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tv   Joe Mc Carthys Enemies from Within Speech  CSPAN  January 18, 2015 2:36pm-2:56pm EST

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sarita was married and had a grandson he doted on, courtney burton, jr. we have a beautiful goldfish pond, quite large, on the property. mr. oglebay always gave the order that you are not allowed to mess with the goldfish -- they were big koi -- or anything like that. but the boys would fish. i remember a story -- we had a man who worked here for many years. he was courtney burton's boyhood best friend. they were fishing in the pond when they were not supposed to. they heard laughing and it was mr. oglebay behind them. he did not say anything and let them fish. he also gave the boys a gold coin whenever he possibly could. for something, shopping, whatever they wanted to do. he was very generous and that way. but he was also very serious minded.
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he was on this mission to be a great humanitarian. mr. oglebay died in 1926. i think because he was a wealthy man, a very famous man in this area, people did not know him on a personal basis very well. he was very formal when he was out. i think that people are very grateful that he left his land to the city of wheeling to become a park. i think it was an amazing gift. very generous. it was nice that the family did not quibble with any of this. they thought this was a great gift. when mr. oglebay passed away in 1926 at the age of 77, his wife of course had predeceased him, they had the daughter sarita and her husband, and they supported it so much that they paid the taxes here until the city accepted it as a gift. it took two years for the city to accept this gift. people were reluctant because of the responsibility.
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but they accepted in 1928. and then, of course, it was named oglebay in his honor. waddington farm was then named oglebay. i think of the park is a great heritage today. people are surprised when they find out it is a city park, one of the biggest in the country. >> throughout the weekend, american history tv is featuring wheeling, west virginia. west virginia's independence hall is also known as the earth place of west virginia. politicians held constitutional conventions there that paved the way for west virginia to become the 35th state in 1863. our comcast cable partners worked with c-span's cities to her staff when we recently traveled to wheeling to explore the city's rich history. learn more about wheeling all
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weekend here on american history tv. >> there have been a wealth of requests that the information given for anyone who might be performing any work for the communist party. >> the term mccarthyism entered the lexicon of american history right here in wheeling on the spot. today we are in the mcclure hotel at 12th and market street in wheeling, west virginia, which is important because of its association with senator joseph mccarthy. joseph mccarthy was only 40 in 1950 when he came to wheeling. he was not a well-regarded senator at that time. he had a penchant for calling his fellow senators names.
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he was always rather rumpled had an ad to him -- edge to him. he was at the height of his power, any sense. he was a bright man. he had a photographic memory. he tended to lie about things. he made up much of his resume that was not true. he was coming up for reelection in 1952. this is 1950. a lot of people felt he had not done a lot and were getting concerned. so, he got a group of advisors together in d.c., one of which was a priest from georgetown. he said, what can i run on? i need an issue. the priest pushed very much
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anti-communism, traders and government. that was kind of the basis for -- traiotrstors in the government. you have to understand at that time in american history, it was different from today. >> recognizing a communist physical appearance counts nothing. if he declares himself to be a communist, we take his word for it. >> it was called the age of anxiety. it was a time of great fear. five years after world war ii the communist armies had taken pretty much eastern europe. in 1949 the fall of 1949, america decided, yes, communism had taken over china. in the gop came out with their platform and the basis for their platform was they went after truman and the democrats. they were soft on communism.
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they were socialists. they were bringing about the downfall of america. people reading this, they were very upset about what was going on. so, that was the background for mccarthy coming to wheeling. it was at the time of the lincoln day dinner. all across the country republicans were sending out speakers to speak at the great gatherings at the lincoln day dinner. mccarthy was assigned to wheeling. wheeling at that time was not a big city. we had 59,000 people. the dinner itself was held at the mcclure hotel colonnade room. it was to start at 6:30 p.m. it was in the paper for days before how they were organizing this. this was a big deal for wheeling. he was introduced by william
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callahan who was a regional republican bigwig. they described the talk that he gave as intimate and humorous and kind of folksy. he had an irish wit about him. he could be very ingratiating when he wanted to be. he had a vague grin -- had a big grin. and he talked about the republican platform. he talked about the war between good and evil, between atheist communism and the christian democratic societies. outer his had just been convicted some weeks before -- alger hiss had just been convicted some weeks before of perjury, but he was actually being convicted as a spy. he made a big deal about that.
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and then he had the key to the talk. i want to read exactly the words from the newspaper. and what he said was -- while i cannot take the time to name all the men in this state department who have been named as members of the communist party and members of a spy ring, i have here in my hand a list of 205 -- and he waved a piece of paper to the people -- that were known by the secretary of state as being members of the communist party who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy in the state department. now anybody who had the sense here -- this was a terrific charge. he was saying there were card-carrying communists in the
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state department working as members of the american government and the secretary of state and this and they were still there. he went on. he continued his talk. at the end, he said, well now it is a moral battle between good and evil. the chips are down, the chips are truly down. he kind of ended with that. there were questions and answers. he invited the audience to talk to him. and there it lay. the local radio station had carried his talk. one of the reporters from the wheeling intelligencer in the paper the next day reported verbatim a lot of what he had said. when mccarthy was to go back to the airport, he was shown the paper, and the headline in wheeling's paper was "mccarthy charges the reds hold u.s. jobs."
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it was beginning to don on him that he had something there. the next day, he flew out and he was going to go to reno. he made the same statement and salt lake city. except he changed the number. his next talk, the series of talks, the number went to 91. he was always changing the number because he had no list. he had no names. it was all a egg live. in several weeks, only several weeks later in march, a great cartoonist for the washington post did a cartoon, and he had cans of tar and at the largest can of tar he put across it "mccarthyism." people were quoting the phrase
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mccarthyism, which meant you are tarring people and for no good reason. 6000 people left government. there were all kinds of questionnaires and security checks on people in government and we lost experts in the state department because of this crusade. of course, 1950 two, there was a republican victory. eisenhower, the senate went republican. which meant mccarthy got the chair position on two important committees. one was an investigatory committee for government. and he took off. >> the average american can do very little insofar as digging communist espionage agents out of our government. they must depend upon those of us that they send down here to
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man the watchtowers. >> that is where he started the bullying tactics calling everybody under the sun to come in, and that is where the story really starts. people would resign from government rather than come before his committee. people fear joseph mccarthy. if you took him on in the senate, you could often end up without a job. it he had power. he had subpoena power. he had all kinds of power. the longer he went, he took on general george marshall, the hero of world war ii, and he just went after marshall, and they thought surely he would come out and take him on, but he didn't. that was not eisenhower's way. but when he took on marshall, that was pretty bad. and then he went after the army
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and communists in the army. and he did not take on the army so easily. the army had a lawyer, mr. welsh. >> senator mccarthy, i don't know anything about the application he filled out. mr. dinkins -- you don't know anything about that? senator mccarthy -- i never saw it. senator, i have the application that he filled out, and i can show you -- >> don't tell me i notarized it? >> what? >> don't tell me i notarized it. >> no, you merely signed it. [laughter] >> there were 36 days of hearings in 1954 on television -- and television came into the picture. and people began to see, and i
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must say, mccarthy was a heavy drinker and he was starting to go too far. he would interrupt -- point of order, point of order. >> point of order? >> i don't know what it is, but it is a point of something. >> [indiscernible] >> my point of order is yesterday mr. dinkins was imposed upon and so was the secretary of the army by having a doctored or altered photograph produced in this courtroom as if it were honest, in the committee room, as if it were honest. >> it was rude and unruly and they talked about this as a point of order on america. when tv showed how he was, he lost a lot of public support. then he tried to name this young
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lawyer. whenever he named somebody it was like tar on them. it was bad. he named this lawyer and this other lawyer just went after mccarthy. >> i have been through this man's record and i want to say mr. welsh he has been labeled long before he became a member. as early as 1944. >> we know he belongs to the lawyers guild. >> [indiscernible] >> you have done enough. have you no sense of decency sir? at long last, and have you no sense of decency? >> i do not know what you refer to, mr. welsh. >> mr. karthik, i will not
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discuss this any further with you. you have set within six feet of me. you have asked me questions. you say you have a list. if there is a god in heaven it will do neither you nor your cause any good. i will not discuss it further. you, mr. chairman, may, if you will, call the next witness. >> republicans lost the senate in 1954. so, the senate then decided to censure joseph mccarthy and they did by a vote of, i think, 67 to 22. all the people who voted for him were republicans. they abandoned him pretty much. at the end of the trail there was never anybody in the government they could prove was a card-carrying communist. never. mccarthy had lost his base and he kind of faded away.
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and this was a man who needed constant attention. when he walked in a room, he wanted to be noticed. he wanted to be the center of attention. without that, he lost something of himself. he began to drink more heavily and he actually was dead within seven years of wheeling. he was 48 years of age. he died of cirrhosis of the liver. his body shut down because of the heavy drinking. as a historian i look upon it and i think, i wish it had not started here. because that is one of the things we are known for. the mccarthy speech and mccarthyism started here in the city. it was not a good impact on the country. >> throughout the weekend, american history tv is featuring wheeling, west virginia. our cities tour staff recently traveled there to learn about its rich history. learn more about wheeling and
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other stops on c-span's city store at c-span.org /localcontent. you are watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> dr. anthony felt she, our guest tonight on q&a, is on the front line battling infectious diseases. >> we have drugs now that we can give you if you come in with hiv -- i can show you the dichotomy. if someone came into my clinic in the 1980's, the median survivor would be six to eight months. half of them would be dead within six to eight months. now if someone comes in to a clinic who is 20-plus years old, relatively recently infected and i put them on a combination of three drugs, i could accurately
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predict, look them in the eye and say we can do modeling to say if you take your medicine regularly, it you could live an additional 50 -- 5-0 --years. knowing that you can essentially live a normal lifespan, just a few years less than a normal lifespan, that is huge. >> the director of the national institute of infectious diseases, at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span's q&a. >> next, author andrew a shaughnessy discusses the social and economic decisions -- conditions in the british west

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