. what's going on here. wait until all the questions are done. all right. you're passing the attendance sheet. sorry. don't mean to yell at you. you're fine. everybody sees south carolina. okay? do you not see south carolina on the map? right here. here's south carolina. so we have got a u.s. fort in south carolina. it's all part of the united states. south carolina secedes but you have a u.s. military installation there. what do you do with it? if you're the north you're like, no way, we're not letting go. you can't tell us to leave. south carolina is saying we're not part of the united states anymore. you might as well have a u.s. military installation in mexico. it's just not going to happen. you're not allowed to do that without our permission. so what's happening is the guys in the u.s. army who are stationed at ft. sumter are saying, we stay. in some cases you'll get forts
like in texas where everybody kind of goes home. if you're from the north, you can go home to the north. if you're in the south, you can stay here. a whole bunch of weapons we'll confiscate. texas will use them, thank you very much. it comes to a head in certain spots though. florida it came to a head and it really comes to a head in charleston harbor at ft. sumter. that becomes the sticking point. that becomes that crisis point of who's going to go where. does that answer it? >> yes. >> any other questions? yeah. >> why did they fire on it if they knew they didn't have to keep the ship. >> all you have to do is keep the ship. what if you don't keep the ship away, okay, number one. theoretically you will starve them out. what if you fail to do that? if the ship resupplies them, okay, they're going to be here and we will be stuck in this purgatory. but number two, are you an independent nation or not? i mean, at some point, they're saying, look, we're not saying we're going to go invade washington city and try and overthrow the u.s. government. but i am saying that you can't
have a fort inside my country. and you're going to have to respect that. and just like there were northerners putting pressure on lincoln, are we going to go to war or what, there were southerners putting pressure on davis. are you going to do something about this or what? you away from the united states we're not trying to steal anything but y'all need to leave. there is pressure on davis we have to take a stand at some point and maybe we said we wouldn't start this thing, maybe if we do it will console i date some of the support, some of folks aren't necessarily sure that was the smartest thing to do, maybe we can keep them. does that get it? >> in alabama why such a large concentrate airrea of people against. >> i'm hitting four buttons at once. see where you get a border between the states is where you get a lot of trade back and forth.
across river systems, also often going to be more impoverished areas, where you have people who feel like they don't necessarily have a whole lot of say in this, are not sure they trust the wealthy planners and what they are trying to do. the way the se vegs process worked a lot of historians argued there were wealthy planners like everybody just chill out but these guys were the new wealth, breaking out of that middle class up in the wealthier areas that were saying, no no, we need to do this. if we do this i'll rise to the top. then you have a whole lot of poor whites who are saying great, you guys are going to do this and stay home and make a whole lot of money and i'll go out and die and i'm not so sure about. that now you have a huge portion of the white male south thatover wheel manica supported the war. they had ties to folks who had not seceded, saying i'm not so
sure. other sections big german section in florida, they are not in vfavor of lincoln and the abolitionists. sometimes it's your very wealthy white southerners, the guys who went constitutional union like the war will bring is bunch of destruction. sam houston gets kicked out of the leadership in texas. they tell him to go home. he was pro union the whole time. he was like look guys, i have been president of a country small and brand new it's hard. sam houston was your classic 19th century expansionist. you build more he's like go get cuba, mexico and somebody take canada. you get more you don't break away. are you guys nuts? so you have the unionists for a variety of reasons. there it a great book called "the free state of jones" looks
at what jones county does during the war, not necessarily pro-union as anti-confederate and wealthy elite confederates. if there are any who are questions, i want to let folks who have 12:00 classes go and let the next class in if you have more questions come down, thank you and we will see you monday. lectures in history airs each saturday at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern and sundays at 1:00:p.m. we feature a classroom lecture from across country on different topics and eras of american history. to keep up with american history tv during the week or send us questions and comments, follow us on twitter.
twitter.com/cspanhistory. as the residential campaign enters the final moments and parties prepare for conventions the contenders will air featuring 14 key figures who ran for president and lost but impacted american political history. we'll air the series every weekend from june 3rd through september 2nd on su:00nd on sup0 a.m., 7:30 p.m. and 10:30 p.m. on cspan 3. join us as historians preview the ser sees on saturday june 2nd :00nd at 10:00 a.m. eastern wanted to ask you about the book you've written on women's rights, women's citizenship, the book is no constitutional right to be ladies, women and the obligations, of citizenship. in publishers weekly i was reading some of what they had to say about your book.
they say you link the woman's exemption from civic duties such as jury or military service, to the denial of women civic rights sufficient as sufferage, her body. what were you aiming for? >> at the time of the founding, at the time of the revolution, when at marriage the husband got virtually absolute right to access to the body of his wife. there is no concept of rape in marriage until the feminists of the 1970s put it there. it seemed to follow, therefore, of course he could control her property, of course he control her will, of course he would never give her the vote, because she would have to vote she would be forced in voting the way he did. it didn't occur to them therefore they should take away rights from him, and they curve
part of the new world of equality and democracy. in the old law of domestic relations the married owed many obligations we think as civic obligations directly to her husband. and her husband interfaced between her and the state. this doesn't really break down in our own time the first time that the u.s. supreme court ruled that denial -- discrimination on the basis of sex might be a denial of equal protection of the laws is 1971. and they don't do a ka pay shus ruling on this point until 1973. so, our understanding of how women related to the state before that is complicated and not the same as the way in which men related to the state. >> at this point i think to underscore it, it shows you why there was so much opposition to
women's sufferage on the part of men. giving women the right to vote suggests they may have a will of their own. they won't necessarily vote the same way their husbands want them to it gives them relation directly to the state circumventing the husbands. to us it may not seem like such a radical idea, most countries in the world not every single one, but most allow women to vote nowadays. at the time it was seen as a threat to the stability of the family, to males being the head of the family, that is why it was stanton was right it took many decades to achieve even though it doesn't seem like that radical an idea. >> at the time, one piece of this was when an american-born man married a foreign woman, go back to citizenship now, she automatically became a citizen, did not to be naturalized. when an american born woman married a foreign born man she
lost her citizenship. if her country didn't instantly make her a subject or citizen she was exposed to statelessness and the u.s. supreme court said in 1915, this is okay. this is okay. and when american women got the vote, the integrity of married women citizenship was one of the key things that they wanted to fix. and when they fixed it, congress would only fix it so that if you married a man who was eligible for citizenship, you could keep your citizenship. but at that point, chinese, japane japanese -- >> you could not maryann asian or african. >> american born women lost their -- ulysses grant's daughter married an english\map. when she was widowed she had to petition congress to restore her citizenship. this is cspan 3 with politics and public affairs
programming throughout the week. and every weekend 48 hours of people and events telling the american story on american history tv. get our schedules and see past programs at our web sites. join in the conversation on social media sites. when immigrants start to show up in significant numbers, which is somewhat the case in the 1820's and 1830's, but very much the case in the 1840's and afterwards, they are showing up in a political environment in which they are already filed to vote as soon as they become citizens. this is an image from harper's weekly after election time, shows the saloon and polling place. if you wanted to vote you could see the doorway in the back, you had to go in there to vote. >> this weekend on lectures in history from muncie, indiana james connelly examines immigration voting and