tv 70th Anniversary of the Liberation of Auschwitz CSPAN February 1, 2015 8:30am-10:36am EST
republican in the house and the first woman veteran in the senate. keep track of the members of congress using congressional chronicle on c-span.org. the congressional chronic page has lots of useful information there. new congress best access on c-span c-span 2, c' span radio, and c-span.org. holocaust survivors, heads of state and several hundred others gathered tuesday in poland to mark the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the auschwitz nazi concentration camp where more than 1 million people mostly jews, were killed. next, on american history tv the ceremony including remarks by the polish president and three holocaust survivors. following the speeches a candle light vigil was held in memory of those killed at the
inmates and the survivors. let me welcome all the english guests from all over the world with representives of churches and religious communities and including representatives of the jewish communities and representatives of the roma. now i am asking the president of the republican of poland for his address. today's ceremony's under his patronage.
ladies and gentlemen, and especially you who went through this all the distinguished guests we are in this life where our civilization was down in the place where the plans to destroyed men of their dignity was systematically executed where german nazis launched in the sea and a human being was reduced to a number. ten years ago at the shore, here they kept my family in prison and they burned everyone. here, they took my name away and they gave me the number.
never again was i myself. i became a number. we are standing in the place where over a million people were murdered overwhelmingly majority of them being jews frauchl europe, prisoners of war, and many many mothers. we are standing in the place that reminds us of the murdererous nazi ideology that underminds the pillars of the world. it was exactly 70 years ago that a camp was liberated by the troops of the 60th army of the first ukrain of the red army. on that day, in the afternoon, the infantry division and freed the remaining parts of the
camps. it is with gratitude and respect that we are thinking today about those soldiers. ladies and gentlemen, what was demonstrated in auschwitz was human contempt for a human being and human dignity. they also wanted to alleviate memory and also a prisoner of auschwitz said they wanted to kill and forget. each and every one of you survivors of the camp survivors of the hell of hatred and brutality is a guardian of the memory of auschwitz. you are the most important citizens of today's commemoration. being a guardian of the memory of auschwitz entails not only the remembrance of the crime
itself but also a reflection of individuals and nations ideologies. this is the memory of the reggeme, gen phobia that lay the foundations of the collapse of our civilization of the 20th century. in a particular way this is a tragic memory. since it was against poland the rageme began to execute the genocide plan. in early 1940, the german occupation of polity decided to go ahead with the campaign that's called ab campaign to exterm nat the polish intelligence here. at the same time the leadership
decided to commit mass murder of polish officers. here at the same time germans formed their concentration camps in auschwitz mainly for polish prisoners at that time. it was expanded later by adding the death camps. the germans make my country part of the exceptional imaginative as a place of extermination of european jews. german nazis made pole vend an eternal cemetery of jews. they ended many jews presence in in our land. this is exactly why poland occupies a role of necessity of the memory of auschwitz and the
shaw. what is the memory of auschwitz today? it's mainly a memory of suffering. it is a remembrance of a wound still open and pursing. it is also a memory of a state, a place that took a toll on everyone whoovsh came close. a memory of auschwitz is however also remembering that even in the face of the darkest hole of humanity, the greatest heroes where sanctity is possible. even sacrificing your own life to keep a prisoner alive. because here the world is set on being destroyed, but also saved.
the words imprinted on the medal awarded to the imagination. they say who so ever takes a single life takes an entire group. here in particular these words were so true. ladies and gentlemen for other 70 years, we have been trying to convey to the world, the truth of the hurt inflicted in this hard tomorrow factory. in the name of the truth we wish to fight attempts to vulasify the shaw today. i thank those who receive the talk and speak about this crime. the international auschwitz and the museum do so in a unique way. unrecent years, auschwitz built
a foundation thanks to donors from all over the world has continued efforts to preserve the authenticity of the premises of the camp. you are contributing to the fading of the powerful sign of memory and warning the whole world. and it should be so. since the memory of auschwitz, it's also the memory of the need to defend our values freedom, justice, tolerance, and respect for human rights and freedoms. years ago, john paul the second said it here that auschwitz is the reckoning with the conscience of humanity. he warned that never can one nation be the love at the cost of another at the price of making the dependence unheard
and slaved exploited, even at the price orphincident death. that we shall remember what the violation of nations to help determination and what the violation of the inability of borders on attempt for life and in the case -- from this place we are condemning all hatred and gen phobia. an auschwitz survivor said that all who forget -- our duty the duty of the whole europe and the whole world is to remember for
used to scare us. my brother used to copy some copies for the newspaper. hundreds of thousands of other jews and people different in the nation, this place baseman the only reality for me. it was a hell that i couldn't get out of. all around us electric barbed wire and rows of grown barracks fencing muds and some figures are muddling through. you cannot tell whether they are old or young, women or men, gas ing crowds of people, all in lousy wet rags with numbers, shaven heads. those gray bone faces with the legs like sticks wearing those mud clogs. nothing reminding you of
anything remotely human. default, agony, hunger secrets and those diseases here being an immediate sentence death in a gas chamber. vulnerable and physical abuse. refib fined and sfakted torture and death everywhere for anything and everything. you are there so that you cannot be anywhere in the world. to die trembles in mud, covered in excrument and blood, and all this with nature's approval that is used by oppressors, the dust of wind and snow and grain and the slaver beyond ones friends and the german songs that they have to sing and you would march there and some of them wouldn't return. and also we were taunted by a
german man that the company had been lodged and those columns parked nearby, those had marched to the death chamber. some would ask, how far is it because i need to feed my children and the smokes and the nazi jewish colonies and those piles of bodies. and we remember it was christmas. on one hand there was a christmas tree. among the other side there was fire. fire burns human bodies and the rams and trains long trains. and there was so very much there. for three years i strapped to myself in the seven transformation of hell and illegal in auschwitz, a jewish child that is to go and get food. many of times did i die i would freeze with fear and passion and pain, this tension that i got at
selection and i would look and see the agony of my fellow prisoners with this terrible pain. every moment was a terrible memory terrible thoughts. would there be another one? i remember there was this role call and we were standing there. and nobody was picking us up and i had this pleading thought, puthenning thought, maybe one day i will burn this crematorium that is behind me and i will never have experienced a true love's kiss that i have read about, that i read about back in war so. when you are 14 it is a different idea of what that predeath is. but i survived. i lived to see the oppressors defeated and then i saw the nazis burn documents before they
would leave columns of people for the march of death. i remember that my arm was capacitated because i was shot by one of the guards. it was the new year. 1945. it was a single shot. the guard aimed at my heart, but he missed and all that happened was my nerve was damaged. i was liberated by te russians in may 1945 from auschwitz. it was one of the two last camps in germany. i lived to see the defeat of those pinchmen. it was something that my mother dreamed of before they took her away from me because she died. it is all fresh in my memory. what i'm telling you is this. i'm reliving those facts, those thoughts all that in human and superhuman that you breathed when you were at auschwitz every single day and night.
people who died here are tortured, most of the jews mostly names remain all that remains are ashes spreaded by the wind. and for me, the greatest step is to pass from this memory tell others about how much they desire to live. i want to tell the world about that. and this overwhelming daily terror that i was at. i was 16 and brought back to the ruins and saw the remains with this pain and longing and i must phrase if i could, i'd rather not call all that. in my memory totally can i be with my loved ones and their presence. because even the photos would have burned and those images are etched deep in my mind. and through them i can tell right from wrong and i can tell what the reality is like and
instinctively i can be vigilant. i can recognize people and these memories actually make the impossible for me and i can reconcile with the fact that people do not really understand what auschwitz was. what is life for a human being. his life? the loved ones? and the life of his nation? this life that is threatened by others people who want to take away somebody's life somebody's possessions, there's this fear. there's denial. holocaust, all that terrifies me. i feel out raged because i know what kind of hell all that can turn into if nobody stopped it. the auschwitz citizenship evil. it lingers and is reborn in this growing terror with
anti-semitism and racism and it dproez through people being decapitated with others watching, the whole world watching. sometimes when i recall what's happening around us i keep telling myself auschwitz could actually legally exist for years and act for years. if that is possible, all the worst things in the world are possible, but you need to oppose that. you have to oppose all that so that no oppression occurs. and this museum osc, the museum and memorial they are doing great work in management. they're all keeping those crafts of documents and mem oirlz and they keep the testimony of
eyewitnesses, they preserve all that this knowledge about the life of all those millions of people, people so very close to death, this memory of human strength. friendship and love. and here i would like to thank from the bottom of my heart to the management of the mooum and to all of you. it is my privilege that i can participate in this common ration of the 70th anniversary of auschwitz liberation. i'm just an inmate just the prisoner numbers for a death penalty because i was so young and jewish. i would like to thank all of you for the momentous moments we have here and i would like to thank all of you for that in this place that used to be so
distinguished ladies and gentlemen, dear inmates my fellows, you are in the german concentration camp of auschwitz. as an element that is an enemy of the further night, for jews 2 -weeks for priests, a month, for young and healthy, three months. this is how long you have the right to live. no longer than that. oh and any insubordination or rebellion will be ruthlessly
beaten down. for any resistance to authority, attempt to escape, death is the penalty. the only way out from here through the chimney of the crematoria. these are the words that were shouted out by the infantry to us us 728 polish political prisoners of the first kachlt on the 14th of june, 1940. they were made our reality with criminal assistance for over four and a half years of existence of the camp at auschwitz. a testimony to this are hundreds of transposes, jews roma, and representatives of several other
nations. it was proven by terror hunger selection in the bunkers of the 11 block, and executions at the wall of death. this was from the very first days. in mid 1942 the augusts c concentration camp was transformed into the death camp. to railway ramp every day, our jews from all the captured parts of europe. ss doctors conduct selections. women who can work are taken to the blocks of auschwitz one. and then to bid canal. pregnant women the ailing the
old, and children go to the gas chambers. the holocaust takes a deathly toll and to the efficiency of crematoria is still not sufficient for the hingemen. everyone in auschwitz, several attempts are developed too much camp administration provides the labor, cashing plenty of money for the works of the slaves slaving in the hitlerite in the street and mind. the madness of all the people if even mentioned is opposed by te stronger individuals. from the first day, there was a struggle for biological survivor continues, a struggle to take away from death the maximum
number of beings and are preservation of human dignity. within the camp and around the camp there was also an organized resistance a movement managed by the home army polish socialsh party, and the peasants battalion. the dedication of the peelish people from the zone around the camp gid not have a price. priceless. and efficient forms, self-defense were escape from the camp. it makes escape to take out documents of ss crimes to talk to the world the truth about the camp, and to fight with the occupants. if you were lucky enough to experience this only 10 % of the escapes ended in a success.
to the sounds of the sirens special support ss units supported by the german battles who replaced the settled poles went for pursuit and chains. the excruciating yell of the siren inspired fear in the inmates due to the depression but it also gave hope that the world will learn about the crimes of the nazis. i myself heard the siren for the last time late in the evening on the 27th of february 1943 when having escaped from auschwitz, among the floating ice i was crossing the river. that sound continues to vibrate
in my self conscience ever since i paid the high price for escaping from the camp. following the oppression my mother and sister were arrested who was deported to the canal and converted. luckily, they have lived through that. the merciful fate made it today of the 70th anniversary of the auschwitz camp complex by the red army, together with my colleagues former inmates of auschwitz canal, i can now be standing before the monuments of the victims of nazi in their
[applause] >> i was asked how i survived augusts c. my answer is i do not. know. i do not know. how many eternities can one have in a single lifetime? i don't know the answer to that, either. behold, from the inside from remembering, this was the world my father handed to me. today, 70 years later that command to remember is indeed so
very close. only a survivor of auschwitz to forget the horrific experiences and viewed during the concentration camps, even for one moment is impossible. witnessing the atrocities committed at the intlns gave me to auschwitz was more than enough to keep me awake at night until the end of time. it is there that the germens welcomed and began to brutalize their deaths. they were ridding families and groups of people, forcing them apart and separating them, often
forever. that helps us. then 70 years later, the daily cruelty and inhuman behavior in the camps is a spear indelibly etched in my mind. the look of pleasure on the murdererous faces as they fortuneered innocent men, women and children is beyond description and lingers in my consciousness. how can one decide of human
skeletons, just skin and bones busting an eye. how can i ever forget this men of burdened fresh that permeated the air? many of us came to auschwitz not knowing each other in life, but most left together in death, traditionally in the form of a white glow smoke. the heart breaking and waking of the children torn from their mother's arms by the brutal action of the torturers will rung in my ears until i am laid to rest. i continue to wonder if the price of this ever penetrated heaven's gate.
we should remind this continuously came face to face with death. yet, this was not armory strong. despite hopelessness, we created life out of the world of darkness and we now remember the all consumed evil we were forced to endure. we survived cannot dare not to forget the many lives who were murdered. for if we were to forget the conscience of mankind would be buried alongside the victims. today, in this place we are part of the 70th anniversary
commemorating the endingf auschwitz, held under the auspices of the government of poland. what an opportunity to expend a meaningful heartfelt message to leaders of all nations to the world at large. we must all remember for if you, the leaders in the world will remember and to teach others to remember then the holocaust and other atrocities as well as the present one in terrorists will have no place on the face of the earth.
[applause] >> but to remember is not enough. peace. peace. it is our mutual obligation that of survivors to install in future generations an understanding of what happens when the tragedies and hatred and allowed to flourish. we must all teach our children tolerance and understanding, both at home and in school. for tolerance cannot be shown. it must be told. we all must make clear that hate
is never right. and love is never wrong. when i think of holocaust, as i often do, there are few that i consider really hurting. and this should mean my faith in man kind. i saw hesitation, the courageous and harrowing feats of the gentiles who saved jewish lives during the holocaust, all into this category.
they endangered their own lives and often that of their family to save the life of a stranger. the gentiles, just as you against millions showed the world that the answer to terror and indifference is involvement and the courage to make moral choices and act in accordance with those choices. they would say as an example of what kind have been done and indictment what was done. and it's a moral towards an awith regard of oppression and
darkness. his rescuers nobles by day but mothers by charity. those are even in the hell known as the holocaust, the individual had a choice and they kept us to behave humanly, each three are the only charity. and had the terrorist to act accordingly. [applause] >> we survivors should come on guard with the current generation and help for the future generations.
we do not want our past to be our children's future. [applause] >> i really wanted to repeat it but you interrupted by your applause, but i will still repeat it. we do not want our past to be our children's future. i now hope and believe that this generation on man kind's faith, traditions, and led by
understanding, that these children must embrace purism and tolerance, decency and humanize for all people and must include a position to anti-semitism and racism of any sort. it should be commonplace rather than exceptions. unfortunately, the passage of time makes it more and more apparent that there is an effort by the an traitors as well as the deniers and the behaveiers affected by much of the media.
to sanitize this show off and to give memories to describe the holocaust, so this is a piece that we get and brutal. their efforts excuse the group of what actually happened. it has been completely to introduce the world to lust when referring to relatives and loved ones who were brutally murdered during the holocaust. and the term loss does not actually describe what happened. loss referred to something that has been misplaced or has gone
astray. 11 million people including 6 million jews and one and a half million jewish children were not lost or misplaced. these children's were murdered as there were generations that would have followed them. similarly, we often hear that the million studies jews in the holocaust, let me make clear those who died in auschwitz, they were not perished in defense of the war. they were viciously killed murdered and burned in the crematoria. for all intents and purposes i'm not telling it as it actually was, clearly as an educational hemming, we were meant to diminish our out rage that should exist.
and in effect, we protect the perpetrators who could perform these apprehensible deeds, by using words by cleaning up what happened, we are known as the deniers. we are posthumously left in the atrocities of the murders. and yet in view of the cave of participation, so many words in this, it is feasible sign of compassion and improvement is that of indifference. this is progress. let us now ask the leaders of tomorrow, but there remains so much more to be done. we all must be involved and stay
involved. no one should ever be a spectator. i feel so strongly about this point that if i had the power, i would add an 11th memory of the university accept the 10th commandment. you should never, never be a bystander. that's why there is a brighter future for mankind. after all, we used to be up there on the same planet. perhaps when we all finally realize that we are one people we can then make sure that tragedies like auschwitz will never, ever happen again to us or to any other people.
[applause] >> i'm going to end my remarks by quoting the writings about auschwitz. from whatever country you looked at the ruins of think and to all you can so you can make sure there willby nothing vain as it was nothing vain our death. for you and your children, the actions of auschwitz are the warning. so with the hatred visibly here will never grow in the seed
[applause] >> guests i am not a survivor although i am grateful for the survivors who are here today. i'm not a liberator, although i salute the coverage of the veterans who are among us today. i'm here simply as a jew, and like jews everywhere, this place, this terrible place called auschwitz touches our
souls. i've always wondered if i had been born in hungary when my grandparents were from instead of in new york in february 1944 would i have lived? the answer is no. i would have been one of the 438,000 hungarian jews gassed by the nazis in 1944 right here at auschwitz. what was the reason that over 1 million jews were murdered right here? the reason was they were jewish. nazi germany believed jews had no right to live yet the
holocaust was designed by the nazis. but there was publicity from almost every country in europe. [applause] >> for 70 years, philosophers theologians, and historians have tried to explain auschwitz. and for 70 years, no one has come up with an adequate answer. so auschwitz never goes away. this awful place stands as a reminder that propaganda leads to anti-semitism. it's a reminder that anti-semitism will grow if nobody speaks out. and it's a reminder that when
whole countries are filled with hate anti-semitism leads to places like auschwitz. i was going to make a very different speech here today, but after the recent events in paris and throughout europe and around the world, i cannot ignore what is happening today. jews are targeted in europe once again because they're jews. pentagons and jewish people are threatened, shoulting death threats to the state of israel and to jews. shortly after the end of world
war ii after we saw the reality of auschwitz and other death camps, no normal person wanted to be associated with the anti-semitism of the nazis. and for a time we thought that the hatred of jews had finally been eradicated. but slowly the demonization of jews started to come back first in articles and on the internet and then in some religious schools and even universities. and from these, it made its way into main stream society. and it all seems so unimportant that few people paid any
attention, until now, when europe suddenly awoke to find itself surrounded by anti-semitism once again. and it looked more like 1933 than 2015. once again, young jewish boys are afraid to wear yom cus on the streets of paris and budapest, london, and even berlin. once again, jewish businesses are targeted and once again, jewish families are starting to flee europe. this past summer anna, a mother of four, was walking down the street in sweden when she was suddenly viciously beaten by a
mob. what did she do to deserve this? she was wearing a star of david around her neck. how did this happen again? why? after seven decades and three generations, is this new storm of anti-semitism sweeping through europe and targeted jews once again? for decades, the world has been fed lies about israel, that israel is the curse of everyone's problems that israel is a villain of the 21st century, and that israel has no right to exist. we all learned that when you tell a lie three times and
there's no response that lie becomes the truth. this billification of israel the only jewish state on earth quickly became an opportunity to attack jews, much as this came from the middle east. but it's on fertile ground throughout the world and the targets of this hate all not just jews but christians who are being slaughtered unafrica and the middle east. women and girls are killed in afghanistan just for wanting to go to school. murdered in the middle east and right here in europe and awful ways of hatred has descended on
earth once again. there are representatives today from 40 countries with us here today, and we the jewish people are really so grateful that you've joined us. you are good decent people but because of what we are and what this place means, your government must send us to this new wave of hatred. [applause] >> -- your government must stand up to this new wave of hatred. [applause] >> houses of worship should be places of love understanding, and healing. they should not be telling their people to kill in the name of god. all countries --. [applause]
. >> all countries must vacate a crime and any country that openly brags about the annihilation of another country should be expelled from the family of nations. [applause] every country must have absolutely zero tolerance for hate of any type because unless it's checked right now, it will be too late. we still have a chance to stop this but if every government does not act quickly, then the tragedy of this terrible place will darken the world again.
of a victim from 70 years ago become a way of heritage today? i don't know. but we don't have another choice. it was on this very pain that we have to build the post war europe. we therefore have to listen closely and feel what has aushld not happened to us. ourp imaginations are still unable to have this just like the imagination of the people of those times did not fathom that. night without end, no dorm comes without asking. auschwitz is not a source of strength. if anyone came here to feel
strength or wisdom they're all wrong. auschwitz is darkness destruction, annihilation. this is why it takes on the form of the warning, the horrid warning. we still cannot cope with auschwitz as we cannot save human face. at the same time consenting to hatred contempt and anti-semitism and first and foremost our daily indifference. this is why auschwitz is so important. it no longer awakens the demons. it awakens the conscience and this conscience is a speech in every one of us. we the dead accuse anonymous
check female inmates, the survivors, you living unyour memories carrying the visuals of those murdered. we thank you dear friends, for your difficult words of warning, for your fear and for your hope for everything that you've told us about us ourselves. today we have to become mature adults caring further all that your words have sewn in our memories. this opens the fields to
overwhelming but we don't have and will not have another choice. we have a dark premonition because we know they'll remember us. it would seem that the world should stay different of those that no one should be innocently killed. it would seem that no longer hatred can be propagated today and that no one is going to try to change border. it would seem indifferent impassiveness should stir disgust. we have however, so many times seen that the remembrance has not yet matured in us. it happened before. it can happen again.
it can happen anywhere. even today, we have the right to be a prey but we also have the obligation to be responsible because we know that our future is rooted in the remembrance. and when we forget we are not destroying its image of the past but the tangible shape of our future. remember, again, it's not a political program but it is a personal decision. it means never again because of me. never again in me. never again with me. i believe that never again with
will be leaving towards the birkenau monument. everyone staying here in front of the gate will see the placement of the candles. we shall now honor those murdered. let the candles be a sign of our eternal memory. the first will be laid by a three-person delegation of former inmates of auschwitz. they will be accompanied by the young who want to carry forward the memory of auschwitz. -- the memory of auschwitz and
that we can watch the placement of the candles, and then we will see all the representatives and the guardians and inmates. they will return here to the gate of death for the closing of this ceremony. in reflection and watching the symbolic gesture of the placement of the candles, we will listen to adagio for strings by samwell barber. [music plays]
representatives of former inmates, state authority of pillars of memory and guardians of the auschwitz -birkenau memorial will soon return here to the gates of death. we shall continue our ceremony. the celebration today. >> the delegation of former prisoners, the highest authorities, of pillars of memory, and of people involved in the international auschwitz council state museum the minister of culture and national heritage will come back here. we will continue our commemoration's soon.
>> be representatives of the former prisoners are paying tribute to the murdered in auschwitz. and now, representatives of the highest authorities of many countries. >> now the candles are laid by the representatives of the state authorities. and representatives of the state delegations present at today's ceremony.
>> with live coverage of the u.s. house and u.s. senate, on c-span3, we complement the coverage by showing you relevant coverage of hearings. on the weekends, american history tv. including six unique series, the civil war's 100 50th anniversary, visiting battlefields, touring historic sites, history bookshelf the presidency lectures and history, and our new series, real america featuring
educational films from the 1930's through the 1970's. c-span3, created by the cable industry and funded by your local provider. watch us in hd, like us on facebook and follow us on twitter. each week, american artifacts takes you to historic places to learn what artifacts reveal about american history. sarah barton, -- clara barton founded the american red cross in 1881. she moved the headquarters to a house in glen echo maryland outside washington d.c. workers could begin relief efforts immediately in the event of a crisis. we learned about her life in a tour of the house with park ranger kevin patti. >> welcome to clara barton national historic site. my name is kevin patti. 38 rooms and 14,000 square feet.
we will get to know the lady who lived here more than 100 years ago. clara barton's home for the last 15 years of her life, she lived to be 90 years old. this was the first permanent home of the organization she founded and led for 23 years, the american red cross. under one roof in this house they had people are ready to go volunteers lived here. they had supplies, they had money, there is a walk in vault where they had $3000 ready to start a relief effort. if they learned of a hurricane on a sunday and the bank was closed, they did not have to wait for the bank. they could open the doors, load wagons, go to the trains and wherever it was they were going. this was clara barton's office. she sat right here.
on one side of her desk there is a stapler. next to it, the fragment of a cannonball she is using as a paperweight. something she could have picked up on a civil war battlefield. all sorts of other interesting things on the desk. red cross windows. . people in a streetcar could see these. people would know what the house was about by the windows and the red cross flag about the windows. clara barton died in her bedroom in this house three days before the titanic sank, april 12, 1912. >> watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website at www.c-span.org/ history. the battle of new orleans was the final major battle of the war of 1812, 5 after the british and the americans signed the treaty of ghent in 1814. tonight, we visit new orleans
for a bicentennial commemoration of the pattern. tonight at 6:30 eastern on c-span3. >> harvard professor john stauffer talks about "the battle hymn of the republic." he calls the original publication as a call and responsiblee later appropriated by union soldiers as the marching song "john brown's body." well this version was more popular during the civil war, julia ward howe's "battle hymn of the republic" has had a longer impact on the american consciousness. this is part of a one hour 15 minute talk. >> for those of you who heard me speak yesterday, i focused on the transformation of culture from the civil war. it is a theme i want to continue today, but from a very different