tv March to Yorktown CSPAN September 12, 2015 8:30am-9:48am EDT
a class on how confederates viewed reconstruction in the wake of the civil war. he discussed how some white southerners romanticize the defeat and motives for fighting. sunday afternoon at 2:00 p.m., the landmark u.s. supreme court decision in loving v. virginia ruled it was unconstitutional to prohibit interracial marriage. at the virginia historical --iety, author and historian discusses loving get our complete schedule at c-span.org. >> in the fall of 1781, american soldiers under george washington and french forces under the britishefeated at yorktown, effectively ending
the revolution. up next, robert selling talks about the land and sea routes that now constitute the washington-rochambeau trail. the society of the cincinnati posted this event. it is one hour and 15 minutes. >> the american revolution institute of the society of the cincinnati works to promote the knowledge of the achievement of american independence by ,romoting advanced study advocating preservation, and providing resources to teachers and students. last year, our executive director learned about a french encampment that took place in july 1782 and present-day rock .rock creek park this in camera is part of the return march back north. we decide this event would be the perfect opportunity to teach the local ties to
the revolutionary war, and to celebrate the role that france played in the american revolution. talk is the first of it and what we hope to be an annual neighborhood alliance. has written a number of articles and books on the french participation in the revolutionary war. he is a specialist in the french forces during the revolutionary war, and currently serves as project historian to the national parks service for the washington rush about -- washington-rochambeau national historic trail project. he is also project historian of the american battlefield protection program. he has taught at several colleges and universities, most recently at hope college and holland, michigan. earlier this year, he was awarded an international center for jefferson studies fellowship
at monticello, and is also the recipient of the 2015 eric kurtz memorial award for german american history. [applause] dr. selig: thank you for coming tonight to one of the prime places to do research on the american war of revolution, and particularly on the french role in the war of independence. that is not just because the society of the cincinnati has a wealth of primary resources from the subject, but also because, day, 230ned, to the
three years ago, there was an for frenchhere infantry, and an assortment of other personnel that had crossed almost in and camped the backyard of where we are now. as, french such forces in your backyard literally, could be made for about 60 different locations in the united states, between boston and yorktown. it usually raises some eyebrows and a number of questions when i gave a presentation -- i give a presentation like this. questions like, what were the french soldiers doing here? where are they coming from? where are they going? thathort answer to this is
these french forces had crossed the atlantic to assist the american levels in their struggle for independence. were now on their way back to the north. that still leaves a number of why dids such as, france send troops to assist the american rebels, and who are these men? on the americans i, historians have spent considerable time and effort to determine who ,he victors were at yorktown but significantly less effort has been expended on learning who america's french allies were , and hardly anybody has ever looked in any detail on the march two yorktown -- to yorktown. and yet, these men and their
equipment had together somehow because if nobody shows up, there is no battle. did they take? how long did it take them to get to yorktown? what are the experiences along the way? what are their observations? what did they consider worth recording? theird they interpret experiences? what did they eat? those are questions that have hardly been asked, and this is, of course, where the washington-rochambeau revolutionary route comes in. i don't want to bore you with the details of how this road came about. suffice it to say that it was -- 1999gan in december of in connecticut as a private project and ended when president obama signed house resolution
french. it is the story of human interaction between americans and french soldiers and civilians. in other words, it is not the story of the siege of your town. it is not the story of the victory at yorktown. wholeis no blood on this march, other than the blood of .nimals, being eaten it is a story of the deployment of forces along america's eastern seaboard from new england down to yorktown.
the american war of independence did not happen just in boston, valley forge, and yorktown. there are lots of other places along the road where thousands of americans contributed to this war. 80,000 pension applications in the 1830's still that the that show you whole public, the american people as a whole, were involved in the english war. the victory of your town is the combination of contributions from france and a manifestation of the global character of that war because that is something that is very easily forgotten. is just one theater of multiple theaters of war. french soldiers
your town.r then in there is a war going on in africa. a person comes here directly from senegal. there is a war going on in india. there is a war in the channel islands. easilyomething that is forgotten because, with all due respect to spain, other than the spanish and british, no one really cares who owns gibraltar. the fact that the united states became an independent nation is so much more important and has covered everything else. if these are the goals and this w3r, than the
first question i want to touch on quickly is why with the king of france send troops over here? and theot because -- message that the troops would be a boat -- s on the avenue the king of france sends troops not because he believes that all men are created equal and endowed with certain unalienable ?ights, among which are very good. this is interactive. no. the king of france -- france supports the american rebels into thehe war fit long-standing traditions of french foreign policy. the long-standing traditions of
french foreign policy is based on their balance of powers. this balance of powers has been greatly upset in the seven years britain emerges as the world's sole superpower. of frenchprincipal foreign policy at the time is and to somence all, degree still sees, russia as the most dangerous threat to western civilization. beginning with the days of peter the great, france has always tried to keep russia landmark -- landlocked. the crimea war of to the suez crisis, this is a general principle of french foreign policy. in order to ensure that this
principle of foreign policy will be successful, france needs not just an army, she has that, but she needs a navy. the country that has a navy that landlockedeep russia is great britain. france thinks that as long as great britain looks westward, across the atlantic, wall france looks eastward -- while france looks eastward, great britain will never play the role in france's foreign policy that france would like it to play. the idea behind supporting these american rebels is that in order great britainke look westward, that she has to be detached from her american colonies. since the american colonies want to be detached from great
britain, it is here that the ofterests of great britain -- france and the american rebels merge. turn great britain to look eastward, play a role on the frenchn continent and in foreign policy. detached them from their colonies. ,his is why we have rochambeau among other french forces, marching down the american east coast. troopsision to send under rochambeau was made in january 1780, on march 20. sailarquis lafayette set to announce the arrival of a french army of some 5000 men under rochambeau.
lafayette arrives in boston on april 20 8, 1780, and set sail, and sets out for moorestown, .ashington's headquarters 5000 troops stand under the command of washable -- rochambeau. after a journey is 72 days, these men arrive in newport. while the officers obviously find quarters, or the high-ranking officers find -- i'ms in the houses
just showing those because part of my job was to identify .esources along the road while the high-ranking officers, like a set, stay in houses like this, the troops are encamped newport. i will superimpose an 18th-century map on a modern map. here is washington square. of frenchmages uniforms. right away?notice french regiments, as a rule, have white uniforms.
royal have blue, a german-speaking regiment coming with rochambeau. the reason this measurement is chosen is because the number of -- theyarged would be into otherfer of men units. it did not work, by the way. [laughter] there is a recruiting station in philadelphia. by the time they get to newport, more than half of them have served again with an enlistment bonus. here are pictures of artillery, legion.
a little off castle hill, separated from the main infantry. that happened throughout the campaign. -- this isfor that the only true that i know that had more men executed for robbery then were killed in battle. mine and yours is apparently a difficult concept to understand. the only unit that can clear out the village just by arriving to it is because men run away from them. who these menow are, let's take a look at who they are. altogether, and september 1780,
we have about 5100 enlisted men. officers and domestics, we get about 12,000 arrivals. 12,000 men. the total population is about 5000 in newport. the total operation of rhode island, 6000. overnight, the population of rhode island increases by about 20%. how do you house and feed these new arrivals is a question that is asked throughout the campaign. there are only two cities along the seashore that could possibly feed and take care of this many men. one city is philadelphia. the other is new york. , we have a problem because it is british occupied. that leaves philadelphia.
boston, how large is boston? about 16,000. washington, how large? it does not even exist yet. good. what kind of environment did these troops find when they arrived in new england? at first glance, it is a very difficult environment of course. it is a difficult environment areuse in 1780, if you french, you have three strikes against you. you are catholic, you are french, and you have a historical connection to the french and indian war. to give you an idea, there is a long tradition of in newench feelings england.
celebrate thehey anti-catholic fortnight with a vengeance. just to give you one example of , preached on may 13, 1789, more than one year after the signing of the treaty of says,ship with france, "the preservation of our religion depends on the continuance of a free government, let our allies have their eyes open on the blessings of such a government, and that once renounced their superstitions. "on the other hand, should we lose our freedom, this will open " -- in other words,
catholicism, it is all thrown together. not just confined to new england, of course. , forbanon, pennsylvania example, a reverent wrote in march 1789 the on the first of april, the french fleet is to arrive from philadelphia. , it will beption headed over to the french, and stabbed to death. if americans, however, have confused notions of what the french are, very strong
prejudices, the same is true about the french. frenchofficers, fur soldiers, if they had met a continental, it was on the other side of a muska bell -- mus ket bell. when they come over here, they expect something like a wonderful environment and habited by noble savages, which of course is not true at all. the american leadership to be full of ideals, to fight for life, liberty, and all the stuff. and of course, when they come over here what will the yankees tell them? complaint that money is the
in otheramericans -- words, what happens in the first couple of months after the whenal of french forces, they are getting to know each , meeting reality and a more coherent and realistic image exists. by the way, this is not just getting to know each other, confined to humans. understanddid not french commands. [laughter] actually an entry where "left,"on is told
"right," etc. in english because they were speaking french. the landing in rhode island started a continual learning process of getting to know each other. a process that will repeat itself as they marched down the east coast, all the way to virginia. .he french are very different when i say this, we need to keep in mind that the continentals over here are made up of
different religious, ethnic, and religious groups. ,he europeans, in particular bring their own cultural baggage with them, something the french will experience continually over and over again. and, the french army too, as i said, is not a whole me a genius of troops.neous body the experiences are considerably different than those of the french, and sometimes, if nothing else, because more than aref our calvinist -- lutheran. o they enter into a very different religious environment than the catholic french. on the other hand, th, in the
winter quarters at newport, they placed guards on hand so that people do not wander into church services. what i mean is that french forces encountered pockets of , and you get the complaint over and again that they do not want anything to do with the soldiers of the king of france because they remember why , forpa left france example. on the other hand, when a march through philadelphia, one of the members says half of the relatives and to friends, and they said, what are you doing? why don't you come on and join us, and we will hide you.
nothing is more difficult than two disappear. said, i have a daughter, she is ugly, but 400 acres, that seals the deal. on the other hand, if you are french and catholic and don't speak french or german, it is much harder to disappear. at some pointt -- a woman fro , ramirez that when they -- remembers that when the french past, they wanted nothing to do with it. escapestory, you cannot your history. at some point, it will catch up to you. when the question comes, what is the appearance of the
french over here, you have to remember, where are we in the united states, and what part of the french army do you represent. it is all very very local. be it as it may, when the winter quarters are over, allied camps, french forces break in june 1871, and set out for white plains an in westchester county. there, they encounter continental troops. this is a john of the french. when the continental army forces and french army forces need for 1781, thetime in july french are in for a surprise. someone broke, i had a chance to see the american army man for
man and it was painful to see the brave men almost naked with only some trousers and a little linen jacket, most of them without stockings, but would you believe it, very cheerful and healthy a in appearance. one quarter of them were negroes. row, i was struck not by its smart appearance, but by destitution. the men without arms and uniforms, covered in rags. most of them were barefoot. they were in all sizes, down to children, who could not be over 14. he is not kidding. it wonderful memoir is by a man 12ed john hudson who turned in the summer of 1781 on june
12, and i know that because that is my wife's birthday. in other words, the connell army -- continental army that meets up with french forces, which is a professional army with an average of six years of service. they have uniforms, weapons, regularly,id and fed the french are in for a surprise. one writes, i remember the great accomplishments and cannot see thatut certain admiration general washington had so gloriously defended his country. we know that washington wants to .ay siege to new york city
comes that they ,re selling to the chesapeake the first forces are on their way. now begins the epic march to yorktown. how many people do we have? since the connell army has to , it isome men behind men.or less 2700 french forces, almost twice as much. if one of the questions, the of this trail is -- here
is one of them. once we get to yorktown, the crucial contributions of the french become more obvious. there are more french forces on .and where is the continental navy? it does not exist. many are almost twice as sailors at yorktown. 9000 continentals, 7000 surrendered. that is the largest city on the american continent. it springs up overnight and disappears just as quickly.
this is what you get when you look at numbers. of course, there are many more not just soldiers yet to meet the first french officers. officers who00 have at least two servants, you get another infantry regiment marching along. against. have one has 600 horses, ox, about 1000 animals. i know where i would like to be in the column marching through philadelphia. , wehe road to wilmington
have at least 1500 horses. we get 4300, 4500 animals. animalshink that may marching through philadelphia caused a stir in 1781, try that in 2015. [laughter] easily 2-3ns can be havoclong as they wreak on the roads. these are roads where an occasional farmer goes to market. now suddenly we have thousands pieces,s and artillery etc., on their way. finally, on september 23, 1781,
these animals will arrive in georgetown to across the potomac. wagoner's are all recruited in new england because that is where they start. record.an enlistment the child couldn't write, but he made an "x." ofe's a couple of pictures widens, what they look like as they go down the road. most of them are john berry horses. the wagons of the french army oxen.l drawn by they make their way from new york. as they crossed the hudson river , they go into new jersey. what do you see?
what we see is that they split up. this is a group of continentals -- come over from. here are caught no forces and here are french forces. or washington-rochambeau notlutionary route is one, it is a whole network, for a number of reasons. one is militarily. you put a number of screens up here of horses to hide and facilitate the movement of the french army, which are the largest number of forces, of course. other reason for this is how many cities can feed all of these men?
maybe philadelphia. you have to spread them out to get access to as many resources as possible. these forces always get together when there is a river to cross. as soon as they are across this bottleneck, they will spread out again simply because they cannot be fed on a march through new jersey. the largest city in new jersey in 1781 is trenton.
that has 500 inhabitants. over a span of four or five days, they got no army and french forces marched 10 times the size of the people living there. the women started building apple pies.- baking apple how many would you have to bake for each person to get one? much of what we know about this march, this 19th-century folklore, rather than reality. supplies.all the when the connell army need supplies, what does it do? them -- confiscates but that is not good for ,riendship -- or hands out ious
which will be redeemed eventually. redeemed when are they ? as part of the deal that brings the capital to washington, d.c., wendy federal government -- federal government takes over. when french forces marched on capture coast, they silver. the reason i'm putting this up is because we see of. coins -- we see british coins. you seem what? same the same size, the silver content, whether it is a
british coin, if french going, or a spanish going. what you also see if they all have the same obverse and reverse. you don't have to write if they $.50.25 or it is the silver content, the weight. it is totally irrelevant whose face is on their, whether it is the king of france, england, over spain. french forces spend so much money, approximately 20 million some estimate that they would doubling circulation in the united states. this money that they leave here is legal currency. this march provides a very welcome boost to the local
economies because, as i said, pay cash. a this is the fairy builds in trenton. if you add it all up, it is the fairy builds for the -- ferry built for the continental army across the river at trenton. cash versus ious. way, there are remnants of building sites, or in this case, a bridge that was used by continental army forces and french army forces as they make their way to philadelphia. here is one of those typical 19th-century drawings marching
through philadelphia. said, who was there, the streets were extremely dirty , there was dust like a snowstorm. there was no one marching through philadelphia with powdered wigs, as if they were ready for a march. remember, there were how many animals as they are marching through philadelphia? were paidench forces well, regularly, said well, continentalerican forces were not. the americans trouble themselves little with provisions. describe how to the soldier makes his bread with cornmeal. why would the french describe
that? seen it.e has never when he goes back to france, he will say, you will not believe what they eat over there. annch journals, whether by enlisted men or officers, are one of the most important sources of life and revolutionary america. nobody in virginia would fill his diary with this is how i make cornmeal. ofir journals are full accounts of things that no american would write down, but frenchgreat interest to officers, as they make their way through philadelphia. after philadelphia, the troops go down and march into is ongton, washington
land. it is subsurface that washington learns of the chesapeake bay. he is all excited. of course, he does not know that the battle of the capes has started. there's something to be said about life without cell phones. the washington-rochambeau route is sort of a grantor for french nobility. ride.a staff , includingers andyette's brother-in-law theyrs, they negotiate -- -- washington
takes them on a staff writer across the town of germantown. in this case, rochambeau comes down the delaware because they ts,e just been to for important battle sites. rid, andstaff w educational process that is going one as well. as we get into maryland, we see, at different points, in baltimore and eventually at soapolis, all but 100 or continental and french forces
will embark to sell to virginia to virginia, to jamestown. wagonspolis, hundreds of are empty as they make their way yorktown, which has important implications for the siege. artillery and the men get there on september 28, and the cattle to pull the artillery gets there on october 6 because you can make a horse run, but you cannot make an ox run. here, as they move from maryland into virginia, all
forces, french or american, are entering a brave new world. none of the new jersey troops, rhode island troops, the canadian regiments, or new york troops had ever been down here. they are in for a surprise. the biggest surprise is slavery. -- these black ,eople are cap slight cattle the young ones are raised much in a nature of cattle, etc. you will read this and the journals of many french officers, unless they belong to the upper nobility, in which case they really could care
less. if you are looking for moral indignation in the journals, in the writings of rochambeau, you will not find it, but you find in the writings of the and listed men -- of the enlisted men. put our bags, we on board and marched on to go to mr.inia to find cornwallis." spelling high school dream, of course. "plenty of negroes, these
seen this. what is important is after the siege of yorktown, they will go massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, and people will ask them, what is it like down there? one of the things they will mention is slavery, what they had seen because it has such an impact on them. opinionthat the public in these little towns in new england certainly is impacted by these observations about slavery . just as an aside, i have yet to read any letter or account from anybody from new england that has anything positive to say about virginia. i hate to do that. , for example,orth staten a letter, "this has no energy, no civil
government, they are too rich ,nd too poor to be fit for war i could wish to leave this part of the world for a better one, which i'm sure i cannot find." he goes on and on like this. i said, the enlisted men on both sides have more problems with slavery. french officers, as a rule, do not. europea black slave in is like having a mercedes in the driveway. even rochambeau buys himself a slave at a public auction that , aadvertise here in newport couple days before they set out for yorktown. these poor guys that are sold
are slaves that had run away from their owners in virginia, road out to the ships that were flying the british flag, but turn out to be french ships who take them to rhode island and sell them there. in the early 1790's, there is a big trial and all of this comes out. virginiae getting into , and to yorktown. as i said, after baltimore, and empty american wagon train winds its way to georgetown where it arrives on september 19. on september 13, the wagon train in your town. we have a problem, and that problem is the potomac river.
the initial french itinerary says that there are two large boats, each of which can carry two well against year to make a long story short, , 809 crossings would have taken the -- eight or nine crossings would have taken them a cross. this is exactly what happens. the american wagon train crosses and camps within three miles of alexandria at four mile run. some of you may know where four mile run is. on this map, it is right here. you see it right here. today?from four mile run the national airport. i did not take a picture here because i might be dead.
here.is a sign route oneture on bren . wesley wrote, why did i circle this? if i said you can get the continental army train over, you can't do that with the french, there are similar to many of them, too many wagons. you don't have a choice with the wagons, so they also crossed here at four mile run. we know that because we have the bill. this is all from the wadsworth papers, by the way. he is the chief supplier of forces, and he needs receipts. if we transcribe it, he received
ox carts, etc. the continental army had to hand out an iou. , something isn wrong here -- where are the rest of the oxen? over theh up and cross potomac near little horse, where today's chamber crosses the potomac, about three miles north .f georgetown once you cross, they go down into alexandria, and this is where they pick up their wagons. again, we know that because mr. david griffith, here is one of the receipts provided.
griffith, his house is still offding, by the way, just 17th street. md who had been at valley forge and some of washington's children will board with him when they go to school in alexandria later on. here we have an example of problems that show up on the march, and how they are being solved along the way. then, they move on, as i said, , and continue on telegraph road to the intersection of route one. i want to show you some sites you may be familiar with, and how i go about tracing the route.
these are done in 1781, a couple of days before the army actually gets there. e an9, they mak an atlas. the wonderful thing is that there are mile markers. here is a mile marker, for example. aen, you run a parallel to modern roadmap, and you can trace the road. the church is right here still. here is what it looks like. you go down here and see how the , the road a bend today makes the same bend. you can follow it until you get to the bridge. here is the roadmap again.
here is a house. this house is the fairfax arms standing.ich is still this is the road, going this .ay, down on the other side, here is our road again. in virginia in particular, you can't do this, tracking the road system. you will find dozens of undeveloped road sections. you will find more self of fredericksburg. up here in your neighborhood as well. park is a panel in mason from old called chester road.
no idea you had snow in virginia. , they came back up. here is a roadside amount for alexandria. if you superimpose the road pattern for commerce street, duke street, on a later map. we can determine where the french forces were camped. what you also find is that the historical markers are at the wrong sites as well. toy keep on marching georgetown and across. go up 34th street. the historic marker is gone.
here is the 18th century map. this is national cemetery. th across rock creek to a camp somewhere here. camp, the road to creek, andross rock here is the encampment. map, the road already has changed. it goes this way rather than that way. here is the crossing and another camp site map. maprtunately, the campsite for rock creek is the worst of all that have survived because
there is really not much we can map to.he there are no houses. the road pattern has definitely changed. all you have is the creek, and the creek has not changed much because of the river banks that we have. set up camp.- -- not great in winter sure about summer. rock creek,ferry, the bend. the campsite is in the middle of nowhere. 80 years later, the pattern has changed. donetheless, what i have is superimposed a map.
it works to a certain degree. florida avenue, it makes a bend. here is the railroad station and howard university. much, but at help least we see the road pattern follows. superimpose the creekte map following the , because that is all we have to go by. here is cincinnati again. there we are. the encampment -- sorry about
here we go. here is the society of cincinnati behind us here and here. that is only an approximation. i would not recommend doing any archaeology here. , i think i had better conclude my remarks tonight. rochambeau route from new york to alexandria. you what ise to ask the rochambeau revolutionary route, you would hopefully say it is many different things. it talks about troops but it talks about encounters between americans and french. it talks about encounters
between french and german immigrants and black slaves. we talk about the occupational have,ence french officers and the educational experiences americans have. byause we know who we are what we are not. this is the first time americans encounteredbers french men. they know that they are human beings and allies. findinge process of ourselves. this is an important step in the process as well. with this, i had better stop. thank you very much for wasting a perfectly good hour with me. we have some time for questions. thank you much. [applause]
robert: and i want to show you this picture from back in the days. questions? anybody? you ifuld like to ask the legion camped in either direction where the peace street bridge, which is named after the beech, exists today and street. who knows if they were there or not? robert: we know from the itinerary in the rochambeau spent thet the legion
winter in the charlotte corner house -- talk about the middle of nowhere -- and preceded the infantry. unfortunately, there are no eyewitness accounts. no campsite maps. comments in officers' accounts. order -- likes or der. all we know is that they crossed half onhed a mile and a rock creek. you, allll i can tell that i have found.
, there aref them almost 800 men on there. the flagships are well over 1000. are needed to work the artillery pieces not the sails. at yorktown, they have a crew of 250, give or take. 18,000 in was around the fleet. , landmeans, at yorktown more people lived in the state of delaware. there are more people on the flagship that in the town of
wilmington in 1782. >> thank you so much for your interesting presentation. lafayette getting so much credit? city squares, towns all over the country. rochambeau is hardly remembered. hear aboutever rochambeau. why do we not give more credit to rochambeau? he made the market, organized the strategy in yorktown. the short answer is that lafayette has better p.r. people. the long answer has to do with
the fact that lafayette was the have, isngton does not a young, enthusiastic noblemen whom it is, around easier to coalesce. important to understand is that -- i am not , youto quote -- in america onel to fawn over every col who used to be a shoemaker. and this is a quote to the honor tte, thatia -- lafaye
he has been able to ingratiate himself with the americans. they have more respect. tried very hard to act like an american officer would with thes he could rest of the officer corps, something that was very hard, apparently, for many officers in rochambeau's army. myth grew around him. frenchman in the
united states. that is the only explanation i have. you? >> how many fresh troops were lost at yorktown. and 300.etween 250 more lose their lives in the battle of the saints. , more have served than were killed in battle here. consequences are much more important. the number of deaths is not that big. one more question? >> yes.
you mentioned that the number of exceededldiers vastly the number of american rebel soldiers. who is really in command, deciding what route the troops would take, how many troops would go one way? was washington really in command or was rochambeau in command? the overall commanding officer is washington. there is no doubt about it. the french forces are much ,arger in the march to yorktown but rochambeau never questions who is in charge. but which road to take, where to bread, washington and
rochambeau were not usually with troops anyway. they were sailing down the delaware river. this is what captains do and majors, they surely turn left and right. not a general. quartermasters and continental army too. one of the reasons we know little about continental marches , we have goneia down these roads for years. we need to make sure they go on the right roads. for example, that there were bushels of hay and things like tied to a sign so they know whether to turn left or right. they also had guides to show them the way.
none of the colonels got involved at this level of organization, micromanagement. ok. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] hoover came to the white house as a trained geologist, successful in the private and public sectors. term, theo hoover's stock market crashed. first lady hoover volunteered her office for charity. amongeir first term ended growing public depression. ladies,"r on "first examiningir