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tv   Paleontology in Colorado  CSPAN  September 6, 2015 5:47pm-6:01pm EDT

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first lady and influence the taste of american women by becoming a style icon. although she married a man named this silent cal, she never spoke to the press but used her office to bring attention to issues. coolidge this sunday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern on " first lady's, influence and image, examining the public and private lives of the women who filled the position of first lady and her influence on the presidency from martha washington to michelle obama." tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern o american history tv on c-span 3. all weekend, american history tv is featuring the city of grand junction. in 1911, president taft established the colorado national monument after john otto built trails. before that, many grand junction residents believe the canyons were inaccessible to humans. chartery our
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communications cable partners, the city tour staffers only visited many sites showcasing the city's history. learn more about grand junction, colorado, all weekend here on american history tv. julia: we are currently at a place called dinosaur hill. this is part of the national conservation area managed by the bureau of land management. this area was originally settled any 18080's. as soon as people started living here, they were finding bones. it was all coming out of this formation because right in this area is so rich. amer riggs was paleontologist. he was pretty well-known. he actually had no intention of ever coming to the grand valley. he was on an expedition to go to the basin where a lot of people were looking for early dinosaurs. and the leader of the academy of
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sciences in grand junction sentinel letter, dr. s.m. bradley, and said, hey, we had just been settled since the 1800s. all the branches in this area keep picking up these giant bones. these are dinosaur bones. nobody is here to really look at these bones. would you please consider coming here? so, riggs looked at the map. rare rayere was a system which was important for getting supplies, shipping. so, decided to come here. the first skeleton he found was on the base of the colorado national money, a skeleton of an animal, one of the most common s auropods. he and his assistants continue to scour the area for bones. a few miles east of here, at a place now known as riggs' hill, elmer rigg's assistant came
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across the bones of an indoor -- an enormous animal we now known as brachiosaurus. it was discovered right here in the grand valley. g's discoveries got out, you started having more people coming in. to grandone rush valley happened in the 1970's with expeditions from the l.a. county museum. th is when the paleontology goal area -- paleontolog gical area was discovered. and that is when the science started to hit the fan. now we are kind of entering a new phase of being able to do collection and built our collection -- build our collection because we are partnering with colorado mesa university. not only are we acting as the
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museum and the field agents, but we are starting to involve the students and the learning process of paleontology. bones out of the ground is only part of the story. the rest of the story takes place at the lab, in a museum where you take the bones and clean them up and you get them ready for scientific study. and display. right now we are in sitting inside the paleo lab. this is where all the bones we collect come into the museum to forilled up -- cleaned upf display in our gallery or research in our collections. we have over 10,000 bones. we have a really rich area. it is really dense with fossil bones from the jurassic period. we haveone quarry pulled 5000 bones out of this one quarry. not every quarry is quite as
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prolific. tail. seciont otion of a all in all, including dinosaurs, fish, crocodiles and fish and plants, we have 10,000 individual bones in our collection. the very first fossil to get catalogeued is this animal. partialskull and skeleton of a new species. you're looking at the maxulla, the dominant tooth-bearing bone in the jaw. you can see the teeth coming down here. this would've been a smaller, meat eating dinosaur that allosaurus. by the1970's, first curator, lance erickson. we have this part of the skull. bone.s the lachrymonal
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it is completely thin and filled with these structures. it is a very lightweight element. mammal skull, when you find the bones of the skulls you find them in pieces. you can find the brain case. this is the brain case. veretebral the skeleton. here is the top of the skull. here you're looking at the dies of -- sides of the brain case. it's a little squished, but of theases are one jewels that paleontologist look for because you can tell a lot about how the brain was wired. where the nerves exiting the
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brain? common dinosaurs in the grand valley are apatosaurus and allosaurus. we find oodles of their teeth. they have these compressed, sharp, steak-knife teeth. they have serrations on both side. cuts like butter. so, they are compressed along the outside edges of the skull and fatter at the front of the skull. we occasionally will find it with the roots still on them. most of the teeth we find are broken at the root. which means the animals shed its teeth. they replace their teeth throughout life. itthey break off a tooth,
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is no big deal. they go another one. so, it is always exciting when you find teeth with roots on them, because that means there might be a skull nearby. so, right now we are looking at a bone that is halfway through being cleaned. that is not quite ready to be flipped over. this bone was actually pulled out of the quarry in july, 2014. it is the largest, most complete femur ever found. you are looking at the head of the femur. sockiethave a ball and joint -- socket joint for the hip. dinosaurs do not have it. they have a peg and socket. so they can move highly mobile in one direction. they can't kick out to ethe
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side. which is why, whenever you try to break off a bone -- drumstick on a turkey, you -- it doesn't pull out of the socket. end, and allip the way down there is the -- of the femur. long.s 6 feet, 7 inches it is the contender for the andre the graiant version of apatosaurus. we have done size comparisons and done the math. it should have been 90 feet long. this is not in species, but this is a large individual. large, and you can see we are still cleaning it up, but his also got some unusual markings on it. -- it has also got some unusual
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markings on i t. you can see these punctures. these are punchers from -- punctures from claws. probably from the toes of a predatory dinosaur. over here, you can see 1, 2, 3 scratch mark. these are from some second finger of a three-fingered hand coming this way. is most common dinosaur allosaurus. we pulled it out of the quarry, obviously, it is a very large package of rocks, bone and plaster and burlap. it weights 2800 pounds. we had to borrow a backhoe. our partners gives the ok to through national
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conservation area land, because they are where -- were aware of how important it was to put an upper limit on how big these animals can get in the fossil records. there's certain things you can do by having a museum in the fields that you cannot do elsewhere. i mean, this is really the area where the museums from california come to do field work. we are on site. not only can we show you what is going on every day in paleontology, we run popular dinosaura dig program where we take kids out on dinosaur digs and let them try it for themselves. and having a museum keeps these fossil discoveries in this area and just kind of reinforces that sense of pride. throughout the weekend, american history tv is featuring grand junction, colorado. our staff recently traveled
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there to learn about its rich history. learn more about grand junction and other stops on our tour at c-span.org/cities tour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. on q&a, stanford law school professor deborah -- talks about her book "the trouble with lawyers." the high cost of law school and the lack of diversity in the profession. a i thinkw we we need different model of legal education that includes one year programs for people doing routine work, two-year programs as an option for people who want to do something specialized in fullhird year and three years for people who want the full general practice legal education we now have. it's crazy to train in
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the same way somebody who is doing routine divorces in a andl town in the midwest somebody who is doing mergers and acquisitions on wall street. this one-size-fits-all model of education which is expensive. the average debt level for a law student is $100,000. and that assumes that you can t rain everybody to do everything in the same way. i'm license to practice in two states, and i would not trust myself to do a routine divorce. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span's q&a. >> in 1939, eastman kodak company gave newly released kodachrome color film to photographers working for the u.s. government. american history tv visited the library of congress and beverly brannan to learn about the collection of color images documenting

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