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tv   1882-1945  CSPAN  April 12, 2015 4:13pm-4:31pm EDT

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>> on the afternoon of april 12 1945, the lowering of the white house flag confirmed the passing of america's 31st president. from warm springs, georgia the mortal remains of franklin delano roosevelt began the long trip home. slowly, the long, black funeral train rolled up from the south and then down pennsylvania avenue to the beat of drums, the president was born for the last time to the executive mansion that for 12 years had been his official home. the passing of fdr from the american scene came as a
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personal shock to the nation. people wept openly, unashamed of their grief. drawn by six white horses, the flag draped caisson was wrought to the main entrance of the white house, carried into the great east room where 80 years ago, almost to the day, the body of abraham lincoln had also laid in state. at hyde park, his ancestral home the guns of west point cadets rang down the final curtain on the man best known around the world as fdr. [gunshots] to measure something of his greatness, we turn black -- we turn back the clock to franklin roosevelt as a young man making his first political campaign, to a time when at only 28 years of age, he was elected new york state senator and brought the
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republican machine that had ruled that just county for 28 years will stop emerging as a national figure, he served resident wilson as assistant secretary of navy. in 1920, his running mate of ohio, james m cox. fdr at the age of 38 was the youngest vice president joel candidate in history. married to anna eleanor roosevelt, he founded the heart of his dutch forebears. the vacation cottage on campobello items -- campobello island's after the vice presidency. it was in these same waters that he was first stricken with the dread polio germ that was to paralyze his legs but never his life.
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called in 1928 to the state capitol in albany, franklin roosevelt was elected governor of new york. with al smith, his old friend the happy warrior at his side, he threw himself into the fight as a champion for the common man. with james a farley swinging the gavel, the die was cast. a country mired in the more us depression wanted a new president. called to accept the nomination, his his wife and son -- who knew it then, but this was the beginning of an era unparalleled in american history. fdr's appearance in chicago stadium was the beginning of a series of spectacular personal triumphs.
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his first words were fearless and prosthetic. president roosevelt: -- prophetic. president roosevelt: i am prepared under my constitutional duty to deliver what a stricken world may require. these measures or such other measures as the congress may build out of this experience and wisdom i shall seek within my constitutional authority to bring to speed it up. but in the event congress should fail to take one of these two clauses, in the event the national emergency is still critical, i shall not invade the clear force of duty that will then confront me. i shall ask the congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis -- broad, executive
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power to wage a war against the emergency as great as the power that would be given to me, if we were invaded by foreign foes. [applause] >> fdr's first term was marked by world unrest. men of many nations were again taking up arms for stub our own national defense was at its lowest ebb. america new flood, famine drought and the dust bowl. fdr brought farm relief and flood control, water power and giant public works. social security was born, old age insurance became a new responsibility of government. the price of gold was fixed and the american dollar became the soundest in the world.
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the forgotten man was remembered the country hailed its leader as a pathfinder. the initials fdr began to stand for progress or national security. the fireside chat became an american institution. the white house secretary staff helped in the process of his radio reports. the president's talks were masterpieces of sincerity and directness. >> ladies and the president of the united states. president roosevelt: my friends the american public -- >> with that now familiar salutation, he brought his messages straight to the firesides of the people. he talked with them in their homes about the vital issues of the day. roosevelt never gave up hope in
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his battle against infantile paralysis. in the healing waters of the white house pools, swimming was his one relaxation, his only exercise. how he organized the great warm springs foundations for the nation's polio victims will forever stand as a living monument to his name. each year on his birthday, all over the land, little children sing his praise. ♪ happy birthday to you, happy birthday to you, happy birthday dear president, happy birthday to you ♪ >> this study of the president is one of the rare personal portraits and a crowded life. for no man in our time or a time perhaps has been called on to
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make the momentous decisions that have been his. his one goal, his greatest ambition was to lead the nations of the world into a lasting peace. royalty from many nations, the king and queen of england have been guests in his home. with the world's most powerful rulers, he commanded supreme respect. with a keen grasp of international affairs, he foresaw the many years that would trend the world march. in 1936, he gave the nation's that have been quoted again and again. president roosevelt: i always thought that piece, like charity, begins at home. [applause] and that is why we have the gun at home, here in north south
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and central america. but peace in the western world is not all easy. i have seen war. i have seen war on land and sea. i have seen blood running from the wounded. i have seen children sobbing, i have seen the agony of mothers and wives. i hate war. [applause] >> 1940 found the nation facing war. voters took the third term issue straight to the poll. with the magic power of fdr shatter all presidents? >> the results are now conclusive, roosevelt wins. >> the nation was jubilant -- fdr had done it again and at hyde park, roosevelt and his
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family received the well wishes of their neighbors. again, the president addressed the nation. in the presence of nations, fdr ask for broader powers and had ever before it been given to any american president. president roosevelt: the first and fundamental effect is what started as a european war has developed as the nazis always intended it should develop a war for world domination. therefore, with a found consciousness of my responsibility to my countrymen and to my country's cause, i have tonight issued a proclamation that an unlimited national emergency exists and requires the strengthening of our defense to the extreme limit of our national power and authority.
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>> with the world racing the greatest conflict of all-time with the rights of all free people in danger, roosevelt met winston churchill on the high seas, gave a pledge to the world -- and the right of all people to choose their own form of government. history of records this meeting as the first of the atlantic charter. ♪ december 7 19 41, a day of infamy burned into the pages of american history. [explosions] the president faced a nation united. president roosevelt: i ask that the congress declare that since
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the unprovoked and dastardly attack by japan on sunday, december 7 1941, a state of war has existed between the united states and the japanese empire. ♪ >> in 1942 fdr startled the world by meeting churchill in casablanca and gave the axis two words -- unconditional surrender. at quebec, roosevelt was churchill planned the invasion of europe and with the future of civilization in the balance it is indelibly written in history.
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fdr wrote a new chapter in international relations, gave assurance to the people of china of aid in their war against japan. but the guiding hand in bringing together the many forces of east and west. such was the man who met stalin for the first time in tehran who gave the world's first promise of complete accord between the three great powers. that these were called the big three was no empty phrase and franklin roosevelt, steadfast in his convictions, was the biggest of them all. steaming into pearl harbor for the first time since the opera kevork the commander-in-chief conferred with admiral nimitz and general macarthur. that he took an active heart in the war in the pacific is now apparent. from this conference a mooched -- emerged the blueprint for the
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conflict in the philippines. fdr began his fourth term in office firm in his belief that men are capable of their own government. no king, no tyrant, no dictator can govern as wisely as they can govern themselves. upon that note, he faced the world's future on the conference table at the altar, made plans to bring together the people of the world in a just and lasting peace will stop history has recorded that first step as the san francisco conference. in this, his last report to congress and the american people is to be found the text of his life will stop in the last word of a man grown tired in public service is a heritage for all men everywhere. president roosevelt: i am confident congress and the american people will set the
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results of this conference as the beginning of our permanent structure of peace. upon which we can begin to build , under god that better world in which our children and grandchildren, yours and mine, children and grandchildren of the whole world must live and can live. ♪ >> join american history tv this coming tuesday, april 14 for live coverage marking the 150th anniversary of president lincoln's assassination. on april 14, 1865, actor john wilkes was shot pleasant it -- shot president lincoln at ford's theater as he sat with his wife mary. the president was carried across
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10th street to the peterson house, where he died the next morning. we will be live from 10 street on tuesday night, where ford's heater will re-create the overnight vigil for president lincoln. more than 150 living historians in. costumes will keep a candlelight watch on the street and we will hear their first-person accounts of the assassination events including reports from eyewitnesses and medical updates on the dying resident's condition. president lincoln's assassination, 150 years later tuesday night, april 14, beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern. and on sunday, here on american history tv, on c-span3. >> today, hillary clinton officially entered the 2016 presidential race will stop here is a look at surely chisel's presidential campaign announcement from january, 1970 two.
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she was the first african-american u.s. congresswoman and served seven terms as a democrat from new york. this is american history[applause] [applause] shirley chisholm: i stand before you today as a democratic candidate for the presidency of the united states of america. [applause] i am not the candidate of black america, although i am black and proud. [applause]


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