tv American History TV CSPAN December 21, 2014 9:05am-10:01am EST
1890. they produced 1800 sheets to less the whole world sea. things like america mapped china. they didn't want countries to map themselves. italy mapped argentina. britain mapped the united think. i and eventually the maps started 1984, the , but by effort they had produced 1600. go.e was 200 to under the auspices of the united nations. bangkok, theyce in said let's abandon it, let's not continue it. the only complete collection of the maps of the world are in that map collection, yeah. a great, great library. if there's nobody else. i appreciate your time. it's been great. thank you. [ applause ]
>> join us tonight for "american artifacts" when we feature the octagon house and the treaty of ghent. years ago, the treaty of hent was signed in belgium, a neutral nation ending the war of 1812. octagon house in washington, d.c. where james february ined it in 1819. they took refuge in august where british burned the house. we'll have that at 6:00 eastern artifacts on an c-span 3's american history tv. u.s. and of 1944, australia forces face the navy in the philippine
sea. he four-day battle was one of the largest naval conflicts of world war two. james hornfischer details one of the roles. he was posthumously awarded the of honor by congress. the author is the author of world war ii history. recorded at the u.s. naval academy, this is about an hour. >> good morning, welcome. the u.s. ailey at naval institute. it's honored to gather on this important topic. leaders in theme is action, ordinary people doing the extraordinary.
i asked you all to sand up, please, for the pledge of allegiance. i pledge allegiance to the flag of america d states and to the republic to which it nation, under god, liberty ble with lip and justice for all. gain this year, we're deeply honored to have the foundation corporate sponsor. we thank the foundation and its trustees for enabling us to take a careful look and reflect on he meaning of historically significant deeds and actions. we extend a special mid ship all of the midz here at the academy. if you look throughout the theemy yard and you look at history that is reflected in the plaques and the monuments, you help but be impressed with
the fact that this place and who have gone before us important naval history. welcome the rotc students here today from the george washington university for rtium, thank you joining us. and the students from the severance school who have joined us here today. institute he naval works with the department of the division or the academy. his year we're pleased to work with the leadership, education nd development division with captain west huey and his two rimary action officers, lieutenant commander and yale lynchberg and lieutenant trevor thompson. they've done an outstanding job. and i think you'll agree they had a terrific program. go to the battle to a conversation with medal of honor world war ii, vietnam, and afghanistan,
moderated by joe thomas. a luncheon keynote by former of war ot and prisoner captain charlie plum. inally, to a conversation with wounded warriors from the recent conflicts with lieutenant trevor thompson. it's now my pleasure to introduce our superintendent, from the graduated naval academy in 1981. designated with the navy flight officer in 1982. 1985, he attended the navy gun.er weapons school top that's a year ahead of goose and maverick. flown 125 combat missions kuwait, iraq, and afghanistan. e's accumulated 400,000 flight ours in the f-4, f-8, and f-18
landing on 19 different aircraft carriers. this next stat grabs my especially. he's completed 2016 carrier-arrested landings. as i know, that's a record among all active and aviators who are designated. he's certained as the commanding camden aoe 2 and the ckarl vincent and the big final deployment in 2012. we're proud at the naval nstitute that vice admiral carter is a member and author contributor. the recently he served as 54th president of the naval war college. the 62nd come superintendent of the united naval academy, vice admiral ted carter. [ applause ]
morning, everybody. you have to do better than that. good morning, everybody. a cool fall day out there. what a great chance for all of us to be here to start out the 2014 naval history symposium. i'm honored to be up here with you to talk a little bit about we're going to experience over the course of the day. dailey just gave a wonderful rundown of some of the magnificent speakers that we're have here today. for the benefit of our students rom the severance school, our rotc students, mid shipmen and all of the wonderful folks here audience, i feel i would be remiss if i didn't talk a little bit about why history is and the significance of what we're doing right here at the united states naval acattedmy. in ten short days, the naval will celebrate the 169th
anniversary as an institution. through my to know experience at the fleet, enjoying the history naval magazine, proceedings, other great publications. those are not willing and wanting to understand history are destined of the t the failures past. so there's wonderful connections. there's more than just interest in history. to be learned. as i came here to the naval acade i wanted to ourse, do my own research to remember not just my days here in 1977 here, but you the what is it that brought naval academy here to begin with. get read the i to sense celebrate our birthday. he beginning formations of our navy as we built the six friggots in the turn of the 1800s, johnng to the quincy adams, our president in 1825 was the one that first a need for re was scholarly interest to develop
naval officers. so we had a missions statement, statement from our president back then. but it wasn't 20 years later that it would be recognized. as anything happens in our hisry, you know, something really bad had to occur to get it going. mid shipmen were trained at sea. schools in boston and philadelphia and new york city. time, most hat teenage boys who wanted to officers of the united states navy, they did it at sea. of september, 1842, a brig named somers deployed out of the navy yard. shipman of is a mid note, his name was phillip spencer. most people in my country in the united states back then wouldn't .now what
lawyer, his dad was serving as secretary of war for president tyler. and mid shipman was a handsome 9-year-old, young man, dark hair. he had a physical ailment of a wondering eye. some say it described who he was. he was known for getting in brawls. from the island of nantucket to get on a ship to search out for piracy. who his father was, he continued on the path for the naval officer. on this particular deployment left in 1842, after doing algiers, ant visit in noted --in of the ship was is captain mckenzie cohorting in the enlisted man. his hands onto get alcohol and tobacco.
it was quite popular. a large ed the help of bosun's mate named cromwell and smalls. named they were thinking about how to take over the ship so they could go out and do piracy. crew found out put him in they shackles. they shackled both of them. in december in 1842, the mutiny nt for a planned is, of course, death by hanging, without trial. you can imagine when this ship came in with the son of the of war now dead it was outraged with the country. they were exonerated. and from that action, our george y of the navy, appointed without any
money to put the institution on from nks of the severn which we took the institution from the army base. just that interesting story brings us to understanding some of the great stories you're today.to hear they're more than just stories, they're basis in fact. first task is to introduce the first speaker. of hornfischer, for those you who are students and folks who love history certainly know who he is. major written three works. the two previous he's done efore the most recent wurngs the last of the tin can sailor, exploring the world war ii story navy's finest hour. the hip of ghosts, legendary lost cruise in the epic saga of her survivors were published not too long ago.
outwriting career has grown of the lifelong interest in the pacific war, much of which you'll hear about today. he's appeared on many television shows from fox news, the history channel, fox news war stories north, and c-span's book tv. a sprekt speaker on the subject pacific.n the he's done many events here for the united states navy and across the united states. he's a native of massachusetts, also uate of colgate, and his higher education degree at he texas university school of law. he's a naval order of the united states, the navy league. appointed by was texas governor rick perry as an admiral in the texas navy. he'll tell us a little bit about what the duties and responsibilities of being an admirable in texas navy are. a former new york book editor. he president of the literary agency, hornfischer literary management in austin, texas with wife and three children, son david is
here with us today. ladies and gentlemen, give a annapolis welcome to the author of neptune's inferno in d. hornfischer. >> i didn't realize we were going to be talking about the hreat of mexican coastal raiders to make the admirable of the texas navy. you get invited to pretty good austin. parties in that's about all it is. story honor to tell a that never gets old in the telling to tell it here. the opportunity, and an honor. thank you, admirable carter, the naval institute. and welcome esteemed conferees. now later today on this stage is going to be a
panel. distinction and never wore the uniform. stand here i feel like a bat boy asked to combat the lead off of the 1927 yankees. historic figures, combat stories whose lessons will resonate with you in ways i cannot guess. to of you will respond something different and i don't know of a way as an institution of higher learning, i don't know way for anybody to learn kinds of things that men did. yet to stand up comnav hero pack. medal of nav skull honor lance and there's no way to know in advance what any of capable of doing in the situations such as these men faced. ll we can do is hear their stories, reckon with them in
private moments, perhaps. will power te the and the fortitude that they used through an y impossible situation, to finish mission, to save lives, perhaps, and do some service to their country. so we start the day today with an humble captain who was in the philippines in 1944 charged oblivion head on in a central what is ring role in major surface action in naval history. in it, 23 japanese warships battleships and cruisers squared off against a escort task unit of carriers, destroyer escorts and defending , they were the five-day-old beach head in
the philippines and all that against the japanese force was sprague's task unit known as taffy 3. task unit 77.4.3. the ingle largest of japanese ships weighed as much ships combined. she was a monster. to he day of battle, here talk about earnest c. evans, destroyer, u.s.s. johnston, on the day of the battle, was 36 years old. he hails from muskogee, oklahoma is cherokee and creek indian. pent a year as -- in the navy and then took a commission here -- arrived here in annapolis in 1927. earning his commission of june of '31. fleet saw as in the familiar rotation in junior
and destroyers, cruisers, battleships, transports. the whole range of surface ships. but the day of the pearl harbor sees them onboard the old piper u.s.s. alden. the doomed u.s. asianic fleet in the dutch east and he would command that ship for more than a year before reporting to seattle, tacoma to advantage of the new u.s.s. johnston, d.d. 557. breaks on october, he takes the routine to the routine, the jeep carriers launched their patrols. and at 0643, one of the planes, brooks,er flown by bill reports a large formation of enemy ships. the first thought is it's hulsey. but closing at 30 knots.
miles.is 20 and the men are duly surprised flashing horizon silently with the report of heavy gun fire. apanese capital ships opening fire at long range. is an anti-aircraft cruising disposition, a circle with jeep carriers and a ring of exports surrounding them. sprague rs rear admiral to go east to the wind. rders all carriers to launch planes. and calculates he might have 15 minutes to go. before he's lucky. a nice swim in the philippines sea. 27 knots.can make can make 27 to 30. commander evans and his you'll see in the next slide are in the trailing the circular of isposition fleeing east, the japanese bearing down from 350
and true. this point in his career, he's a product of many life on theoduct of oklahoma indian territory to get his ambition to escape to the wilder world. he's a product of the naval the my where he learns pride of sea service. he's the product of 18 years in the fleet, to be sure. important the most thing he's been influenced by is the recent combat experience in the java sea. february of 1942, as i indicated, he was onboard the alden. he never forgot how the engines hold t powerful enough to that ship and her company at the admiralthe formation as karl dorman took it to battle in the battle of the sea. too slow to make it an effective run.edo they tried, fired, ran low on forced to withdraw in the face of the overwhelming
community. of you remember the sting aving to retreat as a loser, carry this experience back stateside. and when the u.s.s. johnson was at sea-tac in may 1943, he - october invoked that memory, the crew was a fighting ship and would down from the enemy. he further invited anyone who leave.no part of this to now, i don't know if this is boilerplate on commissioning suspect it's said from time to time the distinction evans n this day was meant it. nd confronted with the overwhelming force on october 25, captain evans demonstrates promise.ing of a he comes out of his sea cabin nd issues a series of commands and no hesitation in his voice according to witnesses. all hands to general quarters, attack a major portion of the japanese fleet.
ahead flank make smoke, stand by for torpedo attack and the killer left full rudder. full rudder puts him directly at ease. 2100 ton destroyer against the world. he screen commander and the destroyer u.s.s. hull has issued no commands. acting on his own. i heard a range of opinions decision, this life-or-death decision. some of the guys weren't so to be carried to the enemy like this. that's the thing about the navy. it's not like the infantry platoon. you don't have any choice but captain chooses to steer. but the carriers get about 25 minutes. plans aloft before he has to turn out of the wind in favor of an escape course to south. the pilots who get airborne are
ships ot for attacking troop support. they've got no heavy ordinance, 500 pound armor piercers. with no time to form up, they as best they can and set out after the fleet. now evans calmed johnson out from the circle of decision and charging the japanese alone, bone in teeth, 30 knots. cross several miles of hell torn ocean from cruisers, battleships, the whole works before he could do anything with his own five-inch battery. battery is the about 18,000 yards. but it's the torpedos that will his gunnery officer, lieutenant bob hagen mutters to himself, please, captain, let's down without firing our torpedos. get that, he'll have to within 10,000 yards. so we have a race against time
and distance. zigzagging, e ship casing salvos, counting on the japanese to correct their aim to position.ous he's chasing hoping they'll continue the predictable doctrine of applying spots in new ranges. and the johnson comes within japanese lly of cruiser, 18,000 yards. lieutenant hagen closes the firing key, tracking to the andde telescope, five crews the single mount five inch keep carrying up hells 200 yards at sea projected across the path of the advance. the flashes and the superstructures indicating hits. e tightens that ladder to 100 yards. by his account, the gunners land some 40 hits on the japanese the ijm camano. 12, 10.ge closes, 15, be the torpedos at last can
sound like a whole load of sheet off of the floor and the salvo, the second battery of the cruiser. it inch shells, twisting pwards towards the stack and striking port bridge. the blast of the bridge all but undresses captain evans. they're sent popping in the storage and takes shrapnels to face, neck, head, and torso.
evans says, don't bother with me now. were ome of the guys that hurt. evans is in charge. coolly so, unbothered by the two fingers from his hand are gone. the well kept pilot house is turned into a dirty meat ocker defiled by ghastly human wreckage, fearing the sight of the carnage. morale, it might hurt he orders the officers to start and orders verboard everybody off of the bridge. the crew of the johnston learn instance that the shrapnel comes in many sizes, some large to cut limbs. some fine and par tick late. noxious gases, and the flames -- this is what captain evans promised his men in tacoma, this is what
going in harm's way entailed. hagen is on the sound guns.ed phones firing the all stations confirm testing. two, aye, gun un three, aye, plot, aye. is relieved to hear that he's not alone. number rs after gun four. hollenbaugh bob calls for a different station aft. comes and asking permission to fire and local patrol. approves request. now it seems meanwhile that torpedos that have been cruising north, at least one or two of them find their mark. the smoke, lls and lieutenant ellsworth welch was atching the cruiser they've been targeting. he sees the bright flash and the long form of the elegant japanese ship kind of heave out of the water.
the crippled cruiser falls out along at half g speed. are scored. they're ordered to screen, to attack. the hull, the nearmen form up and column and head in towards the japanese. heading north, they cross paths johnston. returning the rendezvous and stunned at how badly they're hit. coming down t across the bridge, gun shields are ripped away. black and buckled and torn. by any measure, the ship is entitled to call it a day. as a different understanding of his duty. rudder, ows over the takes his limping ship, falls chargingstern a little
d.e. samuel b. roberts and goes to land gun fire support to their torpedo run. they're having a second run at the japanese. we're about 45 minutes into this fight now. and the naval high command might stir.t's a vice admiral thomas kincaid, admiral of the seventh fleet making calls on the radio assistance.sking for in time admiral nimitz at pearl harbor will intercept some of hulsey about the whereabouts of the battleships benefitting san bernardino strait. hulsey whips the baseball cap to ship, the the swag battleship in new jersey. he's way up to the north. the spotting of japanese off to the s dream north to reckon with the japanese naval arm. he finally orders the
battleships to make it south but it will be far too late. they'll be the sole owners of fight for survival by the next taffy group to the south, aircraft.with the taffy three is alone. third fleet will play no part. the time the hull hearman and sound b. roberts reach the battle has e, the evolved into a street fight. the hobble johnston is caught heavy cruiser column and a squadron of destroyers off to the west. evans sees the estroyers closing sprague's carriers, he orders hagen to engage them. guns keep up a rapid haguen the 7500 yards and is pleased to see ships on the cruiser. the flag ship. he watches in astonishment as the ship turns away. the next ship in line, the
destroyer, he opens fire. that ship turns away. engaging,n the column firing, taking hits, and firing some more, destroyers turn away. the captain of gun five and the fantail, sailor from texas by the name of clint carter, handling wn to the room, more shells! and one of the gang rebels, sure there ain't no jabs from texas. as the johnson's guns continue, a minute, hagen is dumb struck with joy as the court.changes and evans is so elated himself, can ding to hagen, he scarcely speak. he struts across the bridge saying, now i've seen everything. but the johnston has no way out now.his she's surrounded by enemy ships and earned the full attention. bombardment,icious one of the forward mounts takes 52, and hit, gun
everybody is killed or critically wounded. the magazine t in below, filling the upper handing room with smoke and making the even all but untenable. moke flows up and engulfs bob hagen and the gun 37 gun director. the highs were streaming, we coughing and choking carrying out our duties, he said. we're now in a position where all of the guts and gallantry in us. world couldn't save we knew it must be on the way. and every minute's delay might count. emblem of sacrifice buying time, our lives don't matter, our ship may die. but they will not catch the carriers whose protection is our duties. sternans has decamped the to can command the ship from the emergency steering station at this point. course changes down the hatch to the steering engine survivors me of the
will credit the fact that they lived in this erratic court as japanese -- the johnston is trying to e rudder change splashes on one engine. soldiers to the ram and turns the rudder. the ship is clumsy. the japanese looking at the target. what on earth is it doing? close now, nese are they're about 6,000 yards away. and two other ships at tacky 3 full measure.last the hoil battered by as many as down at 840.s passed.he crew are they open up a point where a semitrailer could get through it. the jab neepz get the range on the carriers as well. hit, loses t takes a an engine, falls out of
formation and is enveloped and surrounded and sunk. this comes adst of rare sort of moment in naval warfare. they're fought in great ranges. the actors are encapsulated in massive steel machines, human seldom glimpse one another. but now, as the johnston passes samuel b. ded roberts, we have the skipper of the roberts. copeland is heart broken to see what's become of evans' ship and us this. the johnson went by, limping and i saw ow speed her captain. he was a big man with coal black hair. i met him at some of the conferences. on the fantail by calling down to the open steering tch to the engine room. i could see him, stripped to the waist and covered with blood. is wrapped in a
handkerchief. went by, he wasn't 100 feet from us as he passed us on the star board side. turned a little and waved his hand at me. would never see evans again. johnson ours now, the has waged an effort to keep the ice admiral's ships from overtaking the carriers but now nothing remains to be done. japanese heavy cruisers are off theerge of pinching southern flight. was omething extraordinary about to happen. admiral creda is in the midst of a deep fatigue. he's been in combat 72 hours straight. on, they e goes intensify, she starts to get her loaded with armor-piercing bombs and the torpedos laying two cruisers.o 9:00 approaches, two of the
cruises are dead in the water sinking. the victims of air attack and surface-air attack both it seems. relentlessly by the pie lotses who straf, circle around, straf circleout of ammunition, around, make more dummy runs. the dummy runs force the captains to change force, compromising their speed and pursuit through course changes. japanese commanders are exaggerating the size of the destroyers, s, cruisers, jeep carriers, or fleet carriers. the hull and the bay are down. roberts soon to follow. johnson, dead in the water. issues an order to the far flung squadron. rendezvous my course north.
b-20. the silhouettes are becoming explains, dam it, boys, they're getting away. the first in to the fight will be the last to die. the salvo becomes impact so severe that the crew thinks he's hit an obstruction. a terrible lift. violently. it knocked the electrical switch board dead. the ship powerless begins to resting place. the coast takes over the work of the engines. evans passes order with the abandoned ship. the main suitable to deck, the port of the mid ships lay a pile of people, half of sailors were e carrying wounded out from below deck spaces, laying them out in they might the hope
get medical assistance or at least some fresh air. exhaustion from the of the two hours. goes forward until lieutenant brown is going to wounded. brown won't hear of it. they're wounded on the ship hanging in the balance. the doctor feels he can do that ship's own on the decks. they'll use what time he has productively. bob hagen up on the gun director the low to get word on abandoned ship, like a man on he dream, very leisurely takes off his shoes, goes over the rail. ms. swim in the water, he looks back. he sees the entrance to the ward room. he sees lieutenant brown carrying somebody from the outside deck back to the ward room, and there's a whistling
rush and explosion. japanese shell hitting right where brown had gone inside and hagen breaks down and finally down after all this time and sobs. sprague's carriers to serve a japanese get for gunners that long dispute anything with the flag on it. ive other little jeeps had lumbered south and probably still afloat. from crews 15 hits remain battery rounds and speed. on at full 15 hits. ost of them punched straight through. but the johnston's defiance is in the end. gallant but will not get away. captain evans in the ensured thatng had she wouldn't. now what fate befell the is a ary captain himself subject of disagreement and
conjecture among the survivors. sochure, sailor onboard the ship is the last to see him. machinist may have gone out to take a turn cranking returned , pump forward to fight fires. a terrible blinding flash. he's knocked unconscious. regains senses, finds himself covered in blood, and has been back to the eads fantail again jumping on the water. little easier. he wrote, i went aft as captain forward.nt neither of us saying a word to but they passed by to claim the other. some of us seeing the skipper the rail to the rail boat that he ordered released. others not so sure he made it to boat. if he did, in all likelihood, he didn't go far. the damage of that craft is from all of the gun
fire. much een written that so of life is preparation. so much routine, so much purest ct, that the that e of anyone's genius they pass themselves by a few short hours. the genius and bravery of evans for 2 1/2 hours on this morning was once again called. they call them the chief at anap lils. cherokee warrior, lost in the whirlwind. burnishes the mystique.
battery and at anger at the ship. first time destroyers 30 times ttleships their size in broad daylight in close gun range and got the them. of it was the last surface action ever fought. amidst all ofstory the superlatives remains the humility of re you the participants struck me. the way they tribed what they them on that day was no different than any other destroyer crew in the fleet would have done. you ask anyone about their particular task on that ship, on they'll tell you
revealed greatness time.d the unrevealed and common open to be each of us waiting revealed by circumstance. according to -- i think this fees for mid shipmen and are struck them. we see is a living thing. history is what you do yesterday. become an historic figure the moment your deeds can be talked about in the past tense. that story tomorrow
as we're telling earnest evans' story today. no school staff college or training command will tell you until be earnest evans brain scientists break the code, comnav hero nds up pack will be left to ponder truest and ur highest capabilities might be. operation to the ponder, doubt we'd want to see empowering nting figure the example to intimidate us on uncertainty or self-doubt. i think he'd be entertained by those things too, along the way greatest captain this side of steven decatur. may the story never be take in his example. and please try to make it the history of you. thank you very much. [ applause ]
>> jim hornfischer is happy to take a question or two. we're tight on time. mention earlier, we have microphones in the mezzanine level. there are three microphones. you have a question, please, bring it. do you have a question up there? oh, got it. >> thank you for your wonderful lecture on commander evans. he's not a man often talked a history books, a
wonderful opportunity to hear from you. i understand that he has a son a colonel in the marine corps, a vietnam veteran. in touch with him? do you know what he is doing now? >> yes. the various ships, i understand them.e to a few of our paths have never crossed. he's the retired marine colonel. understanding is that he's not a public figure and i think his father is the same way. business, he knew his men. he knew his ship. but i've never had an opportunity to speak with him. san diego this october, later this month, coinciding with the 70th anniversary of the battle, to be a last hurrah, so to speak. ll of the ship groups from tacky three will be meeting for the last time. every reading has been the last ten years. last but they're all going to get together and i hope for the opportunity to meet some more of guys. though as i think back on the
list of people i interviewed, of them is still around. so i think the groups are bound leadership of their groups and activities to the next generation. well.ny of them do it i hope for the opportunity to to meet the -- meet the heroes of this incredible legacy. >> yes, sir. >> down here. >> i complete the question. >> you're the guy going to get you a microphone. >> what motivated you to write last town of the tin can sailors, that wonderful book. that?otivated you to do >> what motivated me to write this book? lifelong i've been a student of the pacific war and this chapter since i was 10 years old. names of the ships have been
burned in my brain as emblems of american gallantry. it should stand as an example to ur enemies as well how americans fight when the odds are against them. so in that sense, his name roberts johnston, earnest evans, have been inspirations to me my whole life. matter of reconnecting as i think i went to college and publishing ok career. a matter of reconnecting with power of a childhood interest and exploring that the book hasn't been done. nd casting about for a while thinking who can i get to do this. in book publishing. thinking, well maybe i'll give shot. so an amateur's inspiration driven by a childhood interest. nd coinciding with the book's release, the story time truly came. major writers got in touch with me to ask me about my progress because they had been discussion with their publishers about writing the aim book. i was fortuitous in that sense. i call it ziggy sprague's
prophesy for the reason this was so controversial, he predicted that the battle would public the day in the eye for 50 years or more after he was gone. 2004, 50 was publish in years after he passed to this convergence of interest from ultiple directions from the standpoint of popular narrative. so i was part of that. and i was fortuitous to have the first book come out and maybe preempted a lot of other books that might have been better, i don't know. all heard m, we've parts of or most of that story anyone but i don't think in the audience here today could it told ever heard better. so we thank you and we're honored you're here today. you with the sent latest book, the absolute admiral. you here.red to have and thank you very much. >> my pleasure. >> thank you.
[ applause ] we're going to take a small break until 10:00. in at all to get back 1000 for our next panel with our medal of honor recipients. thank you. >> this afternoon at 4:00 p.m. "reel time, join us for america" featuring archival journeyat take you on a of the 20th century. today the people and the police, made in 1974. the history of police brutality in oakland, california and of efforts variety to reform the department, including audio recording police public.tions with the we'll have that today at 4:00 p.m. eastern. week, american history
a correspondent remembers those days at the venezuela's. [ speaking spanish ] >> 23 days after castro's received him in caracas. had just triumphed over a dictatorship. and therefore we welcomed his revolution. castro was an impassioned man, no joke. war is that he would allow the cuban people to decide on their own future. to take their place in the sun, institutions heir to their desires. >> the revolutionary leader took to the public square in havana to tell the people what victory meant.