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tv   The Civil War  CSPAN  October 3, 2015 6:00pm-6:50pm EDT

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community involvement can make for extraordinary success. >> throughout the weekend, american history tv is set in santa rosa, california. our cities tour staff recently traveled there. learn more about santa rosa and other stuff on our tour at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> author phillip greenwalt talks about how at the end of the civil war, southerners grappled with the question of why the confederacy lost. he argues that many of their writings serve as a foundation for the lost cause. this event is about 50 minutes. >> the next gentleman who is
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coming up here is actually author of three books. he started out writing about a subject near and dear to him, the 1864 campaign in the shenandoah valley. the story is called "bloody autumn." most recently, "calamity and carolina." greenwalt started out as an intern. he has since joined the park service, has done a wonderful with george washington's birthplace, where he was an interpreter for several years, but most recently, he has decided to go into alligator land and has bowed down at the everglades, where he has been for just a month or so. usis taking time to talk to about a subject that eric introduced us to just moments ago, and he talked about the foundational document of the
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lost cause. talk to usng to about where that goes and how that legacy is with us today. ladies and gentlemen, phillip greenwalt. [applause] phillip: good morning. the good thing about the lost or remembering southern confederate history is that has not been in the public eye at all for the last few weeks, months. [laughter] i think i had to turn off my own social media account because i had to rewrite my introduction and conclusion 15, 20 times -- since yesterday. [laughter] cause, for me, the lost is an amazing cultural ouromenon that shaped collective memory of one of the big turning point in american military, political, economic da, history.
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but it started right here, april 9, 1865. i did not pay him to introduce my subject, but he did a great job. after robert e. lee meets here in the parlor of the mclean house, he issues his farewell address, a tidbit of what would become one of the mantras of the lost cause. he said "the army of northern virginia has been compelled to yield by overwhelming numbers and resources." later on, he commented and he both valor and -- these are tidbits that explain what happened, why they got to 1861 to 1865, the
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causes of the war matriculated through. his favorite quip was that a confederate soldier marching off to war said he could with 10 yankees with a sick. 1865, he came back, asked what happens, and he said "the yankees did not fight with sticks." [laughter] so how could the confederates explain why they fought, what they fought for, or the reasons that they succumbed in 1865? the lost cause, the, stares us in the face in this general area. it is around us. have you ever walked the battlefield? you go down and you see these markers, confederate trenches. little farther up closer to where lafayette boulevard cuts in, and you see the absence of one of the two core commanders.
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james long street. you see the division line or you -- you see pickets. part of the remembrance reconsideration, so long street has committed a few sins against confederate memory and chose names left off some of these markers. manassas national battlefield, , itull run -- it is formed is saved, preserved, initially called manassas confederate park. or have you gone to the site of e's greatest victory? not where the north succumbed, --re hooker's plan worked
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no, where the confederate general did his utmost and came within a hair breath a few times to actually separating the country. though down i-95 and the stonewall jackson's shrine. we have a grand shrine or a sherman shrine. we have a grand memorial, but you do not go by richmond, ohio and the immemorial to grant. before i start gathering even more angry responses, or objects being thrown from the front row here, the talk is centered on the lost cause. we have to remember, though, that what happened in current affairs, what happens in popular culture today has a whole , and it hasaning taken the story kernel truth and popped it into unmanageable popcorn. the united states confederacy would object of the confederacy
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being used in nonhistorical or nonrelated controlled ways. one of their announcements in the 20th century announced that our fight is not to be used in connection with any political movement. certain demonstrations, some of political groups that tie the confederate flag or and seninsia with seeming disregard of his significant. ce. explain, said, how to understand, how to remember the four bloodiest years in american military history? a gentleman i have studied a ass, a gentleman that i view a poor man's stonewall jackson, said shortly after the war, "we all know how hard it is to
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eradicate early impressions," so he encouraged x confederates to write about the war. get the message out, to get the truth, as robert e. lee said, "my only object is to transmit if possible the truth through posterity and through justice to our brave soldiers. " this was a letter he wrote in november, 1865. southerners of the former confederacy began looking for reason, looking for causes, and justifications for why the war went the way it did. how to explain how scenes went explains to this, or to how this euphoria in 1861 turned into this, one of the famous photos, the last few weeks of the war, these soldiers were captured from pickett's division.
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had a explain the 25% of southern men were killed for incapacitated, or scarred for the war, how that southern economy, southern civilians, the government of the confederacy pumped in $3 billion to fight the war, and in 1865, it was in shambles. 4 million slaves were freed. economic and cultural, the social ramifications of one out of almost three people in the southern confederacy, suddenly your labor force gone. , citiesies destroyed destroyed -- atlanta, columbia, richmond. even in a way southern manhood questioned. why did we lose? how were we overcome? what do we have to look forward to in the future? toe decided the best way
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move out, the best way to remember was literally to move. you have communities now in montana called marina named after marina davis. you have a confederate soldier who has done so much in his life that every time i study or feel like i am slacking, i think about this gentleman who fought in the civil war because he had connections in the carolinas. decided you know what, that was an arduous service, and i will head across country, and the rocky mountains do not seem to challenging. i will traverse them, and then i will get away from yankeedom in oregon, where he died in the 1870's. amazing life just to escape what was here in the east. this gentleman, though, is one
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of first coined the lost cause. edward pollard. , virginiarichmond during the war, and in 1864, he tried to head north, but he was captured by privateers in the navy, and he was sent to boston, massachusetts. pro confederate, anti-jefferson davis, he was right that it is time, the southerners have thrown down the sword, take up the weapons of arguments, and the creation of moral societies. lost thenfederates war, they transitioned into writing. today, if you go on amazon, there are over 5000 books that amazon holds on the civil war. of the museum of the confederacy said there is an average of 1.1 books per day written on the civil war since the civil war ended.
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it here, we have probably read a collective almost every one of them. what has happened, though, is this phenomenon of lost cause has taken root. what are the tenants of the lost cause? well, this man here, anderson jubal anderson- early, played a part. let's throw in our city johnson. they were worthy of emulation. to maybe got-like status. stonewall jackson was a legend even before he died. how many other generals in american history, maybe, say, george washington, are known and followed and recognized and received as greatness before they passed on or before the war was over?
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superior manpower, industry won the war. rhode island made more weapons per year than the weapons in the confederacy. easy to pinpoint manpower. the south defended states rights, rights from the revolution, they planted a second revolution. , put aenets -- slavery more bucolic scene on it. ideal andnfederate the ideal self and the reason that the war was initiated. the cause also builds on causes of fighting the war in the first place. oftherners were the heirs the spirit of 1776, standing up to the aggressor, standing up to the northern aggressors, the
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abolitionist movement, the republican party. onll, the prewar on a aligned -- unaligned sentiments. partyike the patriarch and the colonies of 1775 and 1776. even the "richmond dispatch" -- much like lincoln's aim, this is the war of subjugation. the confederates tried to make sense of their loss. great diaries we have says the cause of the revolution, the fou forefathers have bailed, and so have we. all of this place for nostalgia, the southern way of life, even depicted in scenes from "gone with the wind," was mentioned
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last night, the lady who played melanie supposedly did not know the south had lost the war. gave the lands to which the defeat.ates had th they wanted to sustain as much as possible what life was like prewar but ignore components that is not fit into this nice, thegorical remembrance, cornerstone speech of alexander stephenson not quite fit in. some of the jefferson davis quotes at senator of mississippi in the senate did not quite fit in. control in thek late 1860's, early 1870's, the southern historical society papers. one of the gentlemen, a famous rist on the war, summed
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up how important jubal early was to be remembered movement to writing about confederate that long asaying the old war hero, jubal early, took up a pen to write a line about the great conflict without the fear of jubal early before his eyes. [laughter] jubal early -- i mean it is fitting. jubal early was the only man who had the privilege from robert e. lee, so you might as well stand up and direct some of the commiseration of the war. ucb called early a "forceful and truthful" writer of history. he was called "the driving force alt." the first leae cult jubal anderson early, who ended
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the word home because of his inability to defend the shenandoah valley, the gentleman who left and went to mexico because he could not envision living in the united states, the one who ended up in canada with john breckenridge, who looked across at the united states flag aid he still solidly good fight, pillage, and destroy, return, though, to lead this movement, and the root of the lost cause for him, he said clearly "lost nearly everything but honor, and that should be religiously guarded." southern historical society papers also became a voice for the x confederates. of thethem wrote origins late war by robert m c hunter.
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jubal early also rushes to print in 1866 has ruminants as of the last year of the civil war, a great overview account of and -- a few of my friends have different feelings of pope sheridan, what he was coming out without a time. components were robert e. lee, stonewall jackson. 1870,obert e. lee died in the elevation of him. ist people did not realize one gentleman whose star fell was james long street with the elevation of robert e. lee because a lot of the writings in the formation of lost cause is
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written by second court jackson or second court leaders. they do not understand that the economy between robert e. lee and longstreet. when they were core commanders in 1862 and early 1863, lee went with longstreet. argued.longstreet they debated. this was unfathomable because when lee gave jackson orders, jackson went off and followed. when jackson told you where you are going -- [laughter] you followed. reason lee went with longstreet. long he lost a few children to this disease. they like to gamble, he liked to joke, he was a fun guy, he had staff officers who likes to
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joke. jackson, though, you could probably hear a pin drop at his head orders. -- at his headquarters. they were staunch th episcopalians. then longstreet had the nerve to say that lee is partly to blame for gettysburg. he also had the nerve to take a republican position as a port collector in new orleans. and he also had the audacity to kind of right when he remembered, and unfortunately adding fuel to the fire. by 1927, asgstreet, one of the first photos showed, written out of the remembrance. he is not even included in some of these ceremonies in richmond, virginia. these two gentlemen unknowingly also helped form the lost cause.
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to strike at many points simultaneously in 1864 kind of played into the collective memory of the lost cause and what they are trying to perpetuate. the union army used what thentages they had, but only reason they used that advantage if they had more men, so they could fight at different points along the way. they could fight and use overwhelming industry and man power to strike at the confederacy simultaneously. grants would write that the resources of the enemy was inferior to us, an obvious statement to make, but went right into the hands of what jubal early in the lost cause ,ork seeking to perpetuate saying that we fought the good fight, but ove in the end, overwhelming numbers and industry suppress us. charles wainwright said "as it is, the rebellion has one out
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rather than been suppressed. he wrote that shortly after appomattox. that is an interesting quote. "worn out rather than suppress." incoln wrote more double multiple times from th -- lincon wrote multiple times from the war, "put in all your men at the next engagement. " he understood that if you have got the numerical strength, use it. played into what the lost cause is trying to perpetuate, that it was a manpower issue. did they know that in 1861? were they trying to obscure the years of whatfour the war initially started? modern historians,
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david bryce, said conservative traditions by which the entire country could go against racial, political, industrial disorder, is why the lost cause has filtered and strengthened throughout the years. thelso helped in remembrance, the failure of reconstruction, but the remembrance, the happy reunion, the great pictures of union and confederate veterans shaking at the wall. voiced, one drawback, he the role of what african-americans played in the conflict. have cometenets in to our cultural being, have added to our remembrance of these four years of the civil war. we now have still today memberships, united daughters of
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the confederacy that are high, memberships in the united confederate veterans. you also have literature abounding on robert e. lee, you have literature abounding on stonewall jackson. the only equivalent in the northern camp might be abraham lincoln. are there any, though, for the last 25 minutes, 30 minutes expounding lost cause -- are there any truths to this perpetuation to this room remembrance of the southern confederacy? you could say that lee did fight under adverse conditions of the wa progressed. one of the famous quotes is the repeating sharp's carbine that you could load on sunday and unload the rest of the week, and how unfair was that?
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personal five on the . there are many, myriad reasons why our ancestors fought for the southern confederacy. there are myriad reasons why they continue to persevere, there are married of reasons why they survived around petersburg. thee is a reason why all march, and appomattox, when things looked destitute, there are still thousands that were willing to follow robert e. lee. there are things we can take from robert e. lee to study. ness.toic he understood that she was one of the first modern military leaders that we had. enemy,rstood the
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he understood his own subordinates for the most part. now, gettysburg, maybe he thought richard you'll was a little more like stonewall jackson -- not open that can of worms, though. now, what the lost cause did to the early confederates, a field that gap, that yearning. god has to be on our side. god is also on the northern side. why did the four years of war angle away at it. why did the four years of war lead to our cities being destroyed, lead to now estimates over 300,000 confederate cavalry -- calvaries. why did we lose? it is a great question. ,t is a question to read still
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according to facebook, according to cnn, according to fox news, whatever news outlet. it is still be defining moment. to understand what happened in 1861, 18 62, 1863, 1864, and 1865. recently, a great historian who has written write books on the battlefield we are standing on now, on the campaign and 1864, gordon was asked -- how do you explain what had happened when one dastardly act in charleston passed? he said, what do you view on the flag? reconcile that the southern confederacy was perpetuate on the cornerstone of alexander stephenson's speech that said the cornerstone of
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confederacy is slavery. he said you can go a little deeper, from the macro to the micro, is that a host of reasons motivated southerners of the civil war era to become soldiers. they included concepts of duty, of honor, even of manhood, but by joining the confederate war machine, all of them, irrespective of their personal motivation, advance their nation's political agenda, which was the territorial expansion of human bondage. interesting. the quote resonated because working here at fredericksburg how andeld you think of why to remember, people want to sameand walk in the
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footsteps, commemorate why my ancestors joined up, but at the same time trying to combat what in 2006 compared to , so the lost1866 cause and put into the concept of 1865 may not look as well now in 2015, but we need to continue to study because the lost cause is a major component of american cultural, political history. it also needs to be understood as just one view, one view only of the american civil war. how do we define what is the lost cause? it is a cultural movement dominated regionally in which the aim is to reconcile traditional white annabella more prewar society equal to defeat of the
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confederate states of america. why didn't persist? why does it still persist? the reconciliation undertone. toepted as the easiest way reconcile the north and south actions. alan nolan, who has done extensive work on the iron extensive work on leave reconsidered, the one was taken a look at numbers and holding up overtime, he said to facilitate the reunion, a sign of respect and willing northerners, the publishers iname a white man's phenomenon as the price of reunion into the united states. one of the pictures in the background, i'm not sure if you , as you see the soldier
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still back there, learning how to use a clicker. it takes what greeted southern soldiers. i thought this painting was a very relevant to the lost cosmetology. it signifies four years of struggle. what their future, why their path, and explains how to and how to understand four years of warfare.
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when we started writing in the bloody auto book, time started to fly. commander -- it was something that permeated. eventsamazing how recent can try to flood back the speeches of 1860. it is things that have interested me for years. it has shaped so much of my academic and career as a park ranger.
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the same time it is amazing to me so many people have been interested, so many views. does it have value, and to commemorate what is the most the of the american military history. my goal is to keep the loss cause in the collection of the civil war, but also to try to avoid 20th century mindsets being put on and how years and years of historians have tried to grapple with this one topic. i would like to thank everyone for coming out to this second symposium. i would like to open the floor to questions, arguments,
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discussions. if you want to throw something. ice and heture -- didn't sit on the miranda and sipped manjula's. had a different agenda, and different reason to be. what got that guy, the guy from , the person who was a marginal farmer. what made him do that? >> great question. there are a myriad of reasons ,hy average confederates southern's that didn't own
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slavery fought for the confederacy. for protectings their way of life. reasons one confederate soldier was captured picking berries out of the bush. why are you fighting? because you guys are down here. if you look in this award policy it is only a few that cuts the 11 states out of the union. we will bring them in early. gentleman knew that with the addition of slavery he was never going to be on the bottom rung. there is always someone below it.
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you have a chance to reach the top. it is a greatest adventure of their life. your whole community is going. you have that pressure, that stigma that doesn't go off the war. >> when i think about what you just said i will say one thing, americans don't like to lose. having said that i would like you to comment about douglas freeman. i read a biography about him some years ago.
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he was a big player. you read anything about this and what would be your comment? was he a player in perpetuating the loss cause? this is a man who 12 pulitzer prizes. >> he is a great historian and a great admirer. you have to take both of those streams into it. there is 90 now. but he wrote the basis for them in the 1920's. did he look at these attributes in a positive life -- positive light? look a much he held out.
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what is the percentage. an amazing quarter of history. direction.a certain did he do a great job? it is one of the books they made me read initially. they figured if you got through his book you could read any other book in washington. his bridge version sits there. he is a great historian.
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you can see the continuation. >> we never continue to that thread on reconstruction. if you look at the writings -- does that play into the writings, into the thinking? to bring that to a conclusion and to propel the lost cause? the last thing you want to do is be occupied. you don't want that part of your ethers -- your ethos. >> about 10,000 decided to go to
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brazil. that spectrum of northern occupation loomed over. you also want to understand -- why did i give up four years of my life? it was god against us. we also have the northern occupying health. these reconstructive governments. 16 counties. you can arguably go that. there is that spectrum. -- it addselops into lost cause history as
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reconstruction ends. and you have this question of manhood. question within the industry, america was going through a revolution. the civil war could say this is when our men had honor and devotion. you see the spanish-american war, the united states stepping out on the world scene a little bit. it would help to remember the forefathers of the 1860's and why we are occupied in 1877 through the end of the construction. intoas america progresses the 20th century. >> this is getting back to why man thought in civil war.
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my great great grandfather was a farmer in north carolina. in the card.ted they font the inky's one they rated inland. placedettysburg he was in the 27th of north carolina. how did that compared to what the north did. >> the confederacy passes a construction law in 1862. it actually predates the union by a whole year. it has different amendments throughout the next two or three years. through volunteering, the
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confederacy puts in close to one million men. it is an astronomical figure of gathering. problem is when you take your minute put them in the bill of terry -- in the military, what happens to your infrastructure? what happens to anything else. with emancipation you remove that labor force. they start to crack the foundations that way. it is something why men thought, white men join up -- why did men join up? au can't find patriotism in foxhole. you fight for a man to your left, a man to your right. the confederacy had that outpour in 1861.
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the had a conscription because the war was going to last longer. recruitingown offices, because they feel like the wars going to end shortly. then you have the substitutes and senior reserves, especially in north carolina. now they are conscription everyone from 16 to 55. >> hunt for one more question. for one more question. >> we can say now that a selective interpretation and distortion of history are for the purpose of getting a handle on the people who invented the loss cause, and even to control the present to reconcile the
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past. even see that happening now in a different way. there is a strong line of cause, of an evil which there is a selective reinterpretation and distortion of history to try to wipe out certain memories of the past and what it stood for. again for the purpose of controlling the present. we are dealing with that we can compare the two. we try to look at it from the perspective of the people at the time and say this is what they thought and this is what they felt. i just wondered what you thought about that.
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to base it on my professional experience as a we have a tendency to look into history as everything fits in to need to little boxes. -- into neat little boxes. now we struggle to talk about issues. not everyone is going to agree. that is why we have these discussions and roundtables. me of the things they told was washington grew up with cyber. children three or four years old that were enslaved.
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who knows, in 30 years people makes -- may think facebook is the ruination of american society. lucky strike cigarettes were awesome. now there are signs on cigarettes for how quickly they could kill you. look at they to history of the civil war. you need to have multiple ways to look. people in thehe 20th century were writing for what their experience was in the current environment they were living in. livesve to realize their -- we can't see the future, we can only understand the present.
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the benefit is that history moves one way. you don't have to worry about that coming backwards. how does each station on the path help build a collective memory? >> there is this selectivity fill has talked about a lot today. when you go back to order number nine, the establishment of that was thepower, foundational document of a loss cause. a loss cause icon set get there first with the men. it sort of refutes what lee is saying in a way, so what you are choosing to remember now really does shape that overall
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campaign. thank you so much for your insights today. >> the civil war airs every saturday between 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. eastern time. c-span.org/history. you are watching american history tv, all weekend every weekend on c-span3. >> all weekend long american history tv is joining our comcast cable partners to showcase the history of santa rosa california. visit c-span.org/cities to her. we continue with a look at the history of santa rosa. >> i

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