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tv   Politics Public Policy Today  CSPAN  October 17, 2014 1:00pm-3:01pm EDT

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to say something. it's okay. you are not going to get in trouble. they have to remember that. >> we have two -- i guess -- i don't care which goes first. you have a card? >> i do have a card. i have a question have social media. it's a question we posed to social media is how can we empower youth for change in. >> i know have i been hogging the mike. really, to empower youth, you have to inspire them. you have to give them a story they can relate to. because if they can't relate to something, then they're not going to care. if they don't see that bullying is one-third of the population of all students in the school, then they're not going to care. they have to be touched personally by it. i know that when i talked to people on my school, i go, i'm
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bullied. i have been bullied. i know what it's like. it's not cool. you need to stop. telling them your personal story or personal story and making them realize it's real makes them want to do something about it. >> i know i talk a lot. i'm sorry. the thing that i would say is get youth involved with some kind of youth development organization like one of the best in the world 4-h. we do a lot -- you can tell i love 4-h very much. we do a lot with bullying prevention. we do a lot with preventing the bad stuff and promoting good stuff. our biggest motto to make the best bester. that's what we do. that's what we live by. that's my biggest thing. we have mentor programs. it mentors youth into a better living. those programs are designed for kids in troubled lives, kids that are being bullied. that is what 4-h is all about is making the best better.
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getting people from the bad feeling part or -- i'm not sure if i'm looking for the right word. the lowest thing up to a great organization, up to a great feeling. >> i just want to elaborate -- you would think i would remember his name -- they said about not only to inspire but get them involved with other things. i feel like if they had hobbies and they were with our positive youth, they would not only feel bert about themselves but want to make a difference. because they have been there and they want to change someone's life because they know what it feels like. >> should we go on? >> sure. >> first of all, thank you for sharing your stories and all you are doing. i have a question because all of you are -- i didn't hear your ages. could you share your ages quickly? >> i am 18. >> i am 16.
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>> 17. >> 16. >> great. thank you. that's not my question really though. my question really has to do with how much responsibility you feel comfortable taking on as children helping other kids who have been bullied. i'm just wondering when you are hearing these stories, for example, for madison and with -- you are getting e-mails from people and you are hearing horrific things, when do you know or what do do you when you -- what is your decision making around what you take on and what you don't take on? and how do you help children reach out to perhaps trusted adults? >> thank you for bringing that up. actually, when we start any session with my group, we establish that we are require by pg county that if there's anything we need to report, we have to report it. we also have five basic rules, respect, honesty, what is said
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at support group will stay at support group, if you want to talk about it outside of that, it's on your terms, do what you are comfortable with. we have certain rules that there will be no discrimination. but at the same time we have to tell them that if it's serious, if someone has been throwing you against lockers and you know their name, we need to report it. we have a sponsor who -- he is an amazing person. he has helped me with my bullying experience where i came to a session crying because people had been harassing me all day. he was like, did the teacher do anything? and i told him, no, he didn't do much. so he went right up to the teacher, got the student's name and reported him. and a few weeks later i got pulled into the office and the administration was like, what happened? what's his name? we will take care of it. so we do have things that we report, and we have a teacher there who monitors that.
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>> thank you. >> we have one more question. this should be our last one. right? >> i will wrap it up with a comment. okay? since you were all so great during the panel and the sessions. world needs heros. every one of you is a hero because you have told your story. you are helping others. that's part of this. i have said for years that it's the student equation of this that is going to help us and move this forward. you are proving that. years ago when we said crazy things about involving students and community activity, it wasn't seen as the thing to be done. now it's commonplace. what i will give you -- ask to you do is go back to your schools and dream big. don't let anyone ever tell you something cannot be done. think outside that box or even better, throw that box away. come up with your own ideas of what works with you, what's
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going to engage your counterparts. because you are really the future of this movement. in time, we're going to have to follow your lead. you guys are great for being here. i wanted to step up and say thank you. [ applause ] >> thank you to all of you. appreciate it all. and to all of you who have participated, thank you so much. [ applause ] c-span's campaign 2014 coverage continues tonight with the wisconsin governor's debate between scott walker and mary burke. here is recent campaign ads.
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>> mary burke lied about her jobs plan. turns out, it was plagiarized. now she's at it again, attacking scott walker's record on jobs. attacks they say are false. she's twisting the numbers. it's not the first time. the truth, in the last year, wisconsin ranked third in midwest job growth. the facts are, wisconsin gained 100,000 jobs under scott walker. and we can't trust mary burke. >> he made a pledge. >> 250,000 new jobs by the end of our first term in office. >> and asked us to hold him to it. >> is this a campaign promise, something you want to be held to? >> absolutely. >> today wisconsin is dead last in midwest job growth. tenth out of ten. >> wisconsin lag s behind most f the country when it comes to job growth. >> those 250,000 jobs, not even close.
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broken promises, dead last in jobs. scott walker's not working for you. >> it's been called the lie of the year. >> if you like your healthcare plan, you can keep your healthcare plan. >> and mary burke supports it. is there. >> it doesn't mean the government will tell you which doctors to go to or which plan to have. >> while millions have lost their doctors and their plans, mary burke says she still supports obamacare. and wants to expand it. wisconsin can't afford madison liberal masry burke. >> you know who had a good idea about taxes, ronald reagan. surprised you didn't i. reagan expanded the earned income tax credit cutting taxes for working families. you know who had a bad idea? governor walker. he did just the opposite. cutting taxes for the wealthiest and raising them on 140,000 wisconsin families. raising income taxes on working
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families isn't just bad economics, it's wrong. >> mary burke, governor. sg >> recent polling listed this as a toss-up. >> tomorrow on "washington journal "ron waldman looks at how groups are helping to fight the ebola outbreak. the c-span cities tour takes book tv and american history tv on the road traveling to u.s. cities to learn about their history and literary life.
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this week we went to green bay, wisconsin. >> wisconsin is america's dairy land because we make the most cheese but also the best. the industry developed in wisconsin from what was homestead cheese where -- each family made cheese for their own use. it was recognized that we had an ideal environment for raising dairy cattle. cheese was really just a way to take that product, the milk before refrigeration would only last about three days. if you make cheese into it, cheddar cheese can last for a decade. this was late 1880s when the industry got started in wisconsin. generally, farmers in the neighborhood would form a cooperative. they would build a cheese factory and they would hire a cheese maker. the cheese maker would work for the cooperative on shares. the cheese makers tended to move
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around a lot. there were thousands of them. in 1930, over 2,000 cheese plants in wisconsin. as transportation and the road system improved, there was consolidation among the smaller plants. that continued up until about 1990 when there were only about 200 cheese factories in wisconsin. >> watch all of our events from green bay saturday at noon on c-span2. this is the final portion of the national bullying prevention summit focusing on the issue of cyber bullying. according to a 2011 study, 16% of high school students experience bullying online each year. it's part of an effort by the federal government to create a national strategy to address the problem. this is about 50 minutes.
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>> hi, everyone. thank you so much, sarah. i amo co-director of connect safely. i'm a longtime blogger, since before there were blogs. i'm in awe of those young people -- i'm sure you are, too. what really struck me about them and what struck me about the youth advisory board of the born this way foundation, when we heard their stories, too, is the courage to heal others while you heal yourself. you know, we're not linear anymore. so that's kind of a remarkable act of courage, i feel, to just get out there and heal. so i would like to tell two quick stories that represent milestones for me in working the problem of social cruelty in social media over the past eight to ten years.
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including three national task forces drawing from the work of so many people here. first i will tell one on my friend justin, professor and co-founder of the cyber bullying research center. justin gives a lot of talks. he tells of how when he gives talks to students he asks them to shout out what they think is the percentage of teens who have cyber bullied someone. he typically gets someone shouting out 60 or 70%. when he tells them only about 10% to 12% of teens have cyber bullied someone in the past 30 daz days, they are surprised. they have been believing the worst. that's perception is based on misinformation they have been getting. that's not good. it's sad, in fact. how many of you are parents? how many? yeah. like most of us, right?
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it's not only that young people deserve to hear the truth about themselves and their peers, they need to know the facts. because the social norms research shows our behavior tends to conform to our perception of what the behavioral norms are. i'm thinking of a three-year study in sixth in nj mew jersey middle schools. a sur fvey in each school each year finding that -- and then disseminated throughout the school through a poster campaign and other forms of communication. in every case when students internalize the fact that most kids are good to one another, most of the time, bullying went down even more. so the facts. cyber bullying has gone down according to the data released in june by the centers for disease control, between 2011
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and 2013, it's gone down a little. about 1.5 percentage points. not a lot. but it's not up. the cdc found that 14.8% of students had been electronically bullied in the past 12 months. the 12 months prior to the survey. 85.2% had not been. a huge majority of young people had not been cyber bullied in the past year. as the professor found, the norm is positive, protective behaviors. so if we want cyber bullying to go down, for the most part, you know, pretty quickly we need to start telling the truth about what's really going on. as mark said this morning, children are wired for good. and i will add they need to know that. we need to tell them that.
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so the other story is even shorter. but a milestone for me. back in late 2011, social media researcher dana boyd asked us to help ground the about to launch born this way in solid research about bullying. so sue swear, lisa jones, mia doches and i formed a curriculum working group. as we went through our process of synthesizing the research to date and developing materials, i realized that what had emerged was that the major part -- the lion's share of bullying prevention is social emotional learning. we have got to get skills like learning self-management, self-awareness, social awareness, relationship skills
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and responsible decision making into america's schools. if we do, we can go farther than we have gone in bringing down social cruelty as well as improve school climate and support all the other learning that happened in school. i'm convinced every child deserves this. so that's a really good segue to introducing you to my panelists who are helping to reduce social kreel cruelty in their own ways. my first panelist is emily vacher who is head of global safety at facebook. a role that has her working with government representatives, child safety organizations and researchers to ensure that facebook products and policies reflect child safety priorities. emily is also responsible for evaluating proposed child safety laws and regulations and analyzing new products and
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technologies from a child safety perspective. then before joining facebook in 2011, she was a special agent with the fbi in the child protection area. she holds m.s. and jd degrees from syracuse and a b.s. from cornell. she went from there into private practice in new york city. that was her first job. then mrinalini is at yale. she also works with the yale center for emotional intelligence. her research focuses on the developmental impact of interpersonal violence and aggression among adolescents. the prevention of interpersonal violence and the promotion of positive youth development. she brings those interests to a collaborative project with facebook that she will talk about shortly. she holds b.a. and m.a. degrees
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from ferguson college and earned her m.s. and ph.d. in illinois. because psychologist researcher and author stan davis said youth is what works best, we have a student leader on our panel. will ashe just graduated from thomas jefferson high school. congratulations. he was a member of school and county student government. he advised the school board, which is amazing. and he served as the student representative to the fairfax county school board. in a few weeks he will attend the university of virginia. this past february, he served on a panel of student leaders from around the country at the safer internet day event held here in washington by the non-profit organization i co-direct.
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i'm going to hand off to emily. in between talks maybe we will try to get a little conversation going. here is emily. [ applause ] >> thank you. thank you, everybody. i know it's later in the afternoon. we're excited to be here to talk about some of the things that we're doing at facebook to make our platform safer. one of those pieces is research. after hearing from the students today, we can't emphasize enough how much we need to listen to our youth when we're making decisions that will directly impact them. i'm going to talk a little bit about what we do at facebook to make our platform safer. the way that i think about it, i break it down into four categories here. we look at policies that are going to make people safer. we build products and tools that do the same. but education and partnerships are so critical to our success
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in this area. i'm going to show you a come of examples. the first one i'm going to show you here -- we will talk about our policies. we have a set of community standards. we refer to it as our statement of rights and responsibilities. the first one that i want to mention here, one of the things we don't allow is self-harm. as our standard says here, facebook takes threats of self-harm seriously. we remove any promotion of self-mutilation, eating disorder or hard drug use. this is a policy we decided this is not the kind of material that we want to appear on facebook. when we learn of this or somebody reports this to us, we will take steps to remove that content. that's a policy in place to help keep people safer on facebook. related to this we have created tools. we have a flow where if somebody sees somebody else making statements, suicidal threats or
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any other information that would seem that this person is engaging in self-harm, we make a simple way for people to report that directly to facebook. if you see something on facebook, you done even necessarily need to know the person who is saying this. you may just see this from a random person on facebook. we make it very simple for you to report this. what's important about this is when you report it, we're going to send information to that person. we're never going to disclose who made the report. we will say somebody is concerned about you. from what you have heard today, when somebody says that somebody else is concerned about them, that's a really big deal. that could be a life changing moment. not only do we provide materials for the person in need, things like resources on how to speak with a suicide prevention hotline, or maybe printed resources, on maybe if the person who makes statement is veteran, we will direct them to resources specifically for veterans who are in need. this tool that we have designed
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in conjunction with our policy is something that makes our platform safer. missed a slide here. hold on. okay. we're not experts at everything at facebook. what's really important is that we partner ourselves with those who are experts. for example, at facebook we have a safety advisory board. one of the groups i do a lot of work with is the national network to end domestic violence. i'm not an expert in that area. i don't know what kind of resources are going to be most needed by survivors of domestic violence. in our pairing, we will put together educational materials, things like one pagers or guides, information for victims -- survivors of dose mess tick violence, learning how to use facebook safely is important. learning how to use privacy settings, learning how to talk to your kids about what is appropriate to put on facebook is really important.
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pairing with these organizations has changed everything for us. we learned so deeply about each population, whether it's gay lesbian, transgender, whether it's victims and survivors of domestic disorders, eating disorders, we learn as much as we can so we can put that into practice. along with the tools that we develop, the policy that we develop in the area of self-harm, we also put together a great deal of educational material that's available to everybody who uses facebook. in the area of self-harm, we don't allow certain expressions of self-harm. we provide a tool where people can report it and get help. we have paired ourselves with the right organizations for people who are experts in suicide prevention. we have provided educational materials to our users. that's one example of a life cycle of all the resources for one issue.
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the issue that we're here today to talk about, bullying -- cyber bullying. the jury is still kind of out. some people are in the camp where they don't like to use the word cyber bullying. bullying is bullying. what we're doing at facebook is we are pairing ourselves with the experts in this area. one of those in the house today, dr. brakman, on social resolution. we aren't experts in this area. we found the experts. what the experts are helping us do is make our platform safer for kids. i'm going to show you how this wo works today. we have two different flows. obviously, adults are different than teens. they use different language. they have different needs. here is an example. i make a comment on my friend rita's facebook page, because i'm having a bad day. maybe she said something to me
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that didn't make me feel very happy. so i post on her wall, stop being so annoying. when rita receives this message, this didn't make her feel good. she wasn't happy about this interaction. so what can she do? next to every single piece of content you see on facebook, whether that's a picture, whether that's a post, you will see -- we call it a chevron, a down arrow. you can click on that. you can report every piece of content that you see on facebook. when she clicks on that there, you see at bottom where it says i don't like this post? that's the first place that you can go when you see something that affects you in a way that is not a positive experience. when she clicks that, we then follow up with, why don't you want to see this? it's annoying or not interesting, i think it shouldn't be on facebook. for example, if you saw an image of self-harm or you saw some
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hate speech, something else that's against our terms that you don't think should be on facebook, this is how you would report it. in this case, she checked it's about me and i don't like it. why doesn't she like it? you can see here, we're choosing words. this is because of the research done by yale. instead of just having a button that says report, we want to get to the bottom of why is this content, bothering, harassing or disturbing someone else. we want to get to the bottom. we do that by asking the appropriate questions. in a majority of the cases, when somebody sees something on facebook that they don't like that relates to them, they are actually friends with that person. how many times have you gone out, you take a group picture. when you take the group picture, who do you focus on before you post the picture? you are usually making sure you look pretty good. but you may not be focusing on
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everybody else in the picture. so you post the picture. you think you look great. you think it's a fun picture. what you might not realize at the time is somebody might not be feeling great about the way that they look in the picture. this is a friend of yours. when you see this, is your first instinct to hit a report button and report this person to facebook? probably not. what's so wonderful about social resolution is that it encourages conversations. when it comes down to it, safety is about a conversation. if you are not talking with kids, you are not talking with each other, we're not going to be safe. that's what this is all about. once she checks that, what we do is we give her all of the options that she has on facebook. she could ask me to take it down. she could reach out to somebody to help her start that conversation if she doesn't feel comfortable reaching out
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directly to me. certainly, she can unfriend me on facebook so we would no longer be friends. she could choose to block me on facebook. when you block somebody, they can't see you and you can't see them. in some cases that may resolve the problem. although, when you talk about friends or schoolmates, you know who the person is. even if you block them today, you may see them in school tomorrow. it may not be an adequate solution. what the solution really is is to communicate. she can also submit a report to facebook. in a lot of these cases, like the one i mentioned before, if you have a bad hair day and somebody posts that photo, that's not going to violate our terms of service. maying a report to facebook would be a frustrating experience for that person because we would say, that's not a violation. we're not going to take that down. with social resolution, what it does is it encourages a conversation between the person who posted it and the person who isn't feeling great about it. that's where we see a lot success.
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when you reach out to a friend, it's one of the unique things about social resolution. if she doesn't feel comfortable reaching out directly to me, what she can do is draw in a trusted third party into this conversation. so i may have a mutual friend. i may have a counselor. i may have somebody who knows her really well. you can just put their name in the to line. you can write what you want. it will also include the content so that there's some context to this. maybe that person can encourage a conversation. like i said, you can unfriend, of course, or submit a report to facebook. that's the social resolution flow for adults. for teens it's a little different. it's different because of the work that yale has been doing. what's happening in this post? it's threatening. it's being used to constantly bother me, to be disrespectful,
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create a rumor, something else. these are words that teens are using to describe their experiences. if we just said here what do you want to do with this content, report or not report, it would not encourage any conversations. that's the problem. so it's a rumor about me. how does this make you feel? angry, sad, embarrassed, afraid, none of these. these are all the emotions that people are feeling when they see this content on facebook. it's important for us to figure out what it is that this content is making them feel in order to help them best resolve it. then on the scale, how is this making you feel from barely embarrassed to extremely, you can message the person. what this does is it actually helps start the conversation. yale helped us come up with the appropriate language that's prefilled. kids can change it if they want
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to change it however they want, that's fine. but sometimes the conversation starters are the hardest things. by giving them this information, we encourage them to have this conversation and, two, to deal with the situation. then we let them know that their message has been sent success l successfully and that we are sorry they have had this experience on facebook. about 3.9 million people a week are using social resolution. in 85% of those cases, a conversation is started because of the use of this tool. that is critical to the development and to the satisfaction that kids are having with their experience on facebook. if they can resolve their own problems, think how empowering that is and not just saying, i want to make a report.
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they're saying, i want to resolve the situation and this tool encourages them to do so. as i mentioned before, one of the important things that we have is educational materials. we have a bullying prevention hub that's new to facebook. we have content that is designed specifically for teachers, for counselors. we have resources for parents, for teens, for teachers. we have great conversation starters. tips for creating an action plan. tools and options to help you resolve situations. resource guides. if you can't see at the bottom there, the url we have, that will take you to our safety center. if you add/bullying/educators, that will take you to materials we have developed specifically for educators.
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we have created a safety guide in our safety center and then a guide specifically for teachers and community leaders, publically available right on our website., we have resources right here. parents, teens, teachers, we talk about our safety philosophy, our community and the tools and resources that we have developed to have people have the most positive experiences that they can on facebook. why do we do this? at the end of the day, we think about all these kids who have had to navigate really tough situations. a lot of these have had tragic outcomes. as ann said, bull lying is not prevalent as reported in media. but when it does happen, it's very serious. it's something that we take very
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seriously. we're very invested in figuring out how to get the most appropriate resources to the right people at the right time to help them resolve their conflicts. i am going to pass this over. we're going to talk about the research that's done at yale and the work they have done to help us, the why behind the decisions that we have made when we have creat creat created the flows. thank you for your time. [ applause ] >> one of the things i'm hearing is that facebook, through the social resolution process, is actually teaching sel. absolutely. we have heard often times there are some policy makers or legislato
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legislators, some of them want us to put a big red flashing report button on every page at facebook. research is showing -- we will talk about that in a minute, is that will not encourage people to make reports. kids, like we heard in the last panel, they don't want to be seen as snitches or especially telling on people when these people are their friends. we needed to come up with another way to help them resolve their issues. social resolution is our solution at facebook to encourage these conversations. >> now we will find out a little bit about the research behind all this. >> thank you. good afternoon, everyone. i'm excited to be sharing some of our findings from the collaboration with facebook. as we all know, technology and the internet is changing the way
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adolescence is navigated and experienc experienced. teens today have never really known -- teens in the u.s. have not known a world without computers and the internet and smart phones and social networking sites. so these are really becoming developmental context in which typical tasks of adolescents are explored. one of the key tasks is positive peer relations. facebook offers teens and other social networking sites offer teens an opportunity to explore peer relations. they can connect, interact. they can explore any of the social -- where they fit in the social world. healthy relationships don't come to us naturally. few of us have had a sophisticated education in social and emotional skills. much like their experiences offline, teenagers online are navigating complicated
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interpersonal interactions. much like our attempts at addressing bullying offline, teaching teens social and emotional skills in online spaces seems like a good first step in addressing cyber bullying. keeping this in mind, our team at facebook, the compassion team and our team at yale at the yale center for emotional int intelligence worked together first to understand the kinds of unwanted experiences that teens have on a site like facebook and then to develop tools and resources for them to learn to manage these experiences appropriately. they used psychological science to meet teens where they were developally. for example, we used language that teens use in their every day lives rather than use the word report, they say i don't
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want to see this. we also wanted to make sure that the resolution process was move like a conversation so that teens felt heard and so they were able to focus on their experience and understanding what was going on so they could take an appropriate action. we integrated emotional intelligence skills such as identifying their emotion, which we know is the first step in corrective appraisal of a situation to take an appropriate action that is meaningful to you and the other person. we also provided ways for teens to take positive actions. we gave them guidelines to what they could do based on what they told us what happened and how they felt. we also created the prefilled messages that sort of model for teens how to pro actively and positively address conflict with their peers. then we also worked on the bullying hub, or the center that emily showed us where we
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provided resources in this process of keeping kids safe online. all of this resulted in the social resolution flows that manically showed us. i'm going to go through them quickly. we first, as she said, offer teens an option to tell us what is happening. then to tell us how they feel about the post and how much, and then we give them options. the purpose is to move kids away from the emotional reaction that they have and move them to a cognitive space where they think critically about what happened and how they are reacting and how that might affect everyone in their social group. what i want to do is show a bit of what we learned from how teens have been using these tools. the first thing that we found --
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let me set the stage. we then collected data of about 50 days of teens using these tools. all teens in the u.s. see these flows. of the billions of pieces of content, we found that about 17.5 million pieces of content were -- teens clicked on i don't want to see this about 17.5 million times. we started with, who are the kids who are in the study? we found it's predominantly girls and older girls. they were represented in people who were using the tools but also they were more represented in the people creating the content that these tools were used for. we then wanted to look at what was being made. you can do many things. you can post a picture. you can post a status update, which is to give a general announcement to everyone in the
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community. or you can say something particular to someone. it's almost in a public space, because even if i write it on that person's page, it's promoted on other people's news feed, for example. different pieces -- different types of content are likely to elicit different reactions. it's clear to understand what is being said in text. you may not understand the intenti intention. photos are more am bbiguous. we were interested if different things had different impacts. we found 60% of the content that teens were creating on their pages were photos and about 40% were text. we then asked kids why they don't want to see this. why are you managing this content on your page?
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and the first thing we noticed was that most kids want to hide the content. of the 17.5 that clicked on i don't want to see this, 900,000, 5%, used the resolution tools provided for them. we provide them with all the options and we found that annoying was the most common reason that teens were creating content. they were annoyed. they didn't want to see it. they click i don't want to see it and they hid it. they were reporting inappropriate for facebook. they thought it violated terms of service. bullying was about 6% of all content that was stated for which we had the reason. of the teens who clicked i don't want to see this and then entered the resolution flow, about 6% were telling us that they felt that someone was bothering or bullying them. we also can see the photos and text are differently
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represented, but both of them are evident in why teens are reporting content. or hiding content. if a teen clicks someone is bothering or bullying me, we ask them what is happening. you can see what that says. so the first one is pestering. the second is mean. someone is being mean to me. the third one is someone is spreading a rumor about me. the fourth one is feeling that they were being threatened. the fifth one is something else. we found that most teens felt someone was being mean to them on facebook. that's why they were telling us they felt like someone was bothering or bullying they were. there were gender differences in this. boys felt they were being pestered more so than girls. you can see that photos and texts are similarly represented. even though photos it may not be so explicit, they can be used to create similar negative experiences as the text content.
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when they told us they were being bullied and what was happening, we wanted to know how it made them feel. as you can see, being angry and feeling embarrassed were most represented. that makes sense. for photos more embarrassed than text. you may not really want that online, but you may feel someone posted that intentionally. photos and text are creating different sorts of reactions but also covering the range of emotions. we found that boys reported being angry more so than girls. girls reported feeling sad more so than boys. that reflects online samples and larger gender socialization norms about what emotions are appropriate to be expressied. it's reflecting offline behavior as well. the larger message is that feeling bullied on a space like facebook elicits a wide range of
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emotions. it varies by what you think is happening and who you are, your gender and your age. the idea for standard solution by some broader system like facebook or schools may not be sufficient. each child is interpreting these experiences differently. so moving towards providing skills with a social and emotional regulation skill to navigate the experiences might be a more appropriate or meaningful response. having said all that, what happens next? what do teens do when they are provided with these tools? as i said earlier, they are provided with a range of options often based on what they told us. they can message the person who created the content using the prefilled messages that we provided. they can get help from someone they trust. they can unfriend the person.
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one option is unfollow. you are not unfriended but you don't actively see their content. in addition to this you can submit a t to facebook if you think this is not appropriate for the site. as we said earlier, most teens seem to go through this and then just be happen my with hiding. only about 14% message. but 14% are taking the risk to reach out to someone and say, hey, that post was embarrassing, would you please take it down? previously the default was almost to unfriend. that's not what we want. we don't want kids to just stop interacting with someone if they just -- if they don't like what they're doing. now we find that when given the tools and the opportunity, only 0.6% choose to unfriend. when they are giving a choice, they seem to rather maintain the relationship or message the person but not as many are ending their relationships with their peers. we found that the kinds of
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experiences influence the decisions. if someone felt someone is being mean, they were most likely to message the other person. if they felt embarrassed, they were comfortable messages. if they felt angry, they were less likely to message, which is fine. we don't want angry messages going back and forth. if they were afraid, they were the least likely. it seems unlikely you would reach out to a person who is making you feel afraid. with unfriend, there was similar things. if you felt sad or embarrassed, you were most likely to unfriend the person. who created the content. to summarize, most of the teens that have been using these tools want to hide the content that sun wanted to them. about 4% of teens who tell us what is going on are saying it's because of bullying. even if these numbers are small, it's really important that we
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support the i cans and give them the emotional support and the resources to learn to navigate these experiences. we find that girls, more so than boys, are active in the spaces. pictures more so than text seem to be created by the teens. there's a range of emotions that are elicited by these experiences. these vary by teens' interpretations and the emotional reactions they have. we find teens seem to want to resolve things. they are not interested in ending relationships. they are finding ways. and if you provide them with tools and the support, they seem to be taking them. in conclusion, it seems that technology offers teens both opportunities and challenges. rather than restrict how teens use this technology, it seems more valuable to teach them the skills and equip them to
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navigate the spaces in positive and healthy way. that's largely what this work is. this is a first step in that direction. in addition to these flows, we have also -- flows since we have our website more clearly, i thought i would show this. we have the resource at the bully prevention center. if they want to learn more, they can go there, learn to start a conversation with with their friend. if a parent feels something is happening with their child they can learn how to talk to their children about these difficult experiences. i would encourage you to use some of the resources. a lot of hard work has gone into them. we think they are really great. so, yes, that's been our work so far. we are excited to see what happens next. thank you. [ applause ] >> oh, sorry. i will now pass it off to will. >> wow, the time has gone fast
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as you said it would, ing rid. a quick question while will is setting up. what i'm hearing is that social resolution is a meta moment. it's kind of a chance giving young people a chance to work through what's going on in their heads. so if very few take this opportunity -- correct -- a fairly low percentage go through the process. we need se l education more than ever, right? they have a chance to think things through is what i'm hearing. >> it's a really good thing. if something happens there is not much time to think about what's going on. we can walk them through the
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steps in a more popular way. some things that are disadvantages of technology can be turned around and used in a positive way. now we can get them what we want and need them to do. we can make more informed choices. >> thank you. >> please go ahead. >> first off, thanks to ann and ingrid for asking me to speak today. i will try to give a view of what digital bullying looks like in the life of a high schooler. i just graduated from high school this june. i represented 184,000 students to the school board. i made an active effort to taken an interest in the online happenings of schools so i could represent my constituents at board meetings and other meetings throughout the school year. for me personally during middle school there were three or four
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bullies and bystanders. these guys laughed at me and bothered me but didn't care enough to take it online. so some days were a little miserable, but all in all it could have been even worse, had they chosen to extend it to the online arena. i had a form spring page at the time where people could anonymously ask questions. but the worst thing i ever got was an awkward question about middle school crushes. so all in all, not too bad. for me personally. but i have also had the experience of watching others -- my friends at my school and other schools around the county go through cyber bullying and various consequences of it. generally the fundamental problem with kids in the
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internet is they feel a new sense of control when you open up this great tool to them. they can create a fake e-mail and suddenly become someone else. when existing social pressures against bullying we have managed to establish in society today disappear under anonymity or false identities. students will likely not be held accountable for what they say with fake personas. some use it as an opportunity to bring others down. one common site is ask fm which solicits anonymous questions for a specific person. you make your page and people can ask you questions. this isn't intentionally malicious. but kids under the guise of anonymity feel the sense of power where they can just ask whatever they want. they don't have to be questions.
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they can just make mean statement thes. one friend of mine put out her page and got a particularly nasty remark saying she should have gone with her father who had passed away five years earlier. she managed to shrug it off with a strong response. which is incredible. i don't think i could have done the same in her position. but not everyone can. some people -- you don't have to post every comment. but at the same time the kid is still seeing the comment and it does emotional damage. >> however, what i found interesting is upon seeing that comment, others under the guise of anonymity posted supporting my friend and actually calling out the bully saying the things they were saying were ridiculous. more people did this -- significantly more -- than had
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done any bullying on her page so far. >> so in a way anonymity helped there. because people felt they could stand up for the person because they could do it under the veil of anonymity? >> yeah. they didn't have to attach their social reputation. it's not like they were standing, watching it happen in person in front of them. instead they didn't have to risk a social reputation being bullied. they could anonymously stand up. on twitter and facebook, for instance, people can create accounts without their names, pages or even fake accounts with fake e-mails instead of putting in an actual name. you put in something random. so these pages can range in intents. one nasty one was a county-wide confessions page. but instead of being confessions it ended up being county-wide
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gos sip gossip. students would anonymously post to a google forum and then whoever was running the page would take the answers from the google form and just post them as messages. it became an anonymous forum to post about anyone or anything. didn't have to be true. it wasn't vetted by anyone. it broadcasted to a county-wide audience. people were seeing, didn't know who they were, who these people were. they were just seeing sometimes if it was a twit page it was as little as 140 characters about this person. and asked to make an impression. so this judgment was no longer around the rumor mill. it broadcast it to thousands of students across the county.
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>> there is a social pettiness backdrop, right? it isn't technically bullying. but it's the sort of backdrop in the air social nastiness that people, because of fear of missing out, fomo, feel they have to expose themselves. they have to know what's going on. so that's just a takeaway i have had, that i learned from will and other young people. it's not so much a single adult modeling nasty, cruel behavior or peers. it's not just -- it's hard to pin down. but social norms need to develop around kindness and respect in a general way, too. in a crowd-sourced way. >> it becomes -- these pages become entertainment value. they have no idea who these people are. they are still interested. it's just the thing to do.
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it's -- if it were someone they i knew it would be interesting. they have no idea who it is. anything about the story besides what's posted. and people are still very interested. on the other hand, responses also pop up to these pages. instead of confessions pages there are compliments pages where students can do the same process, submit anonymously to a google forum. instead posting comments about a specific person. usually these don't tend to be as broad as the county-wide page. but they tend to be more heartfelt. usually restricted to a school. and actually allow students to connect or say things they might not otherwise say because it's sometimes awkward to walk up to someone you barely know and say you look really good today.
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it comes off as strange, weird and no one wants to do that in a social setting face to face. under an anonymous facebook page, people don't recitate. -- hesitate. but sometimes students don't even bother with anonymity. i have seen public statements, usually on twitter, but not exclusively. where students call out another student, sometimes referred to as subtweeting if the name isn't used in the post. most people know who it is about but no name is mentioned in it. there are hashtags sunshine as # lets make it awkward where students intentionally try to bring up mean spirited issues
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for entertainment. more people use the hashtags. after maybe a couple of kids starting a funny trend. but in reality it's only a couple of people. if it wases face to face there might be ten bystanders. this is public. it's broadcasted to thousands of bystanders. how to get more people click i don't like what i see button on facebook. kids realize that posts are permanent on facebook. i know my dad often used to remind me, everything you post, even if you delete it, people still saw it. people might have taken screen
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shots. it's still out there. kids understand it's broadcasted to a wise audience. they see it in real tile on twitter. fights don't start in the cafeter cafeteria. they start the night before on twitter and continue into the principal. i heard of a principal who tries to preempt fights because he knows they will be coming from twitter. thousands of people are bystanders. and they have the power to do something if they only stand up. they are less likely. there is definitive proof, a
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screen shot that the person stood up. the assessment of anonymous pages. students aren't looking for it. they are looking for a reason to be positive. i'm just saying encourage that positive spirit that people are willing to put forth. if you give them a positive environment to do it in. social media is a positive place to be. focus on using reporting tools to improve. using the reporting tools just to create a safer, more positive environment.
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most adults aren't privy to the so-called twitter fights that go on every seeng. adults need teens and students connected who are in to let them know what's going wrong. principals know when a fight is coming or they can help students who are continually being bullied down. encouraging those relationships, partnerships between teens and adults in an effort to end digital bullying i think will make the most headwayment thank you. thank you so much. i just want to say thank you. all of you.
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it's just important to know young people want to emphasize the positive. i'm hearing it from a lot of young people, not just will. this is happening. it's actually happening. as sherry turkel at m.i.t. said social media is in its infant stage. we are just beginning to bring social norms that protected us for thousands of years into a new space. it's in process, i think. we need to encourage that behavior, too. in a very general way. >> thank you. let's give them one more round of applause, please. >> here is a look at the primetime schedule on the c-span networks. starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern, live coverage of a wisconsin governors debate between scott walker and democratic challenger
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mary burr on c-span. on c-span 2, book tv with authors and programs looking at u.s. national security. here on c-span 3 it's american history tv with events on u.s. civil rights. >> earlier this week a florida governor's debate was held between rick scott and charlie crist. here is a portion of that now. >> let's think about where we are. none of us believe in discrimination. i don't believe believe in discrimination. in 2008 part of the democratic process led by charlie. there was a constitutional amendment that marriage would be between a man and a woman. we have to understand people have different views. it's going through the court system. my understanding is it's going right directly to the supreme court.
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whatever the supreme court decides, we decided. i will abide by the low. people have different views. we shouldn't have ill will. we have to remember all of this was started with charlie as governor. >> governor scott, i'm not sure i got an answer to the question. >> sure. >> nova scotia i got an answer to the question. do you believe the ban is discriminatory? >> i don't believe in discrimination. i don't believe in discrimination. i believe in traditional marriage. the court wills decide. this is a decision for the courts. they will make the decision. [ applause ] >> governor crist. >> i don't believe in discrimination either. and i believe gay couples should have the right to marry. [ applause ]
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i think the best way to capture this, and you tried to get an answer. it's difficult. the best way to capture this is to understand who is it for us to tell other people who to love? what is it in our right to tell other people who to marry? we have come to a place in american society and certainly florida is leading the way with decisions made. this is the right thing to do. >> thank you, governor. [ applause ] remember charlie said he took his prior positions for political expooe paid yen si, a way to win office. we don't know what he believes. he's taken every side of the issuement. >> part of this week's florida governors debate. recent polling listed it as a toss up. you can see the entire debate and dozens of others any time
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online at tomorrow on washington journal, dr. ron waldman of "save the children" looks at how nonprofit groups are working to fight ebola in west africa. after that rob barnett of bloomberg government discuss it is ke cline in prices for gas, oil and energy. plus, phone calls, facebook comments and tweets. washington journal is live saturday and every day at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. this weekend on the c-span networks. tonight at 10:00 pl eastern on c-span from the texas tribune festival. a conversation about dealing with undocumented youth coming into the u.s. saturday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern, a town hall meeting on the media's coverage of events in ferguson, missouri in st. louis. sunday evening at 8:00 on q&a,
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historian richard norton smith on his biography of nelson rockefeller. tonight at 8:00 on c-span 2, author richard whittle on drones, the impact on aviation and how they transform the american military. saturday night at 10:00 on book tv's after words, author and commentator jake halpe rn on the questionable practices of the collection industry. sunday at 2:00 p.m. eastern, the 2014 southern festival of books. tonight at 8:00 on american history tv on c-span 3, martin luther king's poor people campaign and the '68 election. saturday on lectures in history, the life and legacy of booker t. washington. sunday at 4:00 on real america from 1964 exercise delaware, a joint armed forces readiness operation between the u.s. and iran. when the two countries were allies. find our television schedule at let us know what you think about the programs you're watching. call 202-626-3400.
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e-mail us at or send a tweet at c-span # comments. join the conversation. like us on facebook. follow us on oh twitter. next, the first in a series of discussions from this this year's national bullying prevention summit. officials from the national institutes of health and the education department describe trends in bullying behavior over the past year at the nation's schools. the summit is part of an effort to create a national strategy that engages private and public organizations. this is 45 minutes. organizations. this is 45 minutes. good morning, everyone. i would like to good morning, everyone. i would like to introduce the first session which is entitled bullying trends where we have
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been, where we are now and where we are going. we have three excellent speakers for the session. first up is mr. tom snyder from the department of education. he is the director of annual reports and information staff at the national center for education statistics and is a recognized expert on education statistics. [ applause ] >> thank you for this opportunity to come talk to you about some of the data that we collect and compile at the national center for education statistics. many of the things i am going to talk about to you today you may be familiar with and certainly working with bullying there are many things you are well aware of from your own observations. i think there is something here
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for everybody that is going to be some new things that we can talk about. there is a lot of new sources coming out with bullying data. there are new sources that you can take advantage of that may be useful in your presentations. here we go. there is a number of sources for bullying data. some of them go back further in time and some are very recent. in particular there is a survey on school crime and safety that is done based on public schools. this survey has been in process since 1999-2000. this survey unfortunately was terminated in 2009-'10 but there is a process underway to begin the survey again. there is a survey done based on health statistics from the world health organization. and that is on health behavior in school aged children. it covers children in grades six
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through eight. this particular survey is based on individuals unlike the public school survey which is actually a survey of schools. also, the traditional survey that we have used at the national center for education statistics and in particular in our indicators of school crime and safety survey is the national crime victimization survey. we use what is called the school crime supplement. this is the specific survey that has the information on the bullying. there is also an excellent survey from cdc, the youth risk behavior surveillance system. we actually use that in our school indicators report, as well. that covers grades 9 through 12. this is an individual level survey. it covers children in grades 9 through 12. one thing i think is interesting, this is an observation in terms of
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recognition of the problem of bullying across the world is the new surveys that are coming out from some of the international organizations. i do a lot of international educational statistics, as well. in my work with colleagues i am getting a lot of feedback that people are interested and have many programs going on about bullying and specifically in the nordic countries very aggressive moves towards preventing bullying. i'm looking at charts i have that highlight bullying statistics. this is based on the national crime victimization survey which covers children ages 12 through 18. basically you can see that there is no real trend in terms of bullying going up and down for males and females together. there is a decline over time in bullying for males. however, we don't see that for females. there is really no trend for females. differences there are nonsignificant. we are in position where difference between males and females is not significant in 2005 but now females are more likely to be bullied than males.
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if we look at the kinds of bullying that studentstypically report you can see that the ones most frequently reported are being a subject of rumors, having fun made of them. some of the bullying articles i have been reading have focused more on physical bullying but that is actually less of the actual bullying occurrences. we have to recognize it may not be readily observable. perhaps it is worth notice that the differences for males and females is highlight here is rumors and being made fun of is much higher for females than for males. for males they are more likely to be involved in sort of a physical bullying incident. the males are slightly more likely to be pushed or shove or tripped than a female. if we turn towards the grades
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that students are most likely to be bullied at. middle school is the period of time where children are most likely to be bullied so grades six and seven. for cyber bullying grades 10 and 11 students are more likely to be cyber bullied than grades 6 and 7. if we look at bullying by race ethnicity white students are more likely to be bullied than hispanic and asian students. black students are also less likely to be cyber bullied than white students. turning towards the locations where children are most likely to be bullied mosttypically it is actually inside the schools. sometimes people think maybe school buses are more common location. there is certainly bullying on
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school buses or on school grounds most bullying does occur on hallways or stair wells inside the classrooms. if you are thinking about middle school or high school students you have a lot of potential for things to happen in between classes and that is what the data shows. in terms of differences between males and females the only substantial difference here is between males and females with respect to bullying and bathrooms or locker rooms. it turns out that males are more likely to be bullied in those particular locations. one of the things i think is particularly important as a practitioner or dealing with bullying problems is to know about how often you are actually alerted by the students that a
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bullying incident has occurred. it turns out that the younger children are more likely to report a bullying incident than an older child. this is important because it may affect your knowledge about what is actually occurring in the school and when we turn to look at school reported data you will see that there is huge potential for incidents not being reported. even in here in the best case among sixth graders only about half of the incidents are reported. turning now to look at some of the data that is actually reported by schools. this contrasts with what we were just talking about which were actually data reported by students themselves. this does show a decline in terms of the bullying being
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reported to the schools. what the schools were asked to report back was whether bullying incidents were occurring at least once per week. and i think you have to think in terms of this is what is coming up to the principal's office, something the principal is dealing with at least once a week. it is certainly not reflective of what is happening for individual students but tells you about the more extreme cases that are arising to the principal's level where they would be logical to report that. we see a decline here between '99-2000 and 2010 dropping from 29% of schools reporting this occurring every week to 23%. you are looking at the same data but at the various types of schools. you can see as might be expected from student reported data that middle schools are most likely to report frequent bullying occurrences. you see about equal percentages of elementary schools and high schools.
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reinforcing unfortunately we don't have a lot of information about elementary school students. this is one of the few places where we have something. children younger than sixth grade are really not able to report. they don't have the understanding of the questionnaire instruments, too complicated for them. while they can report to an adult on an individual level they can't fill out survey forms in a large scale survey for something like this. there is also problems with sensitivity, as well. that is another issue with gathering information from very young children. i want to turn now to talk briefly about some of the other data sources that you may be able to use and may be of interest to you. the health behavior survey is done by w.h.o. this survey is not readily extensible. i have seen journal articles. there is important research using this survey but the website doesn't really provide information. you have to obtain raw data sets and do your own analysis. while i think you may encounter this data source looking at journal articles or references it may not be convenient to use. i should note that the survey has identified that there was a decline in bullying for this age group. it is, again, looking at middle grade students and they have a decline from 12.6% to 7.5%. you will notice that the bullying data don't align across the surveys.
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some of it has to do with survey methodology. in this case it is also important that the reference period is the past couple of months. it is not a year long reference period. the information we were looking at before was a year long reference period. the children reporting about bullying that occurred over an entire school year. one of the surveys i am most enthusiastic is on the youth risk behavior surveillance system. this covers grades 9 to 12. this website gets my recommendation for being one that is easy to use. i encourage people. they have a very nice data tool
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that you can actually get bullying data for your state. and so i think this is a really good reference point for you and you can obtain the information easily. i am going to briefly mention two international studies. there is a bullying question on surveys but in the context of student assessment. it is a small part of the survey but does illustrate that bullying is important in other countries and is a serious problem. it is about the same level as the united states. there is a bullying question in the program for international student assessment and concerns on 15 year olds. somewhat surprisingly bullying is reported more of a problem in some of the very high achieving countries. i wasn't able to assemble that in context for you but it was an interesting observation. i wanted to wind up the presentation there. i want to welcome you to look at our indicators of school crime safety report. it has a wealth of information about bullying and other aspects of crime and misbehavior in
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schools. we have a crime and safety survey group and there is a website to access more information on our surveys. thank you. [ applause ] our next speaker is dr. katherine bradshaw from the university of virginia where she is professor and associate dean for research and faculty development. some of her research projects include examining bullying in school climate and the design, evaluation and implementation of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. [ applause ] >> thank you so much for inviting me here today. i am pleased to report out some findings from an institute of medicine work shop that was held recently just this past april on the topic of bullying.
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it is really quite a thrill not only to participate in an iom activity but also just to see the institute of medicine focus on the issue of bullying. those of us who have been doing this work for sometime felt it was an educational issue or school issue. to see it rise to the level based on the federal partners pushing it and wanting it be covered through an iom report is very exciting and i think will help chart it as a top priority both within the medical field as well as within education and other fields so i am really very excited about that. so i am speaking here as a member of the panel and not an official briefing on the institute of medicine report. there is an official briefing that just got released today that is on the table there. i want to make sure you see that and you can take a quick look at that today and perhaps do a more
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thorough read. it was intended to have a more practitioner and research base summary for a wide audience. so i am going to give you a quick overview of some of the material that was covered in the report and some of the highlights. the overall theme was really just to pull together information about bullying including its prevalence, impact, what do we know in terms of strengths of the field and what are the gaps and different partners we need to work with in terms of putting together a more systematic bullying prevention initiative. a couple of themes came out as we started thinking about the reflections on this particular event. and one of which was the interdisciplinary group that helped organize this. we were led by fred rivera who
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is the editor of jamma pediatrics and has led a number of different efforts around consensus reports and iom reports. so it is really quite an honor to work with him as our chair. there were a number of other people from different disciplines. it is a really important piece for the iom to make sure different disciplines are represented there. i come from several disciplines myself in terms of education, psychology, public health so that was nice. and then nina fred ln is from the field of nursing. nancy guerra is a developmental psychologist. denise is a criminologist who has perspective on the field. megan morano is a pediatrician and then we were joined by a lawyer on our team, jonathan torres who provided a nice perspective around legal issues.
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in terms of general themes that i extracted and then i will delve into particular topics more specifically i thought it was quite important and very exciting to see iom embrace the idea of different perspectives. so we actually convened a youth panel that were there as well as a practitioner panel. so i helped put together the practitioner panel. i knew a couple of youth who were strong advocates in this area. they weren't just tacked on at the end. they were front and center. we began the event having them speak about their experiences and perspectives. they were in many ways providing us ongoing dialogue and feedback about the topics. it was really great to have that perspective in house and not just a tack on. it was truly embedded throughout and paused many times to ask for their feedback on these particular issues. the interdisciplinary i talked about the connection between physical health and mental
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health is one that iom does so nicely and was really great to see in terms of how we knit together the different topics that were covered under the broader heading of bullying prevention. as a developmentalist the life course perspective was really nice. the original title had a life course perspective. we struggled a little bit about how to bring that in since most of the work was focused on school aged youth. we talked about bullying or adulthood and long term impacts. as we start thinking about the notion of bullying showing up in work place violence and other concerns for adults so it is not just a kid phenomenon although there is tension between that and definition put forward by cdc. it is interesting to think about the different definition and how we can stretch that. cultural and contextual considerations are critical for
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this issue. rather than having a panel on cultural factors we wanted to weave that through different topics. there were times we had to stop and make sure we were respecting and reflecting a cultural on this. that is one area we need to improve. and evaluating the strengths as well as the gaps in the literature. to drill down a little bit more the sessions began with an opening by sue limbburg who has done a lot of work in the area and provided a little bit of the state of the science and what we know about prevalence and introduced the bullying definition by cdc. she prepared a longer report that will be covered in greater detail by the iom eventually. then we had a panel. dorothy was one of our fabulous panelists in the session talking about different issues related to the development of outcomes associated with bullying. we heard a little bit from robert faris about social networks and the peer context of bullying and issues related to culture as it is embedded within that.
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dorothy talked about a rich body of research that she has been leading and others have contributed to around harassment and teen dating violence. tracy vallen cort had a presentation about how bullying gets under the skin and citing research about brain development and intersection between stress and coping strategies as it relates to bullying and some of the work she has done originally and citing others, as well. that was a unique perspective and one that was poigant. this is one of the graphics down at the bottom that she displayed about children's brains and showing this. i think the original citation for this is a bruce perry study several years ago looking at the impact of trauma on the brain and you don't have to be a neurscientist to see the two brains, the one on the left of a developing child and the one on the right that experienced abuse. it provides the frame for thinking about trauma and adverse childhood events. i was on a panel with denise and
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dewey cornel where we talked about a school perspective. this is where the body of literature is the largest, i would like to say the strongest but there are still a lot of gaps in this particular area. denise talked a lot about school climate. i was happy to hear that was picked up in the themes today and talked about legal issues and policies and zero tolerance and some of the reactive approaches that schools often take about video cameras and metal detectors. we don't have research to show they have a strong impact on reducing bullying. i spoke about meta analysis and research about particular programs. i had this graphic in my talk about is the glass half full or
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half empty? you can view it in terms of the review of literature. some programs can reduce bullying. however, some of the studies are done abroad and may not generalize very well to the united states or are limited to certain outcomes. so while it is exciting to see there is evidence based models there is a lot more room for improvement as we think about their impact but uptake within school settings. so then we moved into talking about family perspectives and melissa holt was there and talked about the issues of disclosure and parent/child communication. she and her colleagues have a nice paper that highlights the importance of the family dinner as an opportunity to be talking about issues related to bullying and some of the research showing that it buffers the impacts of
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cyber bullying on mental health outcomes. it is exciting to see more research getting into the next layer outside of the school and the family because there hasn't been a lot of research in this area specifically in the topic of bullying. mostly about how the parents respond and sometimes they don't respond in the ways we like them to often encouraging kids to hit back or fight for themselves or blaming their child for being a target of bullying. then we heard from deborah gorman smith who has done a lot in the area of youth violence prevention particularly in the chicago area much of which had a family focus. she summarized the broader research around youth violence prevention because there hasn't been a lot of programming focused specifically on families. it is promising to see the strategies we use in other areas of violence prevention might
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generalize to bullying should we begin to look at those outcomes. that is a limitation of the research that we haven't always looked at bullying behavior as an outcome. we need more precise measurement in making sure people are including measures particularly of bullying. then we moved into the hot topic of technology really very exciting set of presentations focusing on the use of technology both to perpetrate bullying but also potential interventions. a public health researcher and who is doing work around several different areas gave a very nice presentation citing other public health preventions and work abroad and other areas like hiv prevention where she has used technology to try to prevent transmission of different types of health-related issues. that holds a lot of promise for the work of bullying prevention. it is exciting to see that
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interdisciplinary and international lens. community interventions you can see we are moving layers out of the eclogical bottle here. the further we go out the thinner the research base gets. we were excited to hear a little bit about some of the work in communities but that hasn't focused specifically on the area of bullying. the care model has been very effective for reducing substance use and aggressive behavior but haven't focused so much on bullying. that is one area to focus. joe wright who is a very well established researcher and pediatrician, very well known here in d.c. for his work around policy and provides a pediatricians perspective on health. it was nice to hear from him making up the role of health care providers both within schools and community settings. and then this is also a very hot topic. peer led programs because there has been such a push about let's get youth involved and have youth be leaders and co facilitate different types of prevention. there has been controversy in the literature because we find when you group aggressive kids together and sometimes pair other kids up to try to prevent bullying you can make things worse if they are not done effectively and the right way.
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we brought in two leading researchers in this area to talk about their perspectives and their long line of research around this area. and virtually they focus mostly on gang related issues and overlap with bullying and then also some of the intervention framework. we didn't have as much literature on peer led programs. there is such a push in this area. we have a lot of home grown models on this but don't have a lot that are rigorously protected. what are the programs they are effective. how can we support schools in promoting these kinds of models with integrity and models that don't do harm but improve outcomes for youth? then we -- the last level here was about policies and practices. this is more global perspective, talked about some of the issues related to lgbt populations
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which we heard from so eloquently this morning from our colleagues about different perspectives. this was really a helpful knitting together of different policy perspectives and legal issues as it relates to bullying prevention because as you know all but one state has a specific law related to the issue of bullying. we talked about the fact that there hasn't been a lot of research documenting the outcomes of those particular policies and certainly very little research looking at implementation and variation of implementation of those. then we thought a little more about translating what we know, how do we get what we do know out into the field with a particular interest in evidence-based programs. while the glass is half full or half empty what do we know about the fields from implementation science and prevention science that we can clean on as we think about bullying prevention. we had three leading researchers in the area of prevention
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science including lou ann robuck who has done a lot of work, abigail fagan in communities that care model and leading method aulgist, hendrix brown who has done work in suicide prevention and violence prevention. it was great to get their perspectives on this. just to wrap up here. next steps there was the release of the briefs. this is the first step in a process that iom often goes through depending on level of commitment and investment. the next step possibly could be what is referred to as a consensus study which would lead to a more formal book that would summarize different issues related to bullying. this was intended to be a bit of an overview of the field and help drive where are the gaps that need to be filled through a more systematic study. certainly that is intended to motivate and foster more research and more programming through the community. thank you for opportunity to share some of the work that the iom did to support this. i want to acknowledge the great staff of national academies of science that put this together,
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patty simon, stacy smith and kimber bogart. it's great to be a part of that network and see this issue raise up to this level of visibility. thank you. [ applause ] >> thank you. our last speaker is dr. michael lou, associate administrator of maternal and child health. prior to joining hrsa he was associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and public health. he has received numerous awards and voted one of the best doctors in america since 2005 and well known for research on racial ethnic disparities and birth outcomes.
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welcome. [ applause ] good morning. i'm delighted to be here and very honored to be invited to speak at this summit. let me start off by saying what a tremendous honor it is for me to share this panel. i also want to take a moment to thank our partners at hhs including cdc, nih, nicf as well as our partners at the department of education, justice and agriculture and the white house for all of their partnership and collaboration. i want to give a special shout out to my colleagues at the department of education and for the planning committee for bringing us all together, all their hard work and the tremendous leadership to bring us together for the summit. i was asked to talk about where we are going. let me start by telling you how we are going to get there. i want you to take a moment and look around this room. that's how we are going to get there. we are not going to be able to
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move the needle on bullying prevention by working in silence. it is going to take coming together, federal partners, state and local partners, public and private partners, educators and researchers, doctors, nurses, social workers, public health professionals, family community leaders and youth and especially the youth all coming together, working across sectors that's how we are able to move the needle on bullying prevention in our nation. as was mentioned, i am hrsa's associate administrator for maternal and child health. that's been our mission for over
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100 years dating back to the establishment. i have been pushing hard to do better for kids and families in our country. when it comes to bullying prevention we know we can still do a lot better as a nation. we certainly made a lot of progress in the last decade. in 2004 when hrsa launched the first anti-bullying campaign many people still believed bully was just a rite of passage. kids will be kids. they used to say that is just what kids do. i think we have come a very long
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way in the last decade. in part due to the work of all of the federal partners coming together to create the i think in larger part due to all of the great work that you are all doing on the ground we really raised the public awareness to know that bullying is not okay and that there are serious destructive consequences across the life course. so we made a lot of progress in raising awareness, but as you just heard from mr. snyder lightning too many kids in this country are still bullied every day. what more can we do? how do we go from awareness to action. how can we move the needle on bullying prevention as a nation? in public health there is something we call the richmond college.
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the public health folks will recognize richmond as the one who founded head start. you bring about real social change in three things. you need knowledge base, you need social strategy and you need political will. and i think that is where we need to go in the next five years if we are going to be able to move the needle on bullying prevention. we have to keep building on our knowledge base. we have to keep advancing social strategy and we have to keep growing political will to do something about bullying in our nation. so let me start with the knowledge base. you just heard a summary of the iom work shop from dr. bradshaw
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and the work shop brief was released. hrsa supported this work shop to begin to synthesize the knowledge base about what we know and what we don't. what do we know in terms of what works and what doesn't work? it turns out that we actually know a lot about what works. as you just heard from dr. bradshaw. some of the most promising strategies involve a whole school, whole community approach that the entire school as a community to change the climate of the school and norms of
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behavior, taking a multilevel approach that target the individual, the classroom and the school and the community levels. we also know a lot about what doesn't work. zero tolerance policies don't work. conflict resolution and peer mediation don't work because bullying is a form of victimization and not conflict. group treatment for children who bully doesn't work because it might reinforce bullying or antisocial behaviors. we have to keep building up our knowledge base about what works and what doesn't so that if in the next five years we are going to know a lot more about how to move the needle on bullying prevention for the nation. second, social strategy. while there is a lot that we still don't know we know enough to act today. so each of us need to be asking ourselves what more can we do. we at hrsa are doing our part. some of you may know that we have recently proposed making bully a performance measure for our title 5 block program. title 5 block grant is the primary system for child and maternal health. with $640 million in match programs it's a $6 billion enterprise every year. it is one of the biggest levers we have to lift up the population, one of the best vehicles we have to drive improvement, drive transformation in maternal and child health.
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i believe title 5 can play a major role in bullying prevention in the states. for example, in virginia, the state title 5 program used their block grant funds to initiate bullying prevention programs using the obey model that's now spread to 16 elementary schools across the state. by making bullying prevention a performance measure for the title 5 program we can hold state title 5 programs accountable for moving the needles on bullying over the next five years. title 5 cannot do this alone. it will take professionals, police makers, educators and researchers, schools and communities coming together, sharing best practices. we are looking at new ways to support the states and community in doing just that. over the past two years we brought the whole science of collaborative improvement and innovation to help states share
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best practices in reducing infant mortality and improving birth outcome and created the coin network complete with shared work space and a data dashboard to provide real time data to drive real time improvement. we brought together state officers, medicaid directors, title 5 directors, the governor's office as well as professional leaders in this learning collaborative. i won't go into the detail of the coin here but just to say over the past two years in the 13 southern states where we started we saw 31% reduction in early elective deliveries which translates to 71,000 early deliveries averted and a 9% reduction translating to about 15,000 fewerer pregnant women smoking across the south. i can't say all of that was attributable to the coin but i can say it has really
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accelerated collaborative improvement innovation across the states and we are looking to do the same for bullying prevention by bringing the science prevention to bring the science of c.o.i.n. to acceleration collaboration across states and communities. third, it's political will, where we're going will require a great deal of political will to get us this. where we're seeing the groundswell of political will across the nation to do something about bullying. in all 50 states now there are laws and/or policies in place to address bullying. we need schools and school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies. many have been champions of this national movement on bullying prevention that's growing and i want to give a special shout-out to the youth and families in the room. some of you have endured great pain or witnessed great pain and
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i applaud your courage to rise above the pain speaking out so that other youth, other families don't have to go through what you went through. you're the real heroes, the real drivers of this national movement and going forward we'll have to keep that momentum going, keep growing the political will to do something about bullying prevention in our nation. building the knowledge base, advancing social strategy, growing political will. that's what we've got to do to go from awareness to action. that's what it will take to start moving the needle on bullying in the next five years. so, let me just close by adding one more thing that we're going to need going forward by going back to the first point i made. we're not going to move the needle on bullying by working in silence. we have to come together.
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federal partners, state and local partners, public/private partners, schools and communities across sectors, across states. look around me. look around you in this room. this is what change looks like. this is what leadership is all about. so, in closing let me just say that on behalf of hrsa and the child health bureau, we're all in on this partnership. you all have a partner that you can count on at hrsa we'll be working side by side with you doing everything we can to help you move the needle on bullying for the nation's children, youth and families. thank you very much.
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>> we don't have a ton of time for questions but we do know we have people in cyberspace watching and so we have a virtual question from our social media outlets. >> that's right. we have over 300 folks virtually participating in the summit today. here's a question from twitter. is there any research on the long-lasting effects of awareness raising events? is that only a spike in terms of impact? >> so awareness raising is certainly part of the peets of puzzles when you are thinking putting together a bullying prevention initiative and we have a long line of public health research that shows that raising awareness is an important part but you also need the skill development to follow up. so, when you talk about awareness raising event, we always recommend that that happen within a broader set of
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activity. the one-shot deal of a symposium or program for kids in schools generally have not shown to be effective. it might be a kickoff event examined with other things but the research generally shows you need to spend time developing skills and talking about these issues on a regular ongoing basis and the skill development happens for kids as well as adults around them. awareness raising i think is important and we've certainly seen some national evidence of awareness raising over the past several years in terms of increasing the general population's awareness of the issue of bullying. but it's further evidence that it will take more than awareness raising to change behavior. if you have questions i ask you to go tohe microphone.
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there's one there and there's one here. >> to better match the cdc uniform definition. i'm wondering if you can speak to progress made. because right now the questions on the school crime supplement are behavior placed and don't take into account repetition or potential to be repeated or the power imbalance. i'm wondering if you can speak to whether they meet be revised and when we might expect the revised items. >> i can't speak to that specifically because i'm not working on the survey myself. we'll be releasing information later this year from the 2013 survey and it's the old wording. realistically the first time we could see the new numbers would be the 2015, data collection in
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2016. but we can check on that or you can contact katherine chandler. thank you. >> we'll take one last question. go ahead. >> my question was generated by dr. liu's sharing ofhe knowledge base and things that we know works and i'm curious if you have any familiarity or knowledge about how restorative justice or restorative practice works with students that have been involved in bullying. >> i don't, but certainly love to hear more about it. i just know that there are a lot of these good practices, interventions, out there and what we're trying to figure out is that instead of these sharing to occur by accident, can we engineer that collaborative improvement innovation so that we can really accelerate our ability to move the needle over the next five years. >> thank you.
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>> well, i'd like to give a warm round of applause to our speakers. thank you very much. 2014 coverage continues tonight with the wisconsin governor's debate between incumbent scott walker and democratic challenger mary burke. here are some recent campaign ads. >> mary burke lied about her jobs plan. turns out it was plagiarized and now she's at it again attacking scott walker's record on jobs, attacks the milwaukee journal sentinel says are false. she's twisting the numbers and it's not the first time. the truth in the last year wisconsin ranked third in midwest job growth. the facts are wisconsin gained
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100,000 jobs under scott walker and we can't trust mary burke. >> he made a pledge. >> 250,000 new jobs by the end of our first term in office. >> and asked us to hold him to it. >> is this campaign promise something you want to be held to? >> absolutely. >> today wisconsin is dead last in midwest job growth tenth out of tnth. >> witness lags behind most of the country when it comes to job growth. >> and those 250,000 jobs? not even close. broken promises. dead last in jobs. scott walker's not working for you. >> it's been called the lie of the year. >> if you like your health care plan, you can keep your health care plan. >> and mary burke supports it. >> it doesn't mean that the government's going to tell you which doctors to go to or which plan to have. >> but while millions have lost their doctors and their plans mary burke says she still supports obamacare unequivocally
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and wants to expand it. wisconsin can't afford medicine liberal mary burke. >> period, end of story. >> do you know who had a good idea about taxes? ronald reagan. he cut taxes for working families. do you know who had a really bad idea? governor walker. he did just the opposite. cutting taxes for the wealthiest and raising them on 140,000 wisconsin families. raising income taxes on working families isn't just wbad economics, it's wrong. >> mary burke, governor. >> recent polls has listed this race as a toss-up. see the debate at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. tomorrow on "washington journal" dr. ron waldman of the group save the children looks at how nonprofit groups are helping to fight the ebola outbreak in
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west africa. and then rob barnett discusses the recent declines in gas, oil and energy and your phone calls and facebook comments and tweets. "washington journal's" live saturday and every day at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. be part of c-span's campaign 2014 coverage. follow us on twitter and like us on facebook to get debate schedules, video clips of key moments. debate previews from our politics team. c-span is bringing you over 100 senate, house and governor debates and you can instantly share your reactions to what the candidates are saying. the battle for control of congress. stay in touch and engage by following us on twitter on c-span and liking us on facebook at more from the national bullying prevention sui


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