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tv   [untitled]    May 28, 2012 1:00pm-1:30pm EDT

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successfully get themselves out of the envelopment, a fair number of them will find themselves skrendered including general prentice and will wall will be mortally wounded trying to lead his command to the north and left on the field as dead. >> you can watch this or other american history tv programs on the civil war at any time by visiting our website and watch programs on the civil war every saturday evening at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. eastern and sunday morning at 11:00 a.m. on c-span3. >> as the presidential campaign enters its final months and political parties prepare for their conventions american history tv will air the contenders featuring 14 key political figures who ran for president and lost but impacted american political history. we'll air the series every
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weekend from june 3rd to september 2nd on sundays all here at american history tv on c-span3 and join us as historians preview the series on saturday, june 2nd, at 10:00 a.m. eastern. welcome to world war ii battle of the pacific national monument. behind me is the museum. and my name is daniel martinez. chief historian with the national parks service here at pearl harbor. i want to show you the museum. this wall you're looking at a number of portraits of people that were here on december 7th. when the visitors come in here they get the idea of diversity,
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ages, branchs of service, male and female, but the question that's asked here is what happened to them. this map indicates the expansion up until 1941. it shows all the different countries that had interest in japan including strail, great britain, the netherlands, and the united states and the japanese. it shows the asian perimeter as it was before the war. and this was volatile to act out the stage of battle right here on december 7th, 1941.
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in order to show both sides of this, it shows the kind of the social structure of the united states, the political structure of the united states, and also the military structure of the united states. these are the newsreels that people watched in their theaters. this was their interpretation of the going crisis. this part of kpibs highlights
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the idea of espionage and code breaking. this machine here the purple decoder machine actually was scrambling the codes japanese had for their diplomatic mission. in fact, we were so good at this we were reading their diplomatic mail quicker than they were. this played a principal role. documents like this which is the war plan for the united states navy, wpl how the navy would conduct itself once the war started. it was believed by many that war would start somewhere out there not come out here to pearl harbor. on the morning of december 7th. that's exactly what happened. as you can see over here it was the entire island of oahu. this map shows the air defenses on oahu on 1941. this shows some of the army defenses prior to 1941.
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it was believed that the idea of attacking oahu would be impossible by any enemy. but the advance of aircraft and aircraft carriers made that a very probable prospect. we also have interactive exhibits like this one in which you can actually spin these dials, hit this button and then try to detect the japanese force coming in to oahu. in fact, in actuality, 230 miles of oa hurks then launched 350 aircraft towards the island. when you really think of it the audience that comes into this museum is this was the attack on oahu. i guess interpret for them that it wasn't just pearl harbor. but to look at oahu as a battlefield. also there was this change. the age of the battleship demonstrated by the uss arizona as she looked in 1941.
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these large shells you see standing side by side here is a 14-inch shell. this is the type of shell the arizona would fire and had a range of nearly 20 miles. some people want to guess the weight of this. if you combine the weight of a volkswagen beetle and combine it inside of here, that would be the weight of this shell. one of the key experiences of coming to this museum that's different than many is we have oral histories we recorded of not only of the american veterans but japanese veterans and all branchs of service. so one talks about what his life was like before the war. so this interactive exhibit is also handicap accessible. in fact, the entire museum is. we have a lower screen here and a higher screen. right here you see a man talking about his preparation for the attack on pearl harbor as a pilot. so you have this multiple perspective starting here and
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throughout the museum. >> this was about a little a couple minutes after 8:00, and he came out there. the next thing i remember i see tennessee. number two gun turret.
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i was never so scared. >> another thing we have, our these cast models that allow children to see the models in the case. we changed everything here this model has demonstrated.
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on the flight deck is the first airwa airwave. watching the first plane roar down and that is a man who will survive the war and later be converted to christianity became evangelical minister, wrote a back called from pearl harbor to golgotha. he is the key figure that you will see in the film tore ra, tore ra, tora. this exhibit shows the special weapons that were developed for the pearl harbor attack. the high level bomb. that first one you see hanging first in the row is the type of bomb that sank the arizona. it dropped from an altitude of 10,000 feet. it penetrated the deck of the
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arizona and exploded in magazine. but the weapon that was specially designed also for pearl harbor and in the words of admiral yam moto, the attack would have never taken place. that's this special torpedo with wooden fins which allows us to take it off and show the visitors how this attachment allowed this torpedo to run in 25 feet of water. without that it would plunge to a depth of 125 feet of water. couldn't be used at pearl harbor because pearl harbor is 45 feet deep.
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it's important to note that this invasion was probably one of the greatest invasions ever undertaken byny country at the outside of any war. if you look at japan on the map, you can see it's about the size of the state of california with a population of 70 million people. this incredible turn of events ensured ke feet for all the allied nations for nearly six months. it all turned at midway in june of 1942 in which is japanese navy lost four of their six carriers that they used at pearl harbor were sunk there and it was the turning point of the pacific war. this chart was found on one of the japanese submarines. and shows clearly how much information the japanese had about us. the primary designer of the as. and you'll see quotes from admiral kimmel.
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he was a commander in chief on pearl harbor. the quote here throughout the museum we use quotes of those who participated in the attack and by doing so we allow the visitor to weigh these instead of having opinion, we have the real words with the real people. this is state of mind japan. like the same exhibit, we have the news reels of japan that were filmed during the time and shown in their theaters. this is exactly what the japanese people saw in 1930 and 1931. >> a lot of japanese guests that
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come here have never seen this and quite taken because this is what people knew at that time. we show what life at home was like and the beginning of militarism in japan. moving away from democratic principals. this shows the other part of japan which is the poem of japan. this is a young girl with a little baby and this is a famous badminton type of game. we show the expansion and vision of japan's militaryists in expanding and occupying all of asia. over here a reminder of what we had in common. this is a picture from the baseball hall of fame of babe ruth in japan in 1934. that was taken in tokyo and at the bottom the caption reminds us that these young boys are the sailors and soldiers in 1941 and served in that capacity. this goes into the idea of a view from japan. the military build up and the
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invasion of china. these are the culminating facts that bring these two nations to conflict. this talks about the last efforts of peace and over here these oral history interviews talk about what they felt was coming prior to the attack and the possibility of attack. and so we kind of leave you hanging here but over on this side, something that's relatively unknown to most people this was a letter sent by president roosevelt by cablegram to the emperor of japan. it was an effort of our president to try to avoid the war he felt was coming. some of the most telling words of here is i address myself to your majesty at this moment in the further hope that your majesty may as i am doing give thought in this definite emergency to ways of dispelling
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the dark clouds. i am confident that both of us for the sake of the peoples not only our own great countries, but for the sake of humanity in neighboring territories have a sacred duty to restore traditional amicablity in the world. this was the last gesture of peace. this letter was never delivered to the emperor. it was interrupted by the mill tarrists in japan. perhaps had it gotten to him the possibilities of peace may have been there. but we'll never know. one of the untold stories about pearl harbor and the attack is what it did to the people of hawaii. the intervention of american forces into hawaii had its telling effect just at the turn of the century. but as the build up of the pacific fleet and army and air forces here in hawaii it became very evident to many of the people here that something big was brewing.
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some venture the idea are we good manying a target? more importantly is the culture of hawaii. this is a home to many peoples the hawaiian islands. this chart shows you the diversity of the people here. there was about 25% caucasian, spanish and portuguese. 37% were japanese. about 12% philippino. 15% hawaiian. 7% chinese and a small percentage of koreans. it shows you the asian diversity here. my family was here. my mother was part of this, my grandfather and my grandmother and they were here that day. they came here out of this great depression for new work. my grandfather worked for the federal -- as a federal navy worker he represented part of this diversity. one of the things about him living with his family that this land of hawaii with its many peoples was also a friendly land in which people got together and
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liked living together. that diversity was not a minus. it was a plus here in hawaii. this is the attack gallery. this is the second largest gallery we have. and what we wanted this gallery to do is take you from the drama of roosevelt's letter and take you right into the theater of war. every museum hopes to have an oh wow moment. ours is the beginning of the attack. why don't you come on in and see what we have for you to give you that moment of history. if you listen carefully you can hear the planes roaring overhead. come on in. right behind me is the dramatic paints by tom freeman. tom freeman's artwork depicts battleship row. if you listen closely at the next pass you can hear the
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torpedos dropping and splashing in the water. the japanese planes are beginning their assault on battleship row. you can see smoke coming up from wheeler field. the airfields have been reduced. air power in hawaii has ceased to exist 15 minutes ago. in the next 15 minutes the battle fleet will be crippled. this attack began at 7:55 at pearl harbor. ten or 12 minutes prior toe that at the airfield surrounding pearl harbor that were meant to protect it. in that moment the japanese have achieved surprise and are dropping these torpedos to slamming the side of these battleships. over here, you can see a miniature of that painting all done in braille so that a person with any sight impairment can feel the ships, feel the aircraft and read the names of the ships and what's happening
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here. but above us is something else. this is a 1/3 scale model of the japanese torpedo plane. if you come on over on this angle and look with me, you can see the crew with them looking out much the way the pearl harbor survivors talk about they can see the faces of the pilots and this 1/3 aircraft is about ready to launch its torpedo. so we're going to go into the next gallery. there's always something about pearl harbor that's interesting and that is of course the what ifs. on the morning of december 2nd, the destroyer was in the harbor sbans. this drawing depicts what happens. one of the five in the harbor entrance was detected. this crew from minnesota they
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were all neighboring reserve opened fire. this is their own quote. when the sub got in range of my gun, i trained out and aimed for the conning tower. it immediately started to go down. this group is known as the first shot crew, they fired the first shot of the pacific war in defense of pearl harr bar. while that was closing at 6:30 and a message sent into headquarters that they had fired on a submarine while that's trying to be sorted out, over here, this radar contact depicts what they saw at the site. privates elliot lockhart have picked up an june known group of planes the largest they've ever seen. this is what it looked like. it's not a blip. but rather, it's a spike. the taller the spike, the larger the target. right here is a chart that elliot and lockhart plotted
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which they don't know at the time is a japanese strike force. it was called into the information center. a brand new guy first day on the job was told that they have a large formation of planes from the north. sensing they are friendly planes b-17's from california he tells them not to worry about it. was he wrong? first of all, right off this chart would have been the b-17's flying parallel with the japanese strike force. he was told by an american bomber pilot if the radio was on past midnight that meant that a flight of aircraft were coming in from california. when he drove in that morning to the information center the radio was on. he thought he had picked up friendly planes. they indeed turned out to be the japanese strike force. this is what radar looked like
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in 1941. these are two mobile vans. this is the array picked up those kind of targets on the morning of december 7th. radar worked that morning. it didn't pick up the planes. it was the transmission of information. i like the thing what private lockhart said. if anything came out of this whole incident it was the recognition of the value of that congresswomen. up until that time the military thought radar was just a toy. in this room we have a film that documents the entire attack on pearl harbor. it is literally a tactical explanation of how the attack on pearl harbor took place. it lasts about 13 minutes. this is something that i and several others have worked on to give you the ultimate detail of how it happened and how it was done. in this case we have a number of recovered artifacts from ships and planes that were shot down
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or fired shells or even a flag carried in one of the fights. these pictures show for the first time the kind of death that occurred here were something that the survivors ask that we do. we wanted to show it in graphic detail in which they saw it. not to have it in any way be antiseptic. this case shows two dramatic items. this is the uniform of a pharmacy that waited and took care of those that were dying and those that were wounded. all the stains that you see here are from blood. from the men that he worked on. right here in this case is a clock that was taken from the arizona that stopped at 8:06, the very moment the magazines of the ship exploded. that is replicated in this
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dramatic photograph taken of the arizona after the explosion and the huge fire that erupted from its magazines. this ship literally burned out of control for nearly two and a half days. and even to this day still leaks oil, a drop every 20 to 30 seconds comes up from the arizona. we don't know how long it will last. some have estimated perhaps a hundred years. the ship now rests below the memorial will probably last 600 to 800 years. and this is a for the of the wreckage of the arizona. this is a large piece that was taken from the boat deck section which is depicted in this chart and this is one of the largest pieces of the arizona on display in this country. you can see here the oil how it caked on the side of the ship and still present. this is a depiction of hawaii and what the civilians did. what my family did during that
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really difficult time. gas masks were issued not only to adults, but children. this is a photograph of a young girl about the same age as my mother, 10 years old. in fact, she will be here for the december 7th commemoration. her name is dorin da nickelson. she wrote a book called "pearl harbor child." it gives a description of women that worked in the radar detection, those who worked in civil defense, those who went from being lay makers the camouflage net makers. the introduction of martial law changed everything in hawaii and changed the lifestyle of the people that lived here. these oral histories not only depict home front hawaii but they also depict life in japan. this was retrieved from the waters of pearl harbor in 1991.
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actually, we had the whole torpedo. this is the only recovery of the japanese torpedo that we know of. it was 18 feet long. because it was still live it had to be dell nated and we got this half of it. it is one of the most valuable artifacts. there was 40 torpedos dropped om two failed. this is one of them that failed. this japanese periscope is from one of the submarines that was captured here at pearl harbor. in fact, only one of these were captured thachs on the coastline. over on what we call the chi lieu ya side of oahu it was near bellows beach. it toured the country. it was used to raise war bonds. part of this story is the effort to galvanize the american public to raise money, to show that not only did they buy war stamps but they had songs like let's
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remember pearl harbor, praise the lord and pass the ammunition. you could buy those songs. stickers to put on your song, remember pearl harbor. and posters like this one which is americanos todos. this is americans all, let's fight for victory. this is actually benefitting my racial background which is mexican american. mexican americans are called upon to join the military and support the united states in the great war effort. so this is all part of the story, but the darker side of the story is over here. and that is the loyalty question of japanese americans during the war. a goods friend of miep was a principal and this was the quote, you are not an american citizen. you are a jap. that word i cannot forget during my lifetime not a citizen,
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although you were born in hawaii, you're a jap. and so it was a very difficult period in the united states history. these young men you see here were volunteers from hawaii that joined the four-four-two. somewhere athere is senator daniel noaw. he lost his arm in the war. we had an internment camp. on the west coast there were great camps of japanese american citizens taken from their homes and placed in camps in california. this is a difficult part of this history for a lot of people and for particular japanese americans that hi here in hawaii. they have these young men to look back on the most decorated regiment in world war ii. these veterans are now the ones still alive in their late 80s
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and early 90 stz. were leently given a gold congressional medal of service in washington. this story still continues. >> ladies and gentlemen, please remain seating for the unveiling of the gold medal. >> this is the arizona as she is today. this model depicts her resting on


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