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tv   1964 Film The Middle East  CSPAN  January 11, 2015 4:00pm-4:19pm EST

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dynamic spectrum access includes a whole bunch of things. it also includes cognitive radio. i know you have heard a lot about that. it includes some new technologies just starting to become laboratory available where we can use satellites to create a model of the world so that when somebody transmits they will know whether they are going to interfere with somebody else. you put all these things together. i hesitate to tell you how much more efficient we are going to be. you would laugh me out of this room. we are talking not about tens of times of improvement or hundreds or thousands, but millions of times improvement. that's not as crazy as it sounds. from the time of marconi until now, we are a trillion times more spectrally efficient than we were in marconi's time.
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the thought of being a million times more efficient in the next what you're 30 years is not as crazy as it sounds. >> monday night at 8:00 eastern on "the communicators" on c-span2. each week, american history tv's "reel america" brings you public affairs films from the 20th century. up next, the middle east, a 1964 defense documentary. ♪ >> where history began, history today is made anew in length -- in lands once fabled and
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mysterious, yet sharply real as a headline, the lands of the middle east. the maps of the middle ages used to show this region as the center of the world because of its inclusion of the holy land. already then it was a cultural area rich in history. western civilization began in the valleys of the nile euphrates, and tigris rivers. here men learn to domesticate almonds -- animals to write and make laws, and to worship one god. three of the world's great religions originated here. christianity, judaism, and islam. through 5000 years of conflict kingdoms and empires rose and fell. the monuments of their lost
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glory and faded power are left of the marks of a historical legacy to enrich the landscape. now today, once again, there is a stirring here, and world attention focuses once more on this region of the globe. our nation takes a deep interest in the countries covered in this report, including israel. egypt, syria, jordan, lebanon saudi arabia, kuwait, iraq, oman. this has been abundantly clear ever since the american document of 1957 held off the assurance of u.s. military assistance when requested to any middle eastern country threatened by aggression from the forces of communism. under its terms, united states forces in 1958 responded to an urgent appeal for help from lebanon.
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why this interest in the middle east? one reason is its location. it is a world crossroads, a sea land, and air bridge. then there is the area's immense suplply of oils. from this supply it furnishes 3/4 of europe's oil needs and almost all those of the far east. in world affairs to, the states are playing an increasingly significant role. they frequently take a united stand on issues and exert a powerful influence on other states. thus the majority of nations in this area making up the arab bloc can have considerable impact on world attitudes and decisions. the area which for all these reasons figure so importantly in the course of world history today is not one solid entity.
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there are divisions, some of them deep and ancient, some born of the troubled present which pit nations and groups of nations and groups within nations against each other. their governments range from republic to monarchy to sheikdom, from forward-looking to feudal, and no two are of the same form. the people themselves differ quite as much as do their forms of government. the most explosive issue of all is the existence of the state of israel. israel was born amid turbulence and bloodshed. following u.n. partition, it became a separate nation after the british, who exercise a mandate since the end of world war i, withdrew from palestine in 1948.
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it was immediately attacked by its neighboring arab states who resented the new nation and considered its creation to be illegal. israel successfully beat off the attacks and a series of honest disagreements worked out by the united nations brought an end to organized warfare in 1949. since then, israel has worked a fever pitch and with the tough and pioneering spirit to make a self-sufficient nation within its borders. jewish immigrants bringing with them the very languages, skills, and customs of the countries of their birth have been absorbed and provided with shelter, food, and jobs. barron and eroding land has been cultivated.
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determined efforts in irrigation and specialized projects with cattle have promoted and agricultural program which today produces a plentiful supply of basic food. even industry, despite serious limitations in raw materials has grown rapidly. at variance with this picture are the camps outside israel's borders, where more than one million arab refugees maintain a miserable existence and demand the right to return to the homes in palestine for which they say they were dispossessed during the war. israel says it would be impossible to readmit them. it has offered to discuss compensation. but the arab states, supporting the refugees' demands refused to acknowledge israel's star and it not accept any conditions at all. -- existence and do not accept
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any conditions at all. the plight of those people symbolizes not only the divisiveness that scars the middle east, but also strangely enough, it's opposite. the arab nations surrounding israel although divided on many issues, are united in their opposition to israel. not only their opposition to israel, but other factors too provide a unity which binds together most of the arab lands of the middle east. for the arabs of every country share a common culture which spills across the borders of nations and is apparent throughout the arab world. from the architecture of its buildings to the customs of its daily life. much of this cultural unity stems from the arab language,
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the tongue most commonly used in the area. it is something more than a bond uniting the arab world. it reflects the tradition and customs of that world. an arab speaking arabic wherever he may be speaks on the basis of judgments and assumptions and values, shared by all other arabs. religion is another socially cohesive force. there are christian groups, particularly in lebanon, and to a lesser extent in egypt. and there are of course the juice in israel, but the -- jews in israel, but the overwhelmingly dominant faith in the middle east is islam. five times a day a call from the minarets atop the mosque, which
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is the center of community life in every city, summons the faithful to prayer. in-home and mosque and field muslims neil and face mecca -- m uslims kneel and face mecca where mohammed was born. islam is the faith that pervades the daily lives of the people. and its bible, the koran spells out with precision the details which form the basis of their law and culture. it is the faith buildup on the acknowledgment of one god, whose name in arabic is allah. throughout the muslim world it teaches a unifying peace through submission to allah's will. even its physical appearance against a unity to the middle east. most of the middle east is a desert, an extension of that great, dry world which extends from the sahara desert in the
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west to the gobi desert in central asia. the sun burns down unremittingly, with a searing heat through most of the year. water is scarce. annual rainfall throughout the area is less than 10 inches. high winds bring frequent sandstorms, so severe that they block vision. the land and climate dictate the most severe of the region's problems. the inhospitable desert is uninhabitable except for nomadic tribes in -- tribesman. most of the people live by farming the narrow bands of fertile land which stretch along the few rivers. most of these farmers are
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sharecroppers, heavily indebted to the wealthy landlords who own the good land, tilling the reluctant earth through methods unchanged for 1000 years or more. for them and for the thousands who flock to the cities in a hopeless effort to find something better, life is a primitive existence written with poverty -- wrridden with poverty, illiteracy, and disease. if poverty is a common condition of the arab world, so too is the yearning to change this condition, to break out of the prison of the past and reach for the promise of a better life. the urge towards change is not particular -- peculiar to the middle east. the 20th century's challenging cry around the globe, but nowhere more insistently than in this part of the world. the manifestations of change are
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everywhere. in the quiet modification of customs and social patterns centuries old, in savage street demonstrations which defy the old authorities and create new ones overnight. most important of all in the application of new methods to ancient problems. some of the countries of the middle east have seized upon industrialization is the answer to all their troubles and the fastest path to the promised land of tomorrow. in the countryside, land reforms and introduction of better farming methods are in many places combining to improve the loss of the farmer and increases output. the most ambitious and hopefully regarded projects are those which endeavor to make more land productive through irrigation
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and develop waterpower for industry. most likely known such project is egypt's construction of the anne's war high dam on the nile -- answar high dam on the nile. it completed construction in 1964. construction of the dam was helped by the soviet union. it was not russia's first foothold in the strategic middle east. egypt's president nasser had provided back by turning to the ussr for military assistance and equipment. the influence of the communist world has been widely felt. in application of propaganda technique which the communists have used in every part of the world, the hillfort here to exploit the people's natural grievances to their own advantage and stir up antagonism towards the west by playing on the people's fears and resentments of former colonialism.
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however dead colonialism may be in actuality, the fears and resentments are real and are still alive in the national memories of those who have experienced. in much of the middle east, the tradition of outside controls fetches back to the days of greece and rome. egypt's nasser nationalized the suez canal. great britain and france, whose interests had jointly controlled the canal, were fearful of a disruption in the delivery of their oil supplies. they sent in troops, ostensibly to bring an end to warfare between egypt and israel, which had come with israel's earlier invasion of the sinai peninsula. they quickly moved to create a buffer zone around the canal.
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withdrawal of these forces was finally achieved. a residue was left behind of new otherness towards western policies in the middle east. sometimes it seems to us more like opportunistic politics. leaders insist their policy is neutrality. if the voice of the middle east sounds with more vigor and insistence in the world today than it ever has before, it is a great pick -- part because of nationalism which has swept through the middle east. governments, then empire outposts have toppled in the wake of that raging spirit. nations have been born, and new and powerful leaders have risen
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to eminence trade a distinctive feature of the nationalism of the middle east is that it spills across the borders of individual nations and embraces the dream of a pan arab world in the middle east. but it is a dream which up to now has been made of stuff too fragile to translate into political reality in the face of national rivalries. the most ambitious attempt the union of egypt and syria in a single state, the united arab republic, lasted for 3 years until syria withdrew in 1961, complaining of egyptian domination. but the dream of arab unity endures, as evidenced by summit conferences which are held frequently among middle eastern heads of state to discuss and attempt practical solutions to their problems. there are problems aplenty problems left from the long and bitter past, problems such as the ever present an explosive deadlock with israel woven into
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the violet fabric of the present, bubbling from which the course of the future depends. notably, the challenge to tame the desert. and make its rich oil deposits work for the benefit of all the people instead of the relatively few who enjoy those rewards now. as it moves to meet these problems, the world feels the stirring as centuries ago, men felt the stir of great events in the desert lands were history began. ♪ >> this year c-span is touring cities across the country, exploring american history. next, he look at our recent visit to austin, texas. you're watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3.


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