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tv   Territorial Kansas  CSPAN  May 3, 2015 10:46am-11:03am EDT

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apter who feared the loss of these institutions and the loss of those jobs. that was not unwarranted. when the middle school integrated a few years before, thereafter american teachers who lost their job. there was a tension between what would be gained, full access to neighborhood schools, where it is african-american children lived, but also a sense of loss of what would happen to these teachers in these institutions. the museum was very much designed to tell the broader story of the struggle for civil rights and american history. the roots go back to slavery in the united states. you will be greeted by a park ranger and the focal or the -- or beginning point was a 25 minute series of films, set up as a dialogue between a young woman an older man, which basically traces the struggle of civil rights.
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that visitors can move into the first gallery of exhibits which will set the importance of education in after american community and that leads up to the decision to use education as the legal issue whereby the naacp would end all segregate -- segregation laws. then all of the other dominoes of segregation institutions would fall. they did not fall easily pair one of the most powerful portions of the exhibit was the hall of courage, news footage gathered from around the country, in opposition from the decision and the movement and that took place all over the nation, including where there were riots. there were not any major
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disruptions here in topeka and kansas but there was on a national level extremely costly to the united states. to imagine what it must be like to he a 16-year-old boy or girl or be -- and be confronted by the mob is what the hall of courage attempted to create. it is probably one of the most powerful parts here. one of the things we are here to do is help engage in dialogue about these kinds of issues. they are ongoing and continuous in our society and there are new groups constantly struggling for better and equal access to civil rights. the mission to preserve our country's's heritage, we do not go and build museums about subjects that are important. we reserve voices -- places that were an integral part of that
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story. by preserving the pieces of heritage, even if there are difficult stories to tell, like immigration, or japanese internment camps, that visitors, whether abroad or caucasian or ask an american, you better understand the story when you are standing in the place where the events happen. there is something intangible about these places reconnection feel the history resonating. >> all weekend american history tv is featuring the city of topeka, kansas. a topeka newspaper editor advocated for the eradication of the ku klux klan in kansas. hosted by our communications cable partners c-span's cities tour staff recently visited many sites show kidding this -- showcasing the city's history. lauren more -- learn more all weekend.
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>> the state historical society are to collect kansas documents. this is the repository for kansas history. today, we are in the archives and we will look at territorial maps, some documents written by john brown senior. we will look at some of the territorial manuscripts of the constitution, and a variety of items and written documents related to territorial kansas. the territorial time and kansas bn in 1854. it ran for almost seven years. kansas was attended to become a state. this became known as bleeding kansas, very controversial. not only in the territory of kansas, but nationally.
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the country was focused on what was going on out here. kansas got the nickname bleeding kansas because of the struggle over whether kansas would enter the union as a free state or a slave state. we will look at a map of kansas and nebraska territories. this is 1856 and in 18 54, the kansan nebraskan act was signed, creating the twin territories of nebraska and kansas territory. most people assumed washington politicians assumed that kansas nebraska act would probably somewhat replicate the missouri compromise in that if you brought in twin territories, one would be naturally free peer the other naturally would be slave. most people assumed the new
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territory of the brassica would be settled by the free state of iowans. iowans would come in and settle the area, set up a government, write a free state constitution, and bring nebraska in as a free state. and nebraska would stand to northern senators in congress. conversely, a slave state missouri, there were over 100,000 or so slaves in the state of missouri. most people thought they would come into eastern kansas, set up a government, and write a constitution and kansas would come in as a slave state, and kansan -- kansas was sent to does southern senators. that is what most people thought. they assumed wrongly. they call to arms for
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abolitionists, particularly those in the east new england state. northern abolitionists were outraged by the kansas the brassica act. abolitionists hated slavery but could live with it as long as it stayed below 3630. slavery could conceivably spread all the way west to the pacific ocean. armed and heavily financed groups of abolitionists that by newington concerns, boston, connecticut, rhode island, maine, ohio, they poured in, antislavery men and women poured into kansas to stop kansas from becoming a slave state. missourians saw these yankees pouring into the kansas territory and they knew they
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would have a fight on their hand. the mixture of abolitionists and proslavery mingling, the territory exploded in violence warfare, terrorism, and it attracted men like john brown and his sons. starting in 1854, a low grade war began in kansas and nickname bleeding kansas. from 1854 until kansas became a free state in 1861, or was going on in kansas territory over who would control this territory. it was ground zero for the slave issue in the country. once you are designated as a territory by the united states government, the next step is to create a legislature, create laws for the territory. then write a constitution approved by the voters of the territory, and then it will be
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sent to washington for ratification by congress. finally, signed by the president of the united states. in the 6.5 years that kansas was a territory their work watch or attempts at constitution writing. the free state government wrote themselves a free state constitution, the topeka constitution. it was sent to washington for approval and was rejected. most people thought the constitution have been lost forever. in 2013, in the national archives, they rediscovered the topeka constitution. it is in washington, d c, and the national archives. there was an election for the first territorial legislature in the march of 1955.
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governor andrew, the first governor of kansas, decided wisely to do a census of the territories and discovered how many legal voters there were. they discovered there were 2000. that would be white male and 21. voting fraud on both sides the proslavery side more so, missourians crossed the line, walked across it or took a ferry boat across it, and took over the ballot boxes stuff the ballot box, and created a proslavery legislature known as the bogus legislature. they crafted the first laws the 1850 five statutes of kansas which were repugnant to the free stators, particularly the cause that protected slave property.
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the kansas statute of 1855, stated that to merely speak out against slavery or to write and publish articles and distribute written or printed material opposing slavery that was a felony and you could go to prison for 2-5 years for merely speaking out or writing against slavery. if you were caught possessing a copy of on -- uncle tom's can -- uncle tom's cabin, you could go to prison for that. they rebelled against the so-called bogus government to one of the first things they did was to write the topeka constitution. this constitution was written by free state men and abolitionists , in downtown topeka on kansas avenue, the 400 block. the building is still there
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today, built in 1855. it was known as constitution hall to be good. when that got to washington, the national democratic administration, which was rose slavery, said this was not a legitimate government or a legitimate constitutional convention. and they rejected it out of hand. at the time in u.s. congress, the house of representatives was now controlled by northern free stators. they approved the topeka constitution. the u.s. senate controlled by southerners refused to even discuss the topeka constitution. so it died in washington. but that was the very first constitution that was written in kansas. the second constitution, and we are looking at the title page of the famous constitution written
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in the fall of 1857 in kansas, inside samuel jones's commercial building, today known as constitutional hall state historic site, this constitution would have made kansas a slave state. it was endorsed by the president james the buchanan from pennsylvania. he was a norther man but was strong proslavery. though he was from new england he was a strong proslavery man. the democratic party in the 1850's, strong proslavery. what president buchanan was not counting on was the father of kansas territory who believes in the concept of popular sovereignty.
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let the will of the people be spoken. stephen douglas was outraged by that constitution. when that constitution arrived in washington, douglas got on the floor of the senate it did not represent popular sovereignty. it did not represent the will of the people. this constitution was debated in the halls of congress. the u.s. senate, which was controlled by southerners, did pass it. they got the u.s. house which had more northern influence. the debate was so rancorous that in february of 1858, late one night while this constitution was being debated in the u.s. house representatives, a brawl broke out. over 50 congressman were brawling on the floor of the
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u.s. house and supposedly the only thing that broke them up was another humorous event. two congress and from wisconsin grabbed the hairpiece of a congressman from mississippi and tore it off his head. they held it high above their head and said we have scalped the man. the congress and stop the brawl. that was going on in washington. a brawl in the u.s. house of representatives over this constitution. while the constitution was in congress, the free stators are writing a second constitution. this is the leavenworth constitution. it is unique that the leavenworth constitution in 1858 does not contain the word "white" or "white men."
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this leavenworth is probably the most progressive constitution and that it gave african-americans voting rights. kansas'fourth and final constitution was signed by president jay-z can -- james buchanan, literally on his way out of office. it enters the union january 20 9, 18 61 as a free state. this is a letter composed by the famous militant abolitionist of the kansas territory, john brown senior. it is known as john brown's parallels. it was published in january of 1859. this letter was written with the intent for to be published in a lawrence newspaper.

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