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tv   The Presidency  CSPAN  May 23, 2015 1:35pm-2:31pm EDT

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bosom should give the more -- thee more than streams of foreign gore. >> director of the shakespeare library, michael whitmore, talks about shakespeare and how politicians use quotes on the famous playwright in their speeches. >> sometimes, you just have to go with the music of the word. the sound of the rhymes. and also the way in which senator byrd dead, you are able to pause -- did, you are able to apply and linger over a certain phrase and then keep going. i think he is really using the rhythms of the language, which is something that shakespeare did so brilliantly, so he can take english and put it into high care at one moment, and then slow down. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span "q&a."
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>> up next, the national portrait gallery senior curator wendy wick reaves, talks about amateur depictions of george washington. instead of focusing on portraits drawn from life, she explores the lesser-known unless accurate -- and less accurate images of washington that circulated in the 18th century. george washington's mount vernon hosted this 50 minute event. >> good afternoon. my name is elizabeth stock known to many people here as betty. together with my husband stanley scott, i am in -- a serious enthusiast for george washington of many varieties, including portraiture. we have collected all of our adult lives as were several members of our families, before us, and they acquired a number of surveyor drawings
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medallions, coins, rare books, stamps and metals, as well as documents on the subject of george washington and his time. we have been active supporters of mount vernon for several decades and are members of the connoisseurs society. this lively group is dedicated to supporting the acquisition, preservation, and conservation of mount vernon's remarkable collections. it is very encouraging for us to see you all here at this crowded seminar because it indicates an interest in coming closer to the iconic presence of our first american president and his character, charisma, and his abilities. we met wendy wick reaves, our speaker, in the early 1970's and we were impressed then.
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with her comfort and obvious affection for her specialty, american graphic arts. it is a pleasure to tell you a little bit about her. she is a leading authority in her field and the senior curator of prints and drawings at the smithsonian institution national portrait gallery. she earned her master's degree from the program in early american culture at the university of delaware. she is a member of the print council of america. in 1974, she started the graphic arts department at the national gallery and the collection she developed included fine print, rare books, drawings, cartoons caricatures, and posters.
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wendy has curated many exhibitions, lectured widely and served as the interim director of the national portrait gallery from june 2012 through march of 2013. her long-standing interest in george washington started with a traveling expedition of 18th-century printed portraits accompanied by her own book , "george washington: american icon." she has authored books and published articles on the 19th century portrait drawings, celebrity caricatures, and the editorial cartoons about home -- whom she will tell you a little bit more in a moment. her book, "eye contact," has
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been nominated for awards for distinguished scholarship in the field of art history. wendy's present excavation and -- exhibition and the accompanying book are titled "face value: portraiture in the age of abstraction." she will speak to us now and how -- and elucidate on how george washington's contemporaries saw him. please join me in celebrating this opportunity to learn more about a subject from an expert wendy wick reaves. >> [applause] wendy: good afternoon, everyone and thank you betty, for that
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lovely introduction. such a pleasure to be with all of you at mount vernon. i am honored to be here with so many washington enthusiasts as -- and so many very knowledgeable speakers on the subject. could we have the lights down a little bit? is that possible? oh, we hope that will happen and you can see a lot better. >> [laughter] wendy: britain exalted the lyrics of a favorite new song entitled "washington." both no long proud with dignity and land in your conquering the legion. your matchless strength at sea. since we, your braver sons and -- sons incensed, our sword has guarded on.
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for war and washington. the rebels, the next verse, -- proclaimed laugh at all your -- and so does washington. these cheeky lyrics are printed on a side, with a pair of portraits, assumedly washington on the left and on the right major general artemis ward, who won described as heavyset and highest looking. >> [laughter] wendy: george washington patient wellness, to pose for artists produce for future generations multiple portraits made from life to help us understand that minimal anchors so much of the nation's history . we will examine many of the portraits and sculptures over this symposium. my goal today is to take you beyond those artists, discerning
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eyes to suggest another view of washington that circulated broadly through all levels of society during his own day. what these images lack in refinement, they make up for in patriotic fervor. what has interesting implications for the nature of washington's leadership and the dissemination of his fame way before the posthumous mythmaking began. act the beginning of the revolutionary war, pictures of emerging heroes were eagerly sought, even for inexpensive publications. but likenesses were dubious, or at least very roughly insinuated. indeed this broadside was probably preceded by the appearance of the two profiles on the all the neck of 1778 with the caption that led us to believe they depicted the glorious washington gate. the right profile could have
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been made to represent not artemis ward but major general horatio gates who was also round faced and double chin and. -- double chinned. the pair may have also been caught for some earlier now large piece when washington and gates first arrived in boston to take command of the continental army. despite the variability of identities, the struggling colonists desperately needed he -- heroes. and more than anything, they needed to believe in the commander in chief. let's examine this fascinating german almanac published in lancaster in 1778 for the following year. in the middle, let's remember a very discouraging war where news from the battlefield was rarely good. so what can we discover about george washington and the iconic graphic pictorial cover?
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some of the imagery pertains to almanac making, sun, moon, zodiac and an astronomer upfront and a ride around horseback carrying a calendar, another word for almanac. a multi-masted ship of commerce metaphorically connects the old world, conveyed by a medieval town and classical ruins with the new world, represented in in the -- in the background by a bow and arrow toting brave. in the right foreground, a very breasted native princess. hovering prominently, holding in -- an oval framed portrait titled "washington." from her mouth, the words -- "the father of his country." is it perhaps the first usage of
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that particular honorific? the profile can't be said to represent a likeness and washington is quite tiny here but he wears a laurel wreath and bears that weighty title. with implications of founder, progenitor, commander, and substitute for a king. so, in the pictorial imagery fame has a good grip on washington, both literally and figuratively from an early point in war even before he has fully -- had fully proved himself as a commander. curiosity about emerging american heroes existed in england and on the continent as well where wildly fictitious licenses were easy to portray on an ongoing public. one egregious example was a set of english method since --
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english -- published in the 1770's by shepherd and thomas heart of london. general charles lee served as an example here. with some variations imposed the americas all resemble each other with their hats, wide lapels, and pledging faces. -- pudgy faces. they spun off copies and variations such as this illustration depicting washington from an impartial history of the war in america published in london in 1780. printmakers in america also struggled to supply the demand but they also came up with a proudly painted gloss. and frequently looked for an authentic likeness. charles wilson peale was a crucial early purveyor of washington's face and his reach
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was enormously extended through print. peale knew washington and had painted him in 1772 in the uniform of his virginia militia. in 1776, he painted him again in a three-quarter length portrait and a miniature. but peale also thought he would try a print. he had learned engraving while in london from 1767-1779. his maiden efforts were guided by expert london printmakers and supported by a thriving industry, which included technicians to prepare the plates, skilled printers, and a consumer market. i am taking you back to the print of charles lee as an example, a technically demanding process. the metal plate was roughened all over by a rocker and sharp
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tools, and the engravers worked in reverse from black to white furnishing down the sharp point of metal to create lighter tones and highlights. everyone admired the english comprising its range tones from dark velvety black to soft grays. it was especially suitable for portraiture and considerable money could be made. so, peale thought he would give it a try back in america, noted -- noting in his diary in 1778, began a drawing to make a mess of tinto -- mezzotinto of washington. a long-lost mezzotint and they were thrilled to finally identity one in the early 1990's for its modest size and lack of
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pretension disguised is -- it's important. of course, making a mezzotint in america was especially challenging. peale complained about obtaining copperplate and wrote to friends abroad seeking to help secure supplies. there were no technicians to do the tedious rocking of the plate or skilled printers to produce the engraving. peale's prints reveal a coarser grain than you would find in an english mezzotint. though he didn't quite achieve that velvety richness, he used his personal knowledge of washington. retaining all of the animation of a life portrait. we have a sense of a direct and personal experience here between the artist and the sitter. the lifelike expressions feel
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completely authentic. i like to think this modest image reveals something about washington's character as peale had assessed him in 1776. most washington portraiture was after the war. this is a rare insight into the prewar washington. to me, that face exudes almost a youthful competence, as well as a mature demeanor that helps us understand the man stepping forward to assume the heavy burden of the commander in chief. peale's papers reveal he struck over 100 impressions presenting them to friends and statesmen and advertising in newspapers. but the charming little print was facing some competition and didn't sell well. a pair of engravings contributing to josef senior
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depicted martha washington in a three-quarter length image in full uniform with the smoke of the battle of health and massachusetts behind him. peale was going to have to up his game and he did. by 1780, he had produced his own three-quarter length military portrait of washington. based on a new painting from life produced for the supreme executive council of pennsylvania in 1779. with a flag, canon, and a view of princeton in the background and reference to his victory there, the painting was a popular and inspiring image of the leader. and a good candidate for peale's second attempt at a mezzotint. again, he has produced here in life portrait of remarkable authenticity and insight depicting his subject with grace, dignity, and confidence.
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as a print and portrait, it is unexcelled among the early graphic depictions of george washington. eventually, peale would produce his third mezzotint, to mark a series of engravings at his own -- after his own portraits. including prince of lafayette, franklin, and reverend joseph gilmore, he finished 4 mezzotints and sent a set to washington. but he still had to prepare his own plates into his own printing and the sales were disappointing . pretty soon, he ultimately abandoned his plan after much work for too little return. we haven't quite finished the story of that small mezzotint of 1778. one of peale's admirers was john norman, who had arrived in
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philadelphia from london around 1774. the enterprising mr. norman with various portraits advertise -- advertised frequently in newspapers, billing himself as an engraver of watch cases. bills of -- and numerous pictures and documents. he also sold almanacs, children's books, frames and furniture. in august 1779, he advertised an elegant head of general washington. he himself, was not a particularly skilled artist but an ardent copyist and became an enthusiastic purveyor of peale's washington likeness. he advertise one of his first attempts in 1779. a primer adorned with a
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beautiful head of washington. the ubiquitous primer, often the only book available for colonial children had traditionally been illustrated with a portrait of the english king. norman was probably the first to substitute the new american hero. within the limits of his abilities, his engraving was a close copy of the peale's mezzotint with the long, oval face and almond shaped eyes looking forward, curly hair and be truncated, oval frame and even the highlight on the longer nose. just a few months later, norman repeated it, this time using as an ornamental heading for a single sheet almanac. advertised as "the pennsylvania packet," the philadelphia almanac 41780 -- for 1780
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featured the face of washington. norman embedded the simple portrait in an elaborate pictorial surround of his own invention. complete with banners and cannons, garlands, two trumpeting bare breasted figures , the seal of pennsylvania, and a shield with a rattle snake, a symbol of the rebellious colony. another snake slithers across the bottom. right about this time, peale moved to boston. he may have been encouraged by a public spat with a former partner. norman appears to greatly in the philadelphia newspapers and the dispute plays out in the public press. he was a sort of fellow who nowadays would get into a lot of trouble on twitter. >> [laughter] wendy: at any rate, his sale of
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the almanac encourages a profusion of copies. the first printer maker so inspired appears to be no other -- to be none other than paul revere, who probably produced this release cut finish for the town & country almanac of 1781. the pamphlet almanac was frugally illustrated with crude images, cut into the soft, tight metal imprinted along with the type. revere's portrait is more elaborate than most and well it -- while it doesn't have the detail of norman's engraving with allegorical setting, it does incorporate the peale face. and it is framed with the oval surround, or demented with norman's legs, and cannons. over the next two decades, passed from one publisher to
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another, used repeatedly for almanacs. last time i researched it, i located this very same little cut in 17 different imprint but -- imprints, but there were undoubtedly more. furthermore, the release cuts if on imitation and least 4 different copies. that illustrated numerous other almanacs. so, here we have the federal almanac for 1792. this maker seems to have less of an understanding of the principles of light and shadow. >> [laughter] wendy: but the hair, the banner, the canon, the face remains. in the next version, here appearing in the citizens and farmers almanac, still less artistry. but it is better than the cone head version. >> [laughter]
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wendy: and the colombian almanac of 1788. the swag has turned to metal and the cartouche is look like jelly beans. but the canon and banners convey a touch of military swagger. for all of its failings, it could be called honorable compared to this last example. a pitifully crude recondition in the 1790's. but you will note that even here, there are some remains of owner -- uniform, slags, and banners. no doubt, it was easy to recognize by now the identity of this unrecognizable portrait. those embellishments must have been deeply ingrained in the public consciousness. meanwhile, our friend john norman continued to reduce his -- produce his engravings
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spreading his enthusiasm for washington. this print of the commander in chief paired with an accompanying image of martha washington was published in 1782. the engraving underneath, citing that would've been the portrait painted by charles wilson peale. norman is sticking with his peale inspired face. to which he adds many of the embellishments familiar to us from the philadelphia almanac. unfortunately perhaps for his reputation, norman didn't stop there. in 1783, the continental congress had voted unanimously that "an equestrian statue of general washington be erected at the place where there residents of congress should be established." he was to be depicted not only
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on horseback but in roman dress, wearing a laurel wreath. norman, who struggled to depict cannons and banners, must've considered horses and roman costumes beyond his skill set. but, he was an enthusiastic copyist so to approximate ancient dress, he dug up and engraving from john gillam display of heraldry, first published in 1611 and came up with this. [laughter] wendy: but you can't win every time. but, let's give norman credit for being one of the young republic's most enthusiastic purveyors of images of the commander in chief and you will note he has used long, oval peale inspired face of his hero. the visual culture of wartime america was limited, which is
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how an energetic and imaginative engraver with only modest skills found opportunities. he was one of the publishers of the new boston magazine for which he engraved the plates and produced for the april 1784 issue, this image of washington. once again, norman's ambitions exceeded his talent perhaps. here he chose to copy his magazine illustration from an engraving for montesquieu, published in a french volume of 1772. on the inside cover of the magazine, he explained to the allegorical conception and i quote. "nature stands ready to strike the liar, while the genius of liberty presents a metal of the illustrious man who has defended her standard in the new world." we can recognize fame in the
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lower left corner, and the blinded justice in the far right for you those familiar allegorical details and the multi-breasted nude female called the nature is less so. and yes, if you look closely there are several bare breasts lurking awkwardly behind that liar. they symbolize natures fecundity, and by extension, the prosperity of the new nation that washington had made possible. this particular allegorical figure, it is fair to say, was ill considered. [laughter] wendy: maybe it worked better in france. [laughter] wendy: besides, by the mid-1780's, competition was growing. some large, handsome french and english prints of washington were appearing on the market many based on peale's engraving abroad.
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an engraving accompanied by a companion print from lafayette depended him in a camp setting littered with treaties dispatches, bills, and the declaration of independence. also based on a peale painting is the 1785 print by valentine green. one of england's best mezzotint engravers. here, the rich, blacks of the mezzotint show off to great advantage. while to my eye, it doesn't show the animation and depth. the superior finish and handsome military presence would've been impressive to an american audience. the same can be said of valentine green's 1781 mezzotint. in contrast, john norman's
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enthusiastic attempts seem crude, if not preposterous. norman and his partners saw that -- sold their interest in the boston magazine a few months after the washington engraving was published. unfortunately, the new publishers were not at all impressed with norman's ingenuity. in "the boston gazette," they announced they were discontinued the plates, noting there customers have found great fault with the cuts as being badly executed. norman responded immediately blaming the omission of the plates on the refusal of the new publishers to pay him. it is hard to know the accuracy of either claim but if readers had indeed complained, you could hardly blame them. i have to admit, however, a soft spot in my heart for john norman, laboring over his copper plates, trying to squeeze one
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more bare breast in there before the springs of a lair. norman spread peale's image of the commander in chief and created images that can be copied by even less skilled relief cut artists onto blocks that would be in continual use your in the 1780's and 1790's. the constant appearance of the general's face throughout the war and immediately afterwards is really nothing short of amazing. we can't know, but we can't discount the notion that those cannons and banners encouraged the ragtag revolution army. or that the occasional cartouche, leafy swag, figure fame heightened washington in some small measure. and the dissemination of the face alone may have had an impact. it wasn't just those who had seen peale's paintings like
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members of the continental congress, or the urban middling sort able to purchase a fine engraving. washington's portrait was available to children, farmers women readers of the magazine, soldiers intrigued by a new federal song and anyone who found it useful to buy an almanac. if we concede the face of washington had much greater and deeper penetration of the wartime society that we might have guessed, let us take a look a -- at a somewhat faster pace of some the images the dominated after the war. a small extra profile by joseph wright made around the 1790 has always fascinated me because it was printed on card stock. this made it ideal for sending
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through the mail. thomas jefferson purchased one in june, 1790, which he mail to his daughter martha jefferson randolph. perhaps because of the small size and easy transportability the right profile, a strong, determined looking face became an instantly popular presidential image and was widely copied in print medallions and other places. both here and abroad. one use of the profile was in the central state of amos doolittle's display of united states of america. the celebration of the constitution and new federal government enclosing the portrait in a ring of interlocking seals representing the united states from the 13 original colonies. washington, described as the president of the united states protector of the country and is elevated here to a major role as the central figure of a newly strengthened central government.
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the shift from a loosely connected federation states to a nation unified under a strong, central government was a crucial change in our history. doolittle celebrated the constitution and its imported by presenting that strengthen executive power dramatically and symbolically within the visually indissoluble unity of interlocking circles. edward savage's portraits were also prominent during the presidency. savage's mezzotint depicts a washington seated at a table contemplating the new federal city. it had all the refinement of the british technique, softness of texture, subtlety of shading and richness that made the english mezzotint so popular.
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it had the advantage of showing washington outside of military and dressed in a presidential black suit. guests describing "the tall manly figure of washington in black velvet" were very impressed by his magnificent presence. this was also an important symbolic addition to washington's iconography. he is no longer just a soldier but the statesman. the peaceful succession of one elected president to another had yet to be proven and to some, a very military president may have had dictatorial potential. washington himself really understood his appearance at clothing, and so did many printmakers. the handsome savage mezzotint spawned numerous copies.
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at this point, in the 1790's, the book arts were developing fast particularly in philadelphia. the capital of the book trade. english engravers arriving in america found steady work illustrating bibles, books, and magazines. bookstores would have on display and for sale, the latest framing print. either imported or made locally. stipple engraving was replacing the laborious mezzotint process. combined engraving that could survive many printings with lack of detail. portraits of washington, copies from peale, trouble, wright in gilbert stuart proliferated. here's one example of tobias mullet's history of england. it is a modest but exudes gravitas through the
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embellishments beneath the portrait. the knight, helmet, sword, and baton. a symbol of military strength. as well as olive and oak branches, which symbolize peace and strength. together, these emblems implied washington leadership enabled to come through military strength. the inscription on this piece indicates the designer of the print was john james, and eccentric irishman who arrived in america and took up the embellishment of washington portraiture where john norman had left off. slightly earlier, he had designed a handsome framing print of washington based on a miniature. the oval frame portrait from the back of the "hampton eagle" which would bear the scales of justice and a ribbon.
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he didn't stop there. military banners, the palm branches of liberty, the liberty cap on a sword, the word libertas on a sword all towards a circling sun. we might keep 2 points in mind and considering the seemingly heavy-handed engraving. the use of symbol and allegory was a universal language. you didn't have to be an upper-class man with a classical education to understand the figure of fame, the liberty cap, the rattlesnake or the implication of a laurel wreath military paraphernalia or eagle. secondly, this print was advertised, and subscriptions were solicited in 1795, during
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washington's conflicted second term in office. internal struggles such as the whiskey rebellion, along with controversial foreign entanglements resulting in jay's treaty, created contentious debate. the president himself was viciously assaulted in the public press by political enemies. in the middle of this difficult moment, with scurrilous attacks on the general's character, he has introduced the radiating light in clouds of apotheosis imagery, presenting washington as nearly godlike. within this context, the profusion of accessible patriotic symbolism doesn't seem arbitrary or overdone but a serious counterweight to negative publicity. washington designed several
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other engravings -- engraved portraits on washington repeating similar embellishments. general washington's resignation, published as an illustration in the philadelphia magazine and january 1799, is one of my favorites. it pairs off symbolic symbol of fame with very real mount vernon mansion. in an explanation, the print is called an emblem of the american cincinnatus retiring from public office. it thereby relates washington's 1783 resignation to his 1797 retirement. in this scene, adorned with the eagles, along with the signature helmets, sword, and baton, washington surrendered his symbols of power to the figure of america, who holds an indian calumet. he points with his other hand,
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to mount vernon. with a plow held in front, a reference to the legendary roman leaders. what makes this little print even more fascinating is that is connection to another element of the visual culture of the day completely lost to future generations. public spectacles often include something called at the time a transparency, which is a large painting on oiled paper and that is what made it transparent and unfortunately, very flammable. lit from behind by candles. needless to say, these images made for parades, ceremonies and other public gatherings didn't have much life expectancy. those who survived the evening without bursting into flames were doomed by the oil and the size of the fragile paper. they don't exist today. they have an important public presence. the explanation of the
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frontispiece here actually describes the event that preceded it, which started with a splendid public dinner at the oilers hotel, held in march 1797 to honor washington on the occasion of his retirement. after dinner, the guests marched to a neighbor theater, where there was a special entertainment featuring a transparent female figure as large as life representing america. the explanation goes on to proudly itemize all of the symbolic components that you see here. clearly, he was the designer of the transparency as well as the print. we're lucky to have a lasting version of his affection of the grand celebratory spectacle. don't miss the cornucopia at the bottom with the eagle. a much more common and more successful implication of the prosperity of the new nation
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then normans multi-breasted figure of "nature." i won't linger long on last visual ode to washington's virtue. the commemoration of washington was designed shortly after washington's death and first advertised in 1800. in addition to father time raising washington from the tomb, you will recognize the familiar helmets, sword, and baton, as well as the eagle, shield, and ribbon. the mourning figure. in addition to the classical christian references, draped on the side of the tomb are the order of the freemasons and the order of the cincinnati. this was reissued of the years and copied for liverpool pictures and chinese reverse paintings on glass. really, that story belongs to
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the 19th century, the generation eulogizing washington. it's conception at the time does help to reinforce the idea that the visual enhancement to washington's face and reputation, like norman's, were widely disseminated and understood by the president's own contemporaries. you would have noticed in the face is recognizably the water by gilbert stuart and best-known and the partial of the national portrait gallery which would come into the 19th century to dominate all other faces of washington. i am looking forward to mile's talk about stuart. showing the portrait obtained currency before washington's death. a recently arrived in which engraver engraved the head at least three times in 1798. here are some examples. it became quite popular that
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year and appeared in multiple framing prints and illustrations. a new york physician named charles buxton, for example, designed an ambitious full length image of washington engraved in 1798. buxton's design was an amalgam of patriotic symbols referring to washington's achievements and his role in forging a new nation. the figure stand on a pedestal between obelisks. there is a pot of incense represented a pure heart. the other elements of the scheme would have been familiar to his audience. the background scene introducing the new note of bowling green, new york.
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depicting an empty pedestal where a statue of george the third stood before being pulled down by a crowd of patriots. washington stands on his pedestal as a symbolic replacement for the toppled king. buxton sent improved copies washington, including this one printed on satin, which made its way back to mt. vernon. the print was printed and dedicated to the congress of the united states with the optimistic notion no doubt that each of those distinguished politicians might be potential subscribers. but as we have seen, there was a range of washington prints from the large sophisticated highbrow endeavors, to the modest efforts available to every man, woman, and child. i would like to return us to where we began -- patriotic music. another of david edwin's engravings of 1798 was a very tiny version of the gilbert stuart face. this print seems to have been made specifically to insert in the title of a music sheet.
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in april of 1798, joseph hopkins compose a piece called "the favorite new federal song." known as "hail columbia." at that moment, war with revolutionary france seemed almost inevitable intentions -- and tensions were mounting in philadelphia between the federalists and anti-federalist. imagine that, partisan tension in the capital city. [laughter] wendy: fox hoped it might is later unified american spirit. indeed his performance was triumphant success. abigail adams attended the theater that evening, and reported the next day that her head still ached from the thunderous applause. "hail the columbia," became a favorite new song. demanded by audiences everywhere. two days after the performance the first public printing appeared, with a small engraving of president adams pasted in the middle.
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in july of 1798, as the quasi-war against french privateers threatened to explode, george washington briefly returned to public service, when he was appointed commander-in-chief of the american forces. the enterprising publisher of the sheet music saw an opportunity for new sales. he didn't even have to reprint the music, since the engraving was glued to the top in the middle of the title. apparently encouraged by the sales, he repeated his formula by mounting the engraving on another patriotic song entitled "brother soldiers all hail." the glue pot must've been especially busy in 1799, just after the announcement of washington's death. carr composed "the dead march"
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and played for washington's funeral in 1799. he published the sheet music. it was advertised as having an elegant likeness of the late general. so what can we conclude from these remains of the visual culture was still understand incompletely? we know the written record from his contemporaries and the details of washington's physical presence, his vigorous heroism his steadiness and moral courage. but to my mind, the visual depictions of washington during his own life also help to see the development of his reputation in the public imagination. the effect of a single crude almanac cut is impossible to gauge. when you consider all this pictorial material together, however, there is a cumulative effect from which we can legitimately extrapolate meaning.
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consider the penetration into all levels of society of an authentic likeness, and consider the enhancement with widely understood symbolic embellishments. let us not to discount the context of a washington portrait hovering over patriotic words, set to a stirring familiar tune. is it too much to suggest that edwin's little stubble engraving of the face of washington had greater impact as of the grieving nation considered the lyrics? "with honor crowned, mature in age he fell, the wonder of mankind, laden with laurels and left the stage." thank you very much. [applause]
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wendy: stephen tells me we have time for about two questions. yes, in the front. i think it's a microphone coming. >> how much were they selling for and today's currency? wendy: i'm not good at translating such currency fluctuations. i think the almanacs were very cheap. broad sides were very cheap. i think a nice framing print would be a little bit more expensive. there are some indications that savage's prints sold for a few dollars. they would cost more if they were framed. i think there was a range, that's the answer. a real range of cost. one more question? >> could you comment on negative images of washington during this period, what we might call political cartoons?
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wendy: very good questions. there was very little. there was enormous amount of attacks on washington's character in the press, in the pamphlet wars but not in the visual imagery. there really is very little. there might be one or two cartoons and owner. we really don't know of a lot of them. there is very little, that's a good question. thank you all so much. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend, on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. >> each week, american history tv's real america brings you all tribal films that help to tell the story of the 20th century.
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35 years ago, on may 18, 1980, earthquake needs melting helen's in the cascade range of washington state cause of volcanic irruption the killed 57 people and destroyed almost 150 square miles of forest. announcer: mount saint helens, a 9677 foot sleeping volcano. nestled in the wild abundance of the gifford pinchot national forest. in southwest washington. on march 20, 1980, mount saint helens began to show telltale signs that her slumber was ending. >> we are directly over melting helen's right now, there is no question at all that the volcanic activity has begun. you can see smoke -- pouring
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from the top of the mountain, especially on the north side of the mountain. announcer: a concern for public safety profit the closure of the gifford pinchot national forest. what scientists had anticipated, the irruption of mount saint helens before the end of the century. it had begun. -- the irruption of mount saint helens before the end of the century had begun. it was like any other sunday morning for a four survey treeplanting crew until 8:32 a.m..
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announcer: it seemed to happen in an instant. a cubic mile, tons of ash, rock, and ice were rocketed into the stratosphere. the cloud reached nearly 14 miles into the sky. >> in 1940 5, 70 years ago, allied forces liberated not to concentration camps. for the next several weeks on american history tv, we hear holocaust stories from those who live them. these interviews are part of the world history collection at the united states holocaust memorial museum in washington d.c. up next, mayer adler talks about being deported to


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