tv [untitled] May 20, 2012 4:00pm-4:30pm EDT
and the crew is prepared to help glenn from the capsule. first they attempt to help the colonel from his complex prism through upper ex-tonight the mouth. they encounter difficulties. and so it is decided to blow off the escape hatch cover. first glimpse of the conquering hero. colonel john h. glenn. he left his footprint among the stars. he has a grin as wide of the path he blazed. as he rests briefly before being flown to the carrier randolph by helicopter. he is lifted aboard in a maneuver that looks more dangerous than the flight itself. a helicopter takes him to randolph for a debriefing and examinations by medical men.
the copter no sooner touches down on deck than glenn gets a preview of the congratulations still to come. on every hand jubilation. on every side, smiles and cheers. he signs over his log and precious instruments to the national space administration. from here he goes to grand turk island for further rest before the deluge. a deluge of honors, a proud country waits to bestow on a brave man. ma cities who public is guided by statesmen, this bronze rendition of mathematician and scientist of albert einstein stands out. perhaps because there is little of the monumental about this washington monument. even if it does stand 12 feet tall and weigh approximately
four tons. here robert brooks, distinctive style, led some critics to label him the bubble gum sculptor, gives us a genial, playful einstein. sitting atop in north carolina granite, the famed scientist holds in his left hand a document listing some of his most significant theories. the same bench contains quotes. testifying to einstein's unwavering belief that human tolerance and equality before the law, and the duty of any truth seeker to reveal his findings no matter where they lead. the circular floor of the memorial features an ast astronomical map showing much of the universe as it appeared on the date of the dedication in april 1979. which also coincided with einstein's 100th birthday. 30 years later visitor of all ages are drawn to the iconic figure of the grounds that the national academy of science. children especially enjoy
climbing into the lap of the scientific genius with a smile on the grandfather. >> before he won a pulitzer prize for his writing, ernest hemingway served as a spy for the united states during the second world war. coming up next, military and intelligence historian nicholas reynolds speaks at the international spy museum about the larger than previously acknowledged impact of hemingway's espionage during the war and his connection to the soviet union. this is about an hour and 20 minutes.
welcome back. it appears to be a lovely day. i think it's been a great series. [ applause ] >> thank you. and you're a great crowd, by the way. you're here and on time. we don't always have that. so this morning will be the last of our series, if you would be kind to our speaker, if you could turn off your cell phones. it can interfere with the amplification. one of the things that did come up today -- there were several inquiries at the back about our other programs and what we have at the museum. you can certainly put yourself on our e-mail list, get our e-mail blast. we put out a communique every three months on all the programs that are coming and that would include things like the smithsonian series. that's a good way to get early notification of what's upcoming and what you might want to attend. so we have this morning another celebrity spy.
celebrity spies are always controversial, because the way we use the term, either people who worked in intelligence and later became celebrities like julia child, or somebody who was, in fact, a celebrity and used that to conduct espionage like the ballplayer mo burr. hemmingway is a different kettle of fish, if i can say that. i must say at this point i don't have a good handle on hemmingway's intelligence activities, and i think speaker does and i think he has a surprising insight into hemmingway's -- some of his earlier activities and i'll leave that to nick to bring it to your attention. nick, by the way, is presently our speaker, dr. nick reynolds,
a ph.d. from oxford. he is presently, by the way, the historian for the museum of cia at the central intelligence agency, worked specifically on the history of oss, which they had done an exhibit on and he's still functioning there. he's taught at the naval war college. he's been in charge of history for the marine corps and has several books to his credit, one on marine operations in the second gulf war, and also he had done -- he has done a book on german resistance to hitler in world war ii, which is an interesting spectrum of interest. so we're delighted to have you here. we're very interested to hear about mr. hemmingway. so please help me welcome nick reynolds. [ applause ] >> thank you, party. peter.
and thank you all for coming out to hear my story. what i'm going talk about as peter told you is the hemingway family and intelligence in world war ii. my thesis is that the hemingway family was involved in intelligence to a greater extent than has previously been acknowledged. this was something that they liked to do and they, in this case is ernest himself and his brother lester and his son john or bumby, and they thought they were very good at it. i'm going to tell you that the results are a little bit of a mixed bag. i'm also going tell you that there were surprising players whose role hasn't been acknowledged and i would say it's a dramatic story, but there are not dramatic results. all right. by way of background, i think a
lot of you probably already know this, but i would like to cover it quickly and that's the oss, america's wartime intelligence agency that existed from 1942 to 1945. it was run by a gentleman named wild bill donovan. a republican lawyer and world war i hero from new york. while bill was not like all of the republican lawyers in new york, he had a pretty big tent and welcomed a lot of people into that tent from various persuasions. he started off with people like himself, a lot of rich and prominent people and then he brought in the best and the brightest. he brought in academics and he brought in adventurers and brought in artists so it was quite a crowd at the end of the day and oss, and the official name was the special services,
the office of strategic services is also known as oh so social or oh so socialist. ernest, by the way, as you'll come to see, could have squeaked in under oh so social or oh so socialist. so the first character when i was researching the subject for the cia museum i looked at the -- i looked for special stories and interesting stories of people associated with oss, and i came across the fact that hemingway's son jack was a member of oss and he's a fully paid up member of oss and not a celebrity spy and not much special treatment and he put on the uniform and submitted to the discipline. jack, some of you will know if you're a hemingway aficionado.
he's in a movable feast. he is mr. bumby and hemingway's firstborn, and that's what you see here. you see him in paris with hemmingway in 1925. grows up in france, learning french pretty well. learns his way around the french countryside. by the time of world war ii, he's taller than his dad. here you see him with his brothers. and he's draft age. he's in and out of college at the beginning of the war and eventually joins the army. no special treatment. he becomes an mp officer. it's probably not something that he would have picked. and he certainly would not have picked the mp battalion, in which he wound up, which was a battalion of black mps.
i don't think he was particularly racist, but this was not a coveted assignment. any way, he made the best of this. he went off to north africa with this group. it was mostly rear echelon work. so you're enforcing regulations, handing out speeding tickets, arresting people who are selling black market goods, that sort of thing. and bumby gets kind of antsy doing this kind of work. he figures there has to be more to war than enforcing these kinds of regulations, so he gets invited to a party, a highly social event in north africa at the home of a brit named duff cooper, and there he meets randolph churchill, that is winston's son. he was a handful for winston, fought dramatically with him on a lot of occasions, and has successfully worked his way into british special ones. he wasn't invited. he didn't get a set of orders. he just kind of showed up and said i'm winston churchill, i want to be a part of.
this goes on a long-range desert group and drops into occupied yugoslavia. to work with tito. so bumby hears this story and he thinks boy, this is sure an interesting way to spend your time during the war. i wonder if we have anything like this. so if you're an mp second lieutenant and you're looking to join the intelligence organization, nobody is going to help you. so he's pretty much on his own, there's no signs, there's no table of organization, and one day in algeria, he goes to a camp, he makes his rounds looking to enforce various regulations. and this camp is kind of nondescript, but it has a fabulous mess hall. the food is head and shoulders above any other u.s. army food. he says what's going on here? why is the food so good? they said, oh, well, this unit has a french chef. they do not have a u.s. army chef. he says how do you join?
he doesn't ask who are you? they said do you speak french? do you know your way around the french countryside? he says yes, you're in. it turns out that he has joined the oss. at this point in the war -- so this is the spring, summer of 1944. the oss is dropping people into europe, and bumby is giving a pretty stark choice. you can either go on the next mission which is a really exciting mission, and it was going to drop into the south of france. there's only one problem. we don't have time to train you to send you to jump school to be a parachutist before you go. do you mind going on the first jump of your life into combat? and the other choices, while you can wait, take the training and something will show up later on, he says no, no, i'll go now. so he hops into -- he gets on this mission and he has one
condition, a very hemmingway kind of condition. he won't go without his fly rod reel and tackle box. so there he is, loaded up for the war and he's got his fly road in one hand. there's a british dispatch officer who doesn't want to let him on the airplane with a fly rod. he says, no, in is communications, this isn't an oss antenna, cleverly disguised as a fly rod. the brits say off you go. he goes off, the bottom of a b-17, they cut a hole in the floor. he drops through, fly rod in one hand, himself in the other. first jump of his life into combat. he lowers -- he's got the fly road on a string, so he lowers it to the ground, so it won't hit along with him and possibly break. so jumper and fly rod are unscathed, and able to continue the mission.
the mission is basically -- it's a quintessential oss mission. it's to spy on the germans, to figure out what german units, what german fortifications are in the area, what strength and so forth. it's also to work with the french underground, to get them reading on the same sheet of music as the allied forces, not doing things that the allies -- that the uniformed allies are uncomfortable with. he does a pretty good job with this. he does take time off every so often to go fly fishing, another very hemmingway touch. on one occasion, he's fly fishing in a stream by himself and a german patrol comes by. he's wearing sort of a nondescript oss field uniform and really the only insignia on it is an american flag on one shoulder. lucky for him the germans
walking by see the other shoulder. they say something in german, not very complimentary, and laugh and walk on. bumby's luck does run out in the fall of 1944. he's in a firefight. he's severely wounded and he's captured. the germans treat him pretty well. they do realize he's a hemingway. in fact, he runs into the boyfriend of his former nanny from the period when he was growing up in europe. and spends the rest of the war in a p.o.w. camp, liberated in 1945, and then goes back to the states, gets evaluated. oss was very good about evaluating people, at least at the headquarters level. it was a little more sophisticated. so he gets interviewed by an officer who's making decisions about onboard assignments. bumby says i want to go to asia. the war is still going on there. let me have a crack at the
japanese. oss says okay, we'll get you ready for that. the evaluation officer writes that john hemingway has been through a lot. he's acquitted himself well, he's quite mature for his age. he's under 25. he has good social skills. he's not that old. he's a good operations officer. and then they add "not very reflective." so this was, if you think about the elements of this evaluation, it's really kind of -- by hemingway's family values, it's really a pretty good evaluation. ernest himself might have been happy to have it. some of you will remember that ernest was wounded in world war i and he was very reflective about it. it bothered him enormously for years. anyway, ernest was very proud of what bumby had done and bragged enormously about his service in oss.
now, to flesh out bumby's record, i went to the national archives. when i was a graduate student, i used to go out here, but now you've got go out to college park. there oss records are available for a researcher to look at, which is really a remarkable thing if you stop and think about it. what other intelligence service in a country that hasn't recently been conquered can you just go in and see virtually all the files? anyway, so i'm looking for bumby and ernest, but i stumble across lester, and that's ernest's brother. he is about 16 years younger than ernest. he's actually closer in age to bumby. and he's a chip off the old block. he's a survivalist. he goes out and lives in the woods by himself. he's a hunter, he's a fisherman. he's a boat builder, above all. he loves boating.
he builds a sailboat and then sails the caribbean in this boat with one other guy. really a kind of homemade outward bound trip. and then around 1939, britain is in the war, but the u.s. is not yet in the war, and he's down -- the hemingway family, ernest, is living in key west, with his second wife. there will be a quiz after this on ernest's wives. he's living with his second wife pauline in key west. he meets a british adventurer named anthony adkinson. he's looking for someone to go
with him to find nazis in the caribbean. so they put together -- ernest thinks this is not a bad idea and supports it. they get a sloop called the blue stream, and here we see ernest on the blue stream. here we see ernest on the blue stream. ernest is in the middle. lester is on the right. that's martha gelhorn, to be wife number three, not yet wife number three, with them on the boat. so they go off. the boat is outfitted. here's another shot of the same. when i first looked at this shot, it was much smaller and i thought only lester had an adult beverage. but in the blow-up here, you see that ernest and martha most probably also have adult beverages while they're outfitting this boat. so they cruise around the caribbean. they are looking for places
where nazi submarines might refuel and might have enlisted the inhabitants of the area and -- to run these places in stockpiles, oil supplies, whatnot. they think they've found a lot and they write various reports. one of the reports goes to the office of naval intelligence. another one gets disseminated in a highly secret publication known as "reader's digest." so at the end of the day here, you've got lester thinking that he's got a lot to offer in the field of intelligence. he goes, unbeknownst to his brother, he shows up here in washington and he tries to join oss. he walks in the front door, he talks about his adventure in the caribbean, he says i'm your guy, i can do this stuff. oss kind of likes him and they
evaluate him more or less independently of his brother, and say, you know, let's just look at lester on the merits, and he gets pretty -- the processing of the application is surprisingly like processing for the u.s. government now, and they fill out some of the same forms, same questions, security, background, medical exam, psychological exam and so forth. and at the end, they're ready to make lester a job offer. and then this big hand reaches up for cuba and the job offer goes poof, and as far as i can reconstruct, what happened was ernest thought that this was not a good idea. ernest made some phone calls. and then he wrote a couple of letters to lester and he criticized -- he's really pretty harsh on lester. he says, you know, what you did in the caribbean was good, but it wasn't that good. your navigation skills were good, but you didn't engage the enemy.
at one point, he also says it was 98% imagination and kid stuff, what you and tony did. oni, by the way, office of naval intelligence, to which he submitted his reports, agrees. and there's a scathing letter in his file from an admiral saying we know mr. hemingway and we are not impressed by his skills. so, poor lester is left in washington. as i say, ernest wanted him to stay and take care of his wife and kids. he's about 25, so only one wife and two kids, and he stays here in washington, at least until 1944, working at the fcc. all right, so now we're actually going to get to ernest's story, and this is the story that
pretty much takes all of the air out of the room. i think the stories -- i think bumby's story and lester's story are both great stories and that they both had a lot of adventure in the 1940s, more than many of us will ever experience in a lifetime, but ernest is going to go one better. nobody is going to beat ernest. he's going to have the most excellent adventure of anybody in the family, or in his social circle. and this is one that to a surprising extent is focused on intelligence operations in one way or another. and this is even though ernest doesn't take his own advice. he's married and has two wives and two kids, three if you count bumby, but two small kids to worry about. and it's also interesting to note for the hemingway buffs that for about a six-year period, he puts his writing career on hold, so he's off
doing these intel tasks and following the war, rather than sticking to his writing. so when we encounter ernest in the war, he is living in cue ball. cuba. he kind of switches places every time he changes wives. pauline is in key west, good gorgeous house. then he moves to -- takes up with martha and they move to cuba. martha arranges for him to buy and live in this gorgeous place which is ten or 15 miles outside havana. what do they -- here's a shot of martha. martha is said to have been a stunningly attractive woman. i don't think the pictures capture that. i think it was her presence that
made people say that. anyway, ernest liked her a lot. their relationship goes back to the spanish civil war. so what do they do in cuba? ernest, even though he didn't do a lot of writing in cuba, he still did a lot of reading in cue ball. cuba. you see him here with one of his books. another major hemingway pastime is drinking. and here's -- this is actually a post-war shot in havana showing them entertaining -- visiting big wigs. that's the fourth wife, by the way, at the end next to the bartender. when you're sober enough, you go fishing. and ernest, of course, is always looking to catch the biggest fish and literally and figuratively make the biggest splash. fishing occurs on this gorgeous
boat called the pelar, built in brooklyn, new york in the 1930s. ernest at this point is already quite well-off from his writings, so he has a boat built for himself. and here she is. she's quite something. ernest fancies himself the master mariner. here he is at the wheel. the gentleman on the right was the inspiration for the old man and the sea. ernest loves to go fishing with guns, not just rods. and there's all kinds of firearms -- this is even before the warm. all kinds of firearms on the pielar. this is probably the mid to late 30s and i think that's a thompson machine gun, though i can't tell because it's aiming straight at me. all right, so ernest has a remarkable circle of friends and
acquaintances in havana. he has barmen and prostitutes, sailors, hunters, writers, artists, high lie players, bullfighters, athletes of various other sorts and then some government officials and senior diplomats. they are actually kind of in a -- they're kind of a contingency category in ern east's life. ernest's default setting is not to like government officials of any kind, whether they're american government officials or foreign government officials, so when he first meets somebody and they say hi, i'm from the american embassy, ernest's attitude is to shake hands and be civil, but walk away. he will make exceptions when they prove themselves. this happens at the american embassy in havana.
the ambassador,ernest keeps wanting to go boxing with him. the ambassador is smart enough not to agree to go boxing with ernest. braden is -- he's my frame, roughly, 5'10", and he weighs 260 pounds, and yet he's said to have been very nimble on his feet and a great tango dancer. he's got a young man work for him named robert joyce, another yale graduate, another kind of unconventional guy for the foreign service. he believes in getting the mission done and doesn't worry that much about the form of the mission. so he goes around havana, he makes friends, he stays out late nights, he gets the kind of scoop that a good political officer needs to come up with. but he doesn't always show up at workti