tv Reel America CSPAN December 20, 2015 4:00pm-4:31pm EST
[applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, this concludes the closing luncheon. thank you for attending the national trust for historic preservation annual conference. >> you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. next, on american history tv's real america, why nato? a u.s. army big picture episode
narrated by journalist edward r. murrow, the program looks at the reasons behind the north atlantic treaty organization in 1949 and features diplomatic efforts by general dwight eisenhower to convince 12 nations to fund, equip, and inff a nato armed force order to contain soviet expansion. ♪ >> this is the big picture -- unofficial television report of the united states army produced for the armed forces and the american people. now, to show you part of the big picture, here is master sergeant stuart quaid. >> throughout history, nations alliances with other nations to maintain their security and remain free from
attack. century didthe 20th the concept of national security become worldwide in its scope. world wars one and two and the korean conflict proved beyond any doubt that when one free nation anywhere is threatened by aggression, the safety of all free nations is ultimately at stake. today, the united states aware as its role as a leader in the free world has aligned itself with another nation dedicated to the preservation of these and the welfare of mankind. our big picture cameras today focus on one of the most important of these alliances. as our guest narrator, edward r. murrow tells the story behind nato, the north atlantic treaty organization. >> this is the headquarters of
the north atlantic treaty organization. 15this building come designators of the community. they speak different languages, have different cultural backgrounds. the countries vary in size from very large to very large. but here, all distinctions fade in all languages become 1 -- the language of hope. when do these nations ally themselves with nato? why nato and why must this organization continue to exist? back to the beginning of the story. in may, 1945, the war in europe came to an end.
this has been the price of europe boss unpreparedness. our hard-won945, peace seemed at last secured. a few days before, allied forces from the west had joined hands with the russians from the east. cordially aten met the doctor and pakistan and agreed the countries they occupied should be truly liberated and freely elected governments should be set up as soon as possible. within a few months, the countries of western europe were free and independent. for the countries occupied by russia, stalin had other ideas. throughout eastern europe, elections were held. but the russians had placed the communist in key government
positions. within a short time, the non-communist leaders had been liquidated. swallowed up eight european countries without firing another shot other than those of the execution squads. great britain and the united states protested that these countries had been colors-of force and russia have broken her treaty. but russia ignored the protest. stalin knew the greater part of the allied forces had gone home, leaving their arms to rest in the field of europe. in the west, men were impatient to be demobilized. the war was finished and they had other work to do.
but the russians had not demobilized. they retained overwhelmingly the largest force in europe. the small group of men in the kremlin long ago dedicated themselves to the spreading of communism by all possible means. they knew an army could be used not only to fight wars. it can be used to intimidate. to the south lay to more possible victims -- greece and turkey. in march, 1946, the russians denounced their treaty with turkey. they offered to renew it if the turks would give up part of their territory and allow the russians to control the territory. the turks refused. in greece, the communists had already started civil war. arms to themnding
through the neighboring satellite states to bring bitterness, despair, and death to the greek people. if greece and turkey were not also to be swallowed up, help had to come from the west. in march of 1947, president truman asked the united states congress to modify its traditional policy of neutrality. president truman: i believe it must be the policy of the united states to support free peoples subjugation byng armed minorities or outside pressures. >> only czechoslovakia, one of the countries behind the iron curtain, had preserved some
independence. after the war, the russians had to reckon with the president and his secretary. they were liberal minded men who believed it was possible to be friends with the communist without succumbing to them. but, to the communists, gentleness is weakness. the country compared to compromise is a week country. the machinery for taken over countries had been prepared and was swifter than before. within a week, all opposition was suppressed. there was another victory to celebrate. another victory over freedom. the president was allowed to retire to his country house. he died there a brokenhearted man.
morning, he was found dead. truth had ceased to come out of czechoslovakia. the nations of western europe or force at last to realize that they must combine to protect their own. the brussels treaty was signed by great written, france, luxembourg and the netherlands. these five countries pledged to help each other in case of attack. but western union was not strong enough to do her the men of the kremlin. decided to cut off the allied sectors of lynn from the west.
trains, barges and transports were stopped. states, britain, and france were responsible for 2.5 million people in berlin. now the food and fuel for their factories could no longer be brought to them over land unless with armed protection and at the risk of war. theeemed they must be at mercy of the russians, but the governments of the west did not give way. the life of western berlin was maintained by air on a scale never contemplated. each day, the prestige of the west rose.
after nine anxious months, the russians lifted the blockade. the policy of standing firm had been vindicated. the russians cynical blockade of berlin had brought europe to the brink of war. it was clear only a strong alliance could deter them from further adventures. in 1949, north atlantic treaty was signed by norway, luxembourg, france, italy, portugal, the united kingdom, iceland, canada come and the united states. this union of 12 nations became known as the north atlantic treaty organization, or nato. they were sworn to stand together against aggression. an attack against one would be
an attack against all. and all movie treaty was carefully designed to keep within the letter and spirit of the united nations charter, soviet russia claimed it was an attempt at world domination. they themselves, frustrated in europe, turned to the far east, to korea. the united nations sent an army to korea, under a single command, to hold the aggressors at a. it was almost too late. the lesson for europe was clear. in december, 1950, the north atlantic council decided to give to a single commander sufficient
authority to organize, quit and train an integrated nato force for the defense of europe. the task before him was unprecedented. but each of the nato countries would see to the support of its own national forces, the supreme commander would be responsible for the coordination into a single international force -- a power and responsibility unique in a time of peace. it, he would go knocking at the door of each country and ask tell me what you are willing to do for the defense of europe. call was france, or his new headquarters would be situated. he must discover whether it was militarily possible for europe with her strong national traditions to raise a sufficient force to defend them collectively. on nine, january, general eisenhower left paris.
12 nations with eight different languages and 12 traditions and way of life, of each of them, he could ask similar questions. 10 january, the netherlands. you are hard hit by the war, what can you do for nato? -- for manydenmark years, you have maintained a traditional neutrality. how many divisions are you prepared to train? 12 january, norway. your mountains require a special form of defense. man theery able-bodied mobilized if war came? written.y, great
you have commonwealth commitments throughout the world, but what forces can you contribute for the defense of europe? portugal -- from your strategic position on the atlantic seaboard, what help can you give nato? 18 january, italy -- are you prepared to rebuild your army, navy and air force of to the limit set by the peace treaty? 19 january, luxembourg. you are a small country with a great steel industry. how can you help? iceland -- we know you have no armed forces, but what contribution can you make for the common defense of the west? canada -- europe is
grateful for the arms you are supplying. what forces are you prepared to send across the atlantic? in paris, a hotel had been hastily found as a temporary home for the supreme allied powers europe. general guenther was already at work. an international staff of officers had to be prepared for the defense of europe. the task was in men's. at that time, they had at their disposal only about 1800 which, theost of airfields could not handle jets. and 14 ill equipped divisions. against these forces, russia was known to have at least 175 divisions under arms and 20,000 planes. general eisenhower asked one of his advisers what the russians
needed to march 2 the challenge. he answered all they need is shoes. so much for the beginning. in spite of the urgency, when general eisenhower and his death set to plan, they planned for a long haul. they realized if democracy were not to destroy itself, the buildup had to take time. all the plans would come to not if not for the overall planning of the civilians. the representatives of the nato divisions and other staff. the memberson what of its people could give of their own free will. it meant hard work, sacrifices, and give and take. the difficulties were innumerable, complex, and often seemed impossible. but with the months came results. the myriad problems of
armaments, logistics, and supplies were overcome. divisions arrived to augment the forces of the continent itself. the sorely needed airfields and pipelines to supply them turn from blueprints into fact. soon, it temporary home gave way to a new headquarters while officers and men of the nato nations worked together smoothly, regardless of difference in language or rates of hay. , to the 12 flags of the founding nations, more were inurkey, and,e may 19 55, the federal republic of western germany. new allies that brought new strength to nato. servants for the
alliance came and went, handing on, taking over. the long haul was punctuated with welcomes and farewells. ridgewayr to ridgway, to guenther, guenther to north stat. but, because an idea is stronger than any individual, though the faces changed, the work drove on. it was in the field that results counted and it was in the field they were realized. at each successive meetings, they could report further progress and a growing unity. thanks to the cooperation of 15 nations, what had been a document with signatures was becoming the atlantic alliance impact and in strength. steadily, the clouds of fear that had hung over europe were
lifting. vigilance and readiness were paying off. surprise and this unity among his the dems -- the strongest weapons in any aggressors arsenal were no longer available to him. each day found them more prepared and more competent. though the strength was not yet what nato would had liked, they must account the cost. the atlantic allies could call in their defense not only from conventional weapons, but a whole new arsenal. yes, now to a would be aggressor , the costs loomed large in deed.
they would need far more than shoes. nato's strength was such that they could meet east on geneva on equal terms. any promise of real relief was soon to be dashed. hungry in 1956. this was budapest, exhausted by soviet domination. the people of hungary rose in protest. but, without allies, heroism is not enough. this could be us. this is why nato had to exist. the members of the north atlantic treaty organization,
concerned over increasing soviet military power, gathered in paris for a crucial conference. from the united states came president dwight david eisenhower, whose presence at this critical time gave the nations of europe critical new hope. fluoride, this was a homecoming. at the headquarters, the military arm of nato located outside paris, the former mender of military forces, now president of one of nato's most powerful member nations declared his mission before the large crowd that gathered to greet him. >> frankly, i came out here because of a special kind of sickness, one that afflicts the
aged and the young -- homesickness. i was homesick to see this home for a sector and his staff, an agency of nato. built by a great number of nations to the the headquarters of that military shield that must always belong as there at -- so long as there is any menace to the freedom of western nations. once more at the palace, they gathered.
this was the first nato meeting attended by the heads of 15 member states. this was a conference calling for highest level consultation. basically, to critical tasks had to be accomplished -- to shore counteract an aggressive soviet counteroffensive. a major interest of the united states in the nato meeting was the question of integrated -- degrading the intermediate ballistic missile as it returned to the soviet whose long-range missile had thrown a shadow over the world. the 15 heads of states attending
this vital nato meeting represented 450 million people whose lands covered a total of almost 8 million square miles of the earth's surface. differences were to be expected, but on one point, there was complete agreement. the core of the nato partnership, an attack against one was an attack against all. all were resolved to defend themselves together if necessary. many of the nations of western europe felt political, not military action was the answer to the latest soviet red. others believed nato should be interested in broader problems and looked to the united states for support of their national positions. president eisenhower's words were the high point of the conference. there was no mistaking his
sincerity and determination as he spoke. president eisenhower: we have demonstrated a will for the spreading of the blessings of liberty. in the last 15 years, our nations have granted clinical independence to 20 countries with populations totaling 800 million people. within our society, we manifest so that all can see the good proof of freedom. those fruits do not consist of materialistic monuments which desperate have always been able to exhibit. they consist of providing the simple things all men want -- the opportunity to think and worship as their conscience and reason to hate, to live in their homes without fear, and to draw intimacy ofthe family life, to work in congenial tasks of their own choice, and enjoy the fruits of their labor. these are the most precious
manifestations of freedom, and we have the collective power to defend and spread that freedom. freedom has not failed us. surely, we shall not fail freedom. >> perhaps the chief result of this summit being was the expansion of nato into a broader, more realistic alliance. the ever-increasing problems facing it, a special responsibility rested on the atlantic community. lands, freedom first had its birth. within their borders laid three bearing.f the world's the men who met at this summer conference of nato, there's no doubt be nato must continue stronger than ever. existence of nato is an
assurance that each new dawn breaks over our family of nations. cities and homes come a community of these loving people. over london, liverpool, paris, marseille, new york and san francisco, montreal and vancouver, over athens, istanbul, over antwerp, and luxembourg. a bond welding the old world and the new. and assurance 450 million people remain free to live their lives as they wished to live them, to protect and preserve by vigilance and readiness, these are the aims of the atlantic alliance, an alliance for peace.
>> today, you have heard the distinguished news analysts, edward r. murrow, tell the story of nato, the nato. the united states, as a founding member of this international the, has demonstrated to world the importance we place on the closest association between the members of the atlantic community. this iss is starting -- sergeant stuart green, your host for the big picture. picture is an authentic report for the armed forces and american people. produced by the army pictorial center. by the united states army in cooperation with the station. >> all persons having business
before the honorable supreme wert of the united states, admonish you to get their attention. >> we will look at one of the most divisive issues to come before the supreme court -- abortion. roe versus wade was decided in january, 1973. case that is a controversial, that is constantly under scrutiny. there is a question, i suppose, whether it ever will cease to be under scrutiny. terminate an unwanted pregnancy, but enable -- unmarrieded dallas carnival worker -- qu