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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  January 12, 2015 11:00pm-1:01am EST

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fight andmek give up our dream of becoming the number one place[txg in the world for getting a g$horjob.axhkq [ applause ] we have more work to do but we can do it together. let's commit today that we will keep cutting taxes to increase more 7x÷ growth and opportunity let's commit today: higher education affordable. let's commit today to invest in our infrastructure andn let's commit today to work together to keep florida working. [ applause ]( thank you. god bless america and god bless the great statel/hhjt florida. [ applause ]x
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♪ ♪ ♪7hrm÷x hñ ÷\,4hprñ+++s!v female governoror. she called for rebuilding the state economy and revealing manufacturing. this is 15 minutes.
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>> congratulations. >> thank you. thank you, thank you, thank you. [ applause ] >> please be seated. my fellow road islanders it is a state honor to address you today. i'm humbled by the challenges before us mainedful of the many people struggling some of the toughest economic conditions we've ever faced and deeply grateful for the trust that you've put in me. let me began by expressing our shared heart felt appreciation for 25 years offing dedicated public service. thank you governor chafy. let us also acknowledge the brave men and women serving in uniform. our troops first responders and
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ochs officers and my family for supporting me along every single step every way. i love you. the challenges that my governor inherits define the possibilities before them and how we solve intractable problems is limited only by our creativity and our courage to tackle the most difficult challenges. over the past 30 years we've watched the foundation of our economy, our manufacturing base erode. our manufacturing sector used to provide good stable middle class jobs and as it has withered, nothing has taken its place. in just the last year, we've had the highest unemployment rate in the country for nine straight months. we've ben 49th among states where companies want to do business and dead last for helping entrepreneurs. at the same time our government has become larger but less affective. we face unsustainable budget deficits and yet our roads bridges and school buildings are
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crumbling. as a result workers are insecure families are vulnerable and too many cities are teetering on the brink of bank kuptruptcy and far too many people are leaving our state to seek employment elsewhere. there are far too many believes that our problems are just too big to solve that there's nothing we can do and that our leaders don't get it and that our system caters to the few. we've said that this is rode island, this is just the way that things are so we've deferred our expectations and let corruption take root. today we begin to change that attitude. [ applause ] it's time to stop our decline and to ignite a rode island come back. it's not something that's going to happen on its own or we can
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wait for somebody else to do. every person within the sound of my voice and far beyond has a role to play in this come back. most important, we have to believe. we have to believe it's possible to have the come back that our families deserve and we have to commit ourselves to a new way of doing things. now, at times, these changes are going to be uncomfortable. so often we've resisted new ideas because people say we've never done it that way before. but doing it the way we've always done it has landed us here. we need new politics and new ideas. too many interest groups have crowded into this building for too long putting their short term self interests before the long term interests of all rode islanders. today, i have rode island to begin to think differently. i want you to ask yourself each of you, what role can i play in
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the comeback of road island? how can we as elected leaders represent the concerns of all the diverse people of rode island? how can business leaders develop new strategies to meet pay roll and&t ç expand jobs right here in rode island. how can our educators create cutting edge laboratories of learning where we teach the next generation of innovateors and leaders. now we're going to have to give up a little of our own narrow self interests and give something back to our community but that's how america works and that's how we're going to get rode island back to work. we need -- we need that eternal optimism shown by our founders who believed in divine intervention, good fortune, and yes, providence, the idea that through god's grace, all things are possible because they are. the truth is our only path out
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of this mess is to create middle class, family supporting jobs. so we have to foster an environment where businesses want to add jobs and also where we support our workers. if we do that, if we rebuild this economy everything is possible. if we don't nothing else is going to matter. let's create a place where people know you can make it in rode island, whether it's the young man preparing to graduate from high school or a new mom who sees nothing but promise for her children or the little girl who knows she can be anything she wants to be if she works hard enough. i want rode island to be a place of boundless opportunity for everyone. and heck maybe that little girl will even become governor of rode island. middle class jobs are how we keep young people in rode
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island. it's how we move people off public assistance and secure the resources to invest in education and infrastructure and save for a rainy day but more importantly a steady job is the life blood of a healthy family. i learned that growing up watching my father for three decades work at the watch factory. as a kid i saw that there was a job for every kid in this carpool but i also saw him struckling again when the company moved jobs overseas. too many rode islanders today face that uncertainty. every decision we make should pass the test of whether it should create opportunities for middle class families and how will this create middle class jobs and then have the courage to act accordingly. to spark rode island's come back
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we have to do three things. first we need to build the skills our students and workers need to compete in the 21st second we have to attract entrepreneurs and investment in industries of our strength to flv stimulate our economy and create jobs. third, we have to innovate in everything we do including in our state government to enhance accountability and deliver value to tax payers. we all know the economy is changing rapidly. the question is, are we preparing rode islanders to be winners in this new environment? education is a ladder of opportunity, to we need to modernize our school buildings support our teachers and make college accessible for more families. we need to ensure affective training opportunities for workers of all ages that align with the jobs that are in demand. to create stable jobs, we also have to cultivate conditions
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that will make businesses want to be here and want to add jobs here. before adding jobs businesses want to know there will be a steady supply of well trained workers and a 21st century insfrainfra infrastructure, clear and stream lined regulations and most importantly that everyone can get ahead based on what you know not who you know. we need a growth strategy focused on our strengthslb9tñ in the marine sighciences, food industries and we have to revive our manufacturing facture because if we make things in rode island e people can make it in rode island. we also have to innovate in everything we do including how government works in rode island. let's operate a government that's customer friendly and
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creatively finds ways to help families succeed. it's time to modernize government and instill accountability for results. let's improve medicaid and provide more digital services to citizens and facilitate online permitting for businesses and let's help our cities and towns share services to reduce operating costs. instead of simply throwing money at problems, we have to be outcome oriented and insist on citizens getting their moneys worth for their tax dollars. we have to do all of this with urgency because our budget deficit is severe this year and there's even darker clouds on the horizon. we can't do what we've been doing scraping together enough cuts and revenues to make it through next year. we have commit ourselves to limit our deficit over the next
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several years and make the tough choices so at the same time we'll be able to invest in job creating opportunities. my fellow rode islanders, today we face a choice. we can continue on our current path, we can avoid difficult decisions because we're afraid of special interests or political ramifications or of simply changing the way we've always done it. if we stay on that course, our kids are going to be left behind. more cities and towns will go bankrupt and other states will continue to pass us by. but there's another choice there's a better path. i want everyone to have opportunity to make it in rode island so today i ask you to join me and let's reach for something better for rode island. [ applause ] now listen, the job is not going to be done in two, five or ten
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years and the problems we face weren't created over night and we're not going to solve them overnight. and at each step of our journey this journey that we're on together, we're going to mesasure our work in lives changed, in opportunities created, and in families saved. this is my pledge to you, i will wake up every single morning focused on expanding opportunity for families in rode island and no matter how long it takes, or how many obstacles are thrown in our way, we're never going to give up. now, i don't have all the answers. just ask my kids they'll tell you that. but i will go anywhere and i will work with anyone who wants to do what's right for rode island. and i'm especially committed to collaborating with the speaker who i thank on their dedicated
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service and share in getting rode islanders back to work. listen, the challenges before us are real. i get that. i know that. but hear this rode island. together, we will meet those challenges. as i prepared for today i spoke to a friend of mine who is someone many of you know and many of you are praying for. sister ann keef. sister ann's work has been teaching nonviolence but like voeft most things in life it's a work in progress. at a time when all you have to do is hear the word ferguson, you realize the challenge of our time is to simply get along a little better and respect one another. to be a better example for our children and to teach them that solving a problem doesn't mean catering to the loudest voice, it often means listening to the softest voices. i would ask if you remember one thing from today it's that
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we're all in this together. governor cuomo who sadly passed away last week reminded us that we must be the family of america recognizing that at the heart of the matter we're bound to one another. our collective future is tied to rebuilding rode island's economy in a way that expands opportunity for all families without leaving anyone behind. i believe that's why we're all here today. we're tying our faiths together and with god's grace and with god's guidance, we will find a way. thank you, god bless you, and god bless road island. [ applause ] some live events to tell you about. at 10:00 a.m. eastern, the house foreign affairs committee holds a threat assessment hearing on north korea. those testifying include the
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state department special representative for north korea as well as officials from the treasury and home land security department. later in the afternoon, we will go to the heritage foundation for day two of the conservative policy summit. that will be live at around 1:00 p.m. eastern. president obama announced new measures monday for consumer protections and online privacy at an event hosted by the federal trade commission. the announcement included a partnership with credit scoring agencies to make it easier to access your credit rating and technological advances by credit card advances to make online threat more difficult. the president also called on congress to pass legislation that would create additional protections. this is 20 minutes. [ applause ]
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thank you. thank you so much. thank you. everybody have a seat. thank you. well, thank you edith for your introduction. as mentioned, we go a long way back. in-law school we served on the law review together. i will not say who edited who. i will say she looked exactly the same. and i do not. and it's -- it's upsetting. but edith in your career you've stood up for citizens in communities. i was proud to nominate you first as a commissioner and then as chair woman of the ftc, you're doing an outstanding job as are your fellow commissioners. we very much appreciate your outstanding efforts. you know, in edith's story from the daughter of mexican immigrants to the head of the
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ftc, we see a central part of the american story. that's worth remembering at a time when those are issues that we're debating all the time. it's a reminder that what makes this can'tountry special is the incredible talent that we draw from all over the world and somehow it all merges into something unique, america. to edith to the fellow commissioners, to all of you who work at the ftc thanks for welcoming me. i'm told i may be the first president to come to the ftc in nearly 80 years. since fdr in 19 -- [ applause ] first time apparently since fdr in 1937. which is a little surprising.
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i mean you'd think like one of the presidents would like come here by accident. they ended up in the wrong building. where are we? we're at the ftc. anyway, i figured it was time to correct that. plus i know sometimes your name confuses folks. they don't always understand what your mission is. one person who does understand is david letterman. a few months ago, he thanked you for standing up to the companies that were trying to pitch a new weight loss product, caffeine laced under garments. i'm actually not making this up. you ruled that these projects were not substantiated by scientific evidence so thank you for saving america from caffeine laced under garments. these companies owed consumers a
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refund. and that was just the latest example because as edith said you recently celebrated your 100th anniversary and i want to thank you for 100 proud years of protecting american consumers. i also wantvw> to thank some of the members of congress that are here today and many of our partners from not just government but from private consumer and advocacy groups. next week up the street i will deliver the state of the union address. it will be a chance to talk about america's resurgence, including something we can all be proud of which is the longest stretch of private sector job growth. fifty-eight straight months and more than 11 million new jobs. [ applause ] in the speech i am going to focus on how we can build on that progress and help more americans feel that resurgence
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in their own lives through higher wages and rising incomes and a growing middle class. but since i've only got two years left in this job, i tend to be impatient and i didn't want to wait for the state of the union to share my plans so i've been traveling around the country rolling out some of the ideas that we are going to be talking about. a little sneak preview. and in the 21st century in this dizzy age of technology and innovation, so many of the jobs that we create and opportunity of jobs that are available depend on our digital economy. it depends on how to search and connect and shop and discover online in cyber space. as we've all been reminded over the past year, including the hack of sony, this scoredextraordinary
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intersection creates enormous opportunities and also enormous vulnerabilities for our nation and for our economy and for families. i am laying out new proposals on how we can create new opportunities in the digital anyone while protecting all the values that we all cherish. >> today i am focusing on how we can protect american consumers from identity threat and ensure american privacy including for our children at school. tomorrow at the department of home land security i will focus on how we-qp-r can work with the private sector on how we can better defend ourselves against cyber attacks and on wednesday i will talk about how we can give families faster and cheaper access to broadband so they can succeed in the digital economy. but i wanted to start here at the ftc because everyday you take the lead in making sure that americans their hard earned money and their privacy
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ar3óp protected especially when they go online. in these days, that's pretty much for everything. managing our bank accounts paying our bills hand ming everything from medical records to movie tickets. controlling our homes. smart houses from smart zones. secret service does not let me do that but i know other people do. with these benefits come risks. major companies get hacked. american's personal information including financial information gets stolen. the problem is growing and it costs us billions of dollars. in one survey, 9 out of 10 americans say like they feel like they have lost control of their personal information. in recent breaches more than 100 million americans have had their personal data compromised like credit card information. when these cyber criminals start
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racking up charges on your card, it can destroy your credit rating, it can turn your life upside down. it may take you months to get your finances back in order. this is a direct threat to the economic security of american families and we've got to stop it. if we're going to be connected, then we need to be protected. as americans, we shouldn't have to base -- forfeit our basic privacy when we go online to do our business. that's why since i took office, we've been working with the private sector to strengthen our cyber defenses. a few months ago we launched our by secure initiative. we are moving to stronger pin and chip technology%4@n for credit cards. the ftc is working with credit bureaus so victims can restore their stolen identities faster and everyday helping consumers with identitythreat.gov.
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today i'm announcing new steps to protect the identities of the american people. first we're introducing legislation to create a single strong national standard so americans know when their information has been stolen or misuse misused. right now almost every state has a different law on this and it is confusing for consumers and it is confusing for companies and it is costly too to have to comply to this patch work of loss. sometimes folks don't even find out their credit card information has been stolen until they say charges on their bill and it is too late so under the new standard that we're proposing, companies would have to notify consumers of a breach within 30 days. in addition we're proposing to close loopholes in the law so we can go after consumers that steal and sell identities of americans, even when they do it overseas.
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second, i am pleased that more banks, credit card issuers and lenders are stepping up an equipping people with another weapon against identity threat, including jp morgan choice, bank of america usaa state employees credit union. allied financial. some of them are here today. i want to thank them for their participation. this means a majority of adults will have free access to their credit card which is a warning system to tell you that you've been hit by fraud so you can do this fast. we're encouraging more companies to join this effort do it everyday. third, we're going to be introducing new legislation, a consumer privacy bill of rights. working with manufacture you from the priefvate sector and advocacy groups we've identified basic principles to protect personal privacy and ensure that
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industry can keep innovating. for example we believe consumers have the right to decide what personal data companies collect from them and how companies use that data that information. the right to know that your personal information collected for one purpose can't even be miz mislosed for a different company. the right to have your information stored securely. we believe there ought to be some basic baseline protection across industries so we're going to be introducing this legislation by the end of this month and i hope congress#íz joins us to make the consumer privacy bill of rights the law of the land. finally, we're taking a series of actions to protect the personal information and privacy of our children. those of us with kids know how hard this can be whether they are texting or tweeting or on facebook or instagram, our
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children are meeting up and they are growing up in cyber space. it is all pervasive. here at the ftc, you've pushed back on companies and apps that collect information on our kids without permission. michelle are like parents everywhere. we want to make sure that our children are being smart and safe online. that's our responsibility as parents but we need partners and we need a structure that ensures that information is not being gathered without us as parents or the kids knowing it. we want our kids' privacy protected. wherever they sign on or log in including at school. the good news is we've got new educational technologies that are transforming how our children learn with innovative websites and apps and tablets
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and textbooks and tutors. students are getting lessons tailors to their needs. we want to encourage that information that also facilitated parents tracking their grades in real time. this is all of what our initiative is all about giving people access to worlds that they may never have had access before. we've already seen instances where some companies use educational technologies to collect student data for commercial purposes, like targeted advertising and parents have a legitimate concern about those kinds of practices. so today we're proposing the student digital privacy act. that's pretty straight forward. we're saying that data collected on students in the classroom should only be used for
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educational purposes to teach our children, not to market to our children. we want to pretend companies from selling student data to third parties for purposes other than education. we wantpmi to prevent any kind of profiling that out certain students as a disadvantage as they go through school. we believe that this won't just give parents more peace of mind, we're confident that it will make sure the tools we use in the classroom will actually support the break through and research and innovations that we need to keep on unlocking new educational technologies. now, we didn't have to completely reinvent the wheel on this proposal. many states have proposed similar legislation. california just passed a landmark law. i hope congress joins us in this national movement to protect the privacy of our children. we won't wait for legislation though. the department of education is going to offer new tools to help
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schools work with tech companies to protect the pliefrivacy of students. companies are committing not to sell student information or use educational technologies to engage in targeted marketing to students. i want to encourage every company that provides these technologies to join in this effort. it's the right thing to do. intend to let students and parents know you have not joined this effort. to protecting information and privacy in the information age, this should not we a partisan issue. this should be something that reunited all of americans. it's one of those challenges in modern society that crosses all of the divides, crossing
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politics ideologies, everybody is online. everybody understands the risks and vulnerabilities as well as opportunities that are presented by this new world. now, business leaders want their privacy and their children's privacy protected just lir2hr everybody else does. consumer and privacy advocates also want to make sure that america keeps leading the world in technology, innovation and apps so there's some basic pragmatic steps that we ought to be able to support. rather than being at odds i think that much of this work actually reinforces each other. the more that we do to protect consumer information and privacy, the harder it is for hackers to damage businesses and our economy. meanwhile more companies strengthen their security, the harder it is for hackers to steal information and hurt families. we got to be working together in the same direction.
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i'm confident that if we do we will make progress. we are the country that invented the internet and we're also the pioneers of this information age, the creators the designers, the innovators. our children are leaving us in the dust if you haven't noticed. they are connecting and they are collaborating like never before and imagining a future we can only dream of. when we americans put our minds together and our shoulder to the wheel, there's nothing we can do so i'm confident if we keep at this, we can deliver the prosperity and security and privacy that all americans deserve. we pioneered the internet but we also pioneered the bill of rights and a sense that each of us as individuals, you know, have a sphere of privacy around us that should not be breached whether by our government but
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also by commercial interests and since we're pioneers in both of these areas, i'm confident that we can be pieoneers in crafting the kind of architecture that will allow us to both grow, innovate and preserve the values that are so prerscious to us as americans. thank you very much and thank you very much to the ftc in all the great work you do to protect american. [ applause ] ♪ ♪ ♪
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>> are the senate held a procedural vote monday on a bill that would authorize the
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construction of the keystone pipe line. the vote was 63 to 32 with 10 democrat and one independent voting in favor of advancing the measure. on tuesday senators will continue debate which is expected to extend into next week. as always you can watch the senate live on cspan 2. here are a few of the comments we've recently received on the 114th congress. >> the thing that really needs to help9$h is going work to what the income and majority saidf2z if they need to get back to regular order. if they go back and pass the 13 bills that it takes to fund the government, then everybody can see who voted on what, who put what amendment up and then send it to the president and let him pass it or veto it. >> i hope it's a more mature, responsible congress that we will see emerging in the next
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two years. i think implematic of this situation of an irresponsible congress, we can see that reflected in this john boehner challenge today. it's time for both parties to put aside the bitter partisan battles and get onto the tasks that they are constitutionally required to do and that is to governor and ledgegislatelegislate. i think what the american people should in november for both parties is that it is time to see that finally start to happen. >> i think -- i don't know. the 114th congress what can we expect of them, you know? being with citizens united -- all the politicians are bought and sold really. who are they representing, us? the first thing on their agenda is the keystone pipe line. >> frankly, the american people are prepared to get past the
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polished language the false promised, we need you to understand sir that you work for us. we have seen nothing but for foreclosures, people in the street. frankly we're tired of the silly games that are being played. we don't believe anything that we are hearing any longer, to hear to create jobs. that is so overwarn out. to continue to let us know what you think about the programs you're watching. call us at 2026263400. e-mail us comments @cspan.org. like us on facebook. follow us on twitter. >> up next a discussion on themigration and the potential implications of obama's recent
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execute executive order. >> good morning. thanks for that introduction and the opportunity to join you here today. i will pick up right where the doctor left us and talk about the president's announcement last month. on november 20, president obama delivered a prime time address to the nation to announce a series of executive actions on immigration policy. he plans on expanding the program for unauthorized children allowing. as dr. bose mentioned along with other changes to sort of quasi legalization programs the announcement covered a little over half of the unauthorized immigrants, the second set of
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actions will modify existing immigration enforcement programs including who the department of home land security targets for deportation and how 9 with local state and local law enforcement agencies among other enforcement programs. and a third set of actions include a variety of procedural changes to support high skill businesses and workers. a fourth set of actions will support immigration integration on a new task force on new americans. i will say a little bit more about them later but let me tell you that these executive actions together are a big deal. they are almost certainly i would say the most significant changes to u.s. immigration policy in the last 20 years since the 1996 bill that i think dr. bose mentioned. even though a future president could overturn them with the stroke of a pen, they are a big deal. in announcing the changes, president obama described them as necessary steps to reform a
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broken immigration system given congresses inability to pass an immigration bill. so what i want to talk about is what drove the president to take such significant action outside of the legislative process. i will begin by addressing the prior question in what sense is the immigration system broken and how did it get broken and also review the history of the u.s. immigration debate -- [ inaudible ] and with these topics by way of background, i will evaluate the new immigration actions. i will tell you how the new programs will immediately affect the broken immigration system and how they influence prospects for a future legislation on comprehensive immigration reform for a more fundamental fix in congress. finally, i will say just a little bit about what the president's actions mean sort of for the broader u.s. political
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system and u.s. political debate. so to begin, in what sense is the u.s. immigration system broken? one answer is that the answer has a badly designed immigrant admission system. the u.s. promises citizens and per man ent residentz permanent residents can bring in their families but howthe numbers don't add up. the numerical limits don't add up to nearly the numbers needed for all of the people wanting to bring their family numbers. there are 4 million family members that have been approved for a visa. wait times are six to 12 years are for people seeking to bring people in to the u.s. to be reunified and over 20 years for
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families for countries like mexico or the philippines. the laws designed to permit u.s. employers who can't find a qualified u.s. worker to hire a foreign worker. this is a long-standing goal of u.s. immigration policy and of all wealthy countries because allowing businesses to bring in you know qualified workers, generally helps the u.s. economy and helps all americans by supporting economic growth and investment. but due to numer isk erer erical limits, people who want to bring in high skilled workers because they can't find a u.s. worker have to wait at least two years. if they want to bring in a chinese or indian worker, the waits are five to 10 years. those aren't realistic time lines for how businesses hire people or seek jobs so it conflicts the goal of facilitating of recruitment of
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the best and brightest workers. more importantly in some ways because strict criteria of protecting u.s. workers from too much competition, most employers of low or middle skilled workers can't hire a low skilled worker at all. for most kinds of jobs. there are some skepssexceptions. so these comply and demand mismatches are the biggest driver for the sense in which the system is broken for the 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants. i want to pause and let the numbers sink in. they don't really mean a lot to us. but 11.4 is more people than all of metro chicago. metro chicago, the third largest city in the country with all of its suburbs have 9.4 million. so that's a lot. if 11.4 unauthorized immigrants all lived in one state they
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would be the eighth largest state in the country. just a little bit smaller than ohio with 11.5 million and bigger than georgia with 10 million. if they all lived in their country, unauthorized nalandia would be the 75th biggest country in the world. this is a big deal. the sheer scope of that many unauthorized immigrants is really a huge challenge when it comes to crafting any kind of policy solution. just setting aside the politics. the policy challenges become that much more difficult when you're dealing with that many people to craft a solution that sort of weighs, you know, the humanityarian issues versus the rule of law, all of this becomes much more difficult when you're talking about such a large number of people. in a third sense in which the system is broken is that we have that extraordinarily large,
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unauthorized population despite the fact that the federal government spends $18 billion a year on immigration enforcement, more than we spend on all other federal law enforcement priorities combined. so immigration policy is like the most of what federal law enforcement efforts do and yet we still have 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants. how did we get into this mess? what's important to understand that unauthorized immigration is a function of policy choices are a bad match to push and pull forces that have been amplified over time. prior to the 1970s. the united states had almost no unauthorized immigrants and those few who were in the country were circular migrants who returned home every year. the modern immigration really began with the 1965 amendments and with earlier legislative action in 1964.
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congress allowed in 1964 the legal guest worker program that allowed 450,000 mexicans to come to the u.s. every year to work temporarily expired in 1964. then in 1965 with the amendments to the immigration and national act that dr. bose mentioned the united states eliminated the national origin system and in doing that congress imposed for the first time strict limits on permanent migration from latin america and mexico. those shut the door to most if not all legal immigration from mexico and same time that global economic re restructuring greatly increased the demand for low skilled workers in the u.s. and at the same time the cost of international travel were falling shortly.
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shutting the door to legal flows right when the demand for people to come was increasing was sort of a perfect formula for incentivizing and facilityizing illegal migration. as unauthorized flows took off, immigration enforcement became a high priority in the united states throughout the 1980s and 90s. for 20 years beginning in 1980 the united states took a series of steps to secure the border and easier to deport people including the 1996 illegal immigration act but there were several other things. throughout the period, most of the enforcement efforts were concentrated at the u.s./mexico border. we did pass a law to make it illegal for employers to knowingly higher unauthorized workers but for a variety of reasons, that law has never been strictly enforced or generally
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enforced at all. leaving in place a key driver of illegal flows because the employment magnet remained in place and limited efforts to o8! the effort was really focused at the border. what emerged as a result was a stable policy regime that was a nonenforcement equilibrium. so we were able to hire illegal forces without being accountable. immigrants were happy because once they got past of the border they were able to work in the u.s. and be with their families here and politician were happy because they were able to avoid hard questions about how to fix the fundamental drivers of immigration as long as they funded more enforcement agents and build higher senses. this broke down in the 1990s because they immigrants began to increase and dispersed
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throughout the country instead of concentrated in border states, people began to view the numbers that were emerging as more of a problem, especially after the 9/11 attacks the equilibrium broke down when immigration control was seen as a national security issue. so since the late 90s and since 9/11 we have seen an'qv additional security measures put at the border and in the u.s. these enforcement measures, i argue, seem to have reached a tipping point where the number of unauthorized immigrants in the u.s. today has been going down. the number peeked in 2007 at 12.4 million. there's been a 10% reduction, almost a million less. it's a little hard to assess exactly how important the
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enforcement measures are in driving that decrease because many of the most important enforcement additional enforcement measures have been put in place at the same time that the u.s. has been going through the recession and slow recovery. i will argue that a lot of it is driven by the new enforcement stuff that has really come to have an impact. the biggest impact is that it is prevending new flows. many of these immigrants have been here for many years in the u.s. it's much more difficult to displace people who have been here for five or ten or 20 or 30 years than it is to discourage a new person from entering illegally. so a lot of the immigration debate for the last decade has focused on proposals to take on all three of these issues at once, reforms to the underlying immigration system to you know better match supply and demand or to dedesign visas to prevent
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future unauthorized immigration. tougher enforcement provisions also to prevent future unauthorized flows and cause )#ksome people to be deported and legalization for most unauthorized immigrants, most existing unauthorized immigrants and recognizing that long settled immigrant deportation is impractical, difficult and for most people imhumane for those who have families here. this is the package that most people are referring to these three things when they talk about comprehensive immigration reform or kcir. so this history is important, generally and it is important because when president obama says that he has to take executive action because congress has failed to act what he means is that congress has failed to pass a cir bill and that the president like most americans, believes that trying
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to solve our immigration problems through more enforcement without broader changes is both expensive and a losing strategy. we've really done a lot of enforcement and there's limited additional gains we can make through enforcement measures although they will be part of a broader package. we can get more bang for that buck. so all of this makes a lot of sense so why is president obama like president bush before him completely failed to pass a cir bill? one answer to this question is sort of the complexity that the doctor was talking about and that i was referring to before is that it's hard to design a good immigration policy or bill that includes certain unauthorized immigrants but excludes others that sequences legalization with new enforcement mechanisms that we trust that we're doing both
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things in the right order and, you know, the enforcement people trust the legalization people and vice versa and that creates a visa system that balances all the competing interests who care about how many of this kind of worker or this kind of family member, how those trade offs get managed. just given how deeply intertwinedintertwine ed ed immigration is into all of our lives, it's hard to design a policy that works. the hardest obstacles to comprehensive immigration reform are political. i want to mention four political changes changes that make it different. >> first there's a political economy challenge. what i mean is that the economic interests with the stake in immigration enforcement operators of private detention
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facilities, immigration enforcement bureaucracies who have a real stake in the status quo have a more concentrated interest in the debate than those who benefit from reform. they are better to lobby because they have a immediate economic state in the status quo. there's nobody who has a strong economic stake in reform who can't sort of manage the status quo. there are people like that but the stakes are low for them. there's a rhetorical question that the system is badly designed and the pushes and pulls don't match the number of visas available. but this is kind of a nuanced argument. there's no good guys and bad guys in this argument and there's no one to hold accountable for creating you know, this sort of badly designed system. there's another story we can
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tell which is also true about 11 million unauthorized immigrants who have each individually violated u.s. immigration law by being here out of status by coming here or overstaying their visa out of status. my story has the disadvantage of being complicated and not having easy solutions. this story has the advantage of being simple unauthorized immigrants are bad and of having clear solutions. they should be held accountable by being deported. it's a much more powerful argument to make. it's also why, you know, when we look at children of unauthorized immigrants who we don't see as responsible and want to hold accountable that the group -- that the debate about dreamers is so different because it doesn't fit into the good guy, bad guy, receiptor yooror iskal frame. a third a symmetry relates to the coalition that care about immigration policy. on one side there's a broad group that want comprehensive
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reform including immigrant right groups religious organizations, civil libberaryians and others. each care about a different slice of cir, they care about legalization or low skilled workers or high skilled workers or what enforcement looks like. when it comes to the actual give-and-take of the allegelegit late legislative process. and then there's this group which is smaller in number and more passionate and concentrated in republican districts. they have strong political incentives to support an enforcement only approach. looming demographic change. the increasing number of
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hispanic voters in the country will eventually shift the dine dynamics but because of the way the maps are drawn and low participation, those demographic drivers are several years away at best. i think the most important a symmetry is procedural. i have described the current system -- i described it as a nonenforcement equilibrium. the reason we have nonauthorized immigrants is because we have failed to deport people who are deportable. what that means is immigration hard liners don't actually need any legislative change to achieve their policy goals. all they need is to enforce the laws on the book for the president to strictly enforce the laws that are already on the books. for advocates of legalization and visa reform on the other hand, there are no laws on the books that allow a permanent legalization or allow more family members to come to the
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u.s. so they need legislation to achieve their core goals. so this gives a huge negotiateing advantage to immigration hard liners because it's much easier in our dif yiefdvided government to block rather than pass. they can walk away from any deal they don't like and they get the status quo. it's very hard for the advocates to do that. finally, what does all of this tell us about the president's executive action. first, how would the president's announcement affect the broken immigration system? the answer is that the president's announcement will make it easier for some high skilled employers and high skilled workers to navigate the parts of the employment based system where there's already a degree of flexibility but the announcement fails to address any of the deeper root causes of unauthorized immigration with respect to low skilled workers
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or family members. the reason is that there's no way to fix those problems outside of legislation. the president can only adjust how he enforced existing laws so he can't address those core issues. it's a limitation of what can be done through executive action. in its legalization and temporary legalization provision provisions and changes to the immigration enforcement system, those are things that the president can do on his own to address the symptoms of brokenness. to address the large unauthorized population in the u.s. so as i mentioned about half of all existing unauthorized immigrants potentially a little over half are potentially eligible for some form of legalizeation either through doca or dopa the deferred action parent's program.
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