tv U.S. Plan to Invade Canada CSPAN January 23, 2016 8:45am-9:42am EST
tv kevin lippert talks about the of conflict between the united states and canada from the small raids and attacks of 19th century to the plans both will to invade each other world one one. this is about an hour. >> thank you very much. i would like to thank david and here, s for inviting me and to you for other sharing or sacrificing your lunch hour to a little bit about some archival history which i hope a find interesting and little bit humorous. projectell you how this came about first. i got a degree in history so degrees in with history i needed a plan b as far as a career. a trip through architecture school i ended up a lotlishing where i pent of days -- spent a lot of days
worrying about whether books might appeal to people. in one conversation i had with our canadian distributor who on books ou working that might appeal to canadians. i said what appeals to canadians. she said, i don't want to they are always worried about whether americans think about them. i don't don't know, think of anything. he next day almost i saw this artic article. thaought there you go. that says something about how we feel. is have a plan to invade. enough it ke iraq invade them but our neighbor not interested. then the pentagon says there's no plan to invade canada. somebody said maybe we cappnada.vade it is like a teenage boy who
says i don't like that girl even spends all his time thinking about her. it turns out that there was in to invade canada and hat is war plan red that was unearthed in 1974 by a canada journalist who came in this asked john e. aylor your former director and legend in the archives universe, he just said what's the weirdest document you have here? taylor said without hesitation war plan red that is ameri america's detailed plan to fight a war against britain on canadian soil. you go, that there is what we are going to talk certainly hat would appeal to canadians and maybe some americans. through t back and dug the history of the u.s.-canada many kind of interactions we have had since founding of at least the
united states. the whole -- all the problems start here. is in yorktown, the urrender of lord cornwallis to general washington in 1781 and the paris here to peace treaty, the negotiations. british were sort sore -- in there any british people here besides me -- were sore sit for d refused to the portrait so the painter painted them out and said to with you. lord buckingham and david hartley were the british team the american team, benjamin franklin, john j john adams and henry lawrence, they said what would to negotiate a peace treaty with you. ben franklin said that is easy. we would like the 13 colonies john's ebec, st.
newfoundland, nova scotia and island and we just won a war where you used canada this taging ground and if is truly going to be a great new north americ north american country we should colonies plus british north america. this was too much for the british. they said no, we can't do that. in fact gotiation -- the british were barely many to acknowledge the independence of country. so, the idea of somehow both acknowledging our independence us all of canada was not going to happen. negotiations dragged on for almost two years. 1783, they agreed to what it ne and here is says. rom the atlantic through the great lakes to the northwestern of woods and to the
river mississippi using this map was created by a man named david mitchell. david mitchell was born in edinburgh d went to to study medicine. two years out after and moved back to virginia to ractice medicine without an m.d. but in his time in scotland he cold drizzle and found the heat of virginia so he moved back to london and set up shot as a and cartographer. and while there he made this map of network using whatever he had have ndon which didn't data for latitude and longitude. so it feels full of errors -- it was full of errors. for example on this drawing a line from the northern west lake of the woods to mississippi he
makes sense because he has them pposite but in reality you can't do that unless you drew a iagonal line through minnesota which is what happened and that angle is.e northwest it is bits of the united states canada.ed by so elm point minnesota you can get to by going through -- point poison roberts in washington state. his poor ll cartography along with people hought canada will slipped through our fingers left the warhawks itching for a fight to take back the country that should have been ours. henry clay was speaker of the house nicknamed dictator. and i have drawn a line here hat when he saw -- he was
looking for an excuse. fired on the pard chesapeake in 1807 looking for sailors to press into service. so he stood up in congress and said our wrongs have been great, and if we are decided and firm success is inevitable. taking efferson said canada was a matter of marching. so, they could be forgiven for thinking that victory would be easy. the u.s. population as 8 million compared to can's 500,000. britain had only 6,000 troops twice that ore than and britain was bogged down at against bruising war napoleon. many americans were born in emigrated and a british general declared most essentiallyans were bad and so american they would change. a regime
so, war was declared in june of 1812. but what nobody could foresee was the ineptness of american soldiers. here is a little battle map of the canadian front. the war of 1812 was played out on the canadian front. when was in high school i didn't pay attention or we didn't spend 1812 of time on war of mainly because it is not a great story from the american perspective. three battles if you want to call them that. engagements y between the united states and british on the canadian frontier. was william hall canada and lost ed detroit. e was a revolutionary hero and marched troops from ohio to detroit but not knowing the war so he didn't know accepting a schooner,a river
supplies and a few ounded and secret plans for a invasion in the detroit river was a bad idea. intercepted the schooner and knew all about his .ecret invasion plan hall and his troops arrived in -- found only hiskey and soap and launched the attack. him ritish were expecting and brock had adroitly enlisted aid of sympathetic native by tecumseh who are the white people that we should fear they can not good marks to e shoot at. hall was easily defeated and bait when brock called for surrender because he couldn't control the numerous
of indians once the battle started. o hall surrendered without a shot. he was court-martial the and was enced to death but it frs commuted. queenston heights ed by a general who received intelligence that brock left the british camp so he gave orders o attack in miserable conditions. his rousing speech was not quite h henry the fifth. he said by the rain, snow or emba e will prevent the embarkation. hat was not enough to keep the boatsmen from deserting taking all the oars for the invasion. so the disorganized americans were gunned down and sunk in pite of greater numbers although the british did lose butc brock who had not left just again to detroit and got back in time to be shot. fatally im lying
wounded urging his troops on to rout the americans. increasingly worried secretary of war tried again on the canadian front with an time on montreal led by henry dearborn nick named branny who also expected to be elcomed by disgruntled americans as liberators. i think we have heard that recently. the cover of night in november of 1812 he sent 500 of 6,000 troops across the border many suffering from tear, die year and typhus.many, or in the confusion of the cold and dark they accidentally opened another and the reinforcements refused to cross chaos.der hearing the dearborn called a hasty retreat to plattsburg new york. carriage without
the heroism of disaster. entire campaign against canada produced nothing but defeat, disgrace, ruin nd death complained the green mountain farmer of vermont newspaper and the secretary of wrote to madison this kpwaoedz all anticipations -- anticipation by toes with the least confidence in our inexperienced officers and men.ciplined things were a little better on navy ean where the u.s. held its own against the royal navy. u.s.s. light was the constitution which chased down h.m.s.garrier with nly the sixth feet of the british navy in the last 20 years. there outraged the british. the london evening star
people inthe american few frigates manned by bastards and outlaws. they were upset. british, the war with in poelg was defeated and with napoleon was defeat and of 840 tripled the number men in canada to 52,000 in canada. first stop was maine. the east port surrendered shot.t a this is the british invasion map on the right. looked out the window and saw 2,500 british blew,their supplies and fled into the woods. the brits got control of 100 ofes of maine coast and most the land inland. eople of maine could take an oath of allegiance to the crown
or leave. took the oath. of them hoping for lower taxes and easier trade with canada. where itngton hit back hurts and suspended mail service to maine. this didn't bring them to their knees. continue keen to llegal smuggling with canadians. it remained under british rule until the end of war. essentially taken maine, ritain turned its attention down here and these pictures are probably familiar to you. 1814 they came to the exception. nd the british general complained about the american soldiers country people who would be much more appropriately employed attending to their agriculture occupations than with muskets. in 100 d so quickly
degree muggy d. krfpc. weather uniforms it precluded the possibility of many prisoners being taken. arrived at the white house to find the food on the table still warm and although they judge the wine as very good, they burn the white house and state department's. this was the tipping point in an unpopular war. desertion was extremely high, executions were 13% of troops. the u.s. government defaulted on its debt, which had been flowing into canada to finance the war. we had been buying british bonds in 1814 alone. the chesapeake invasion caused a run on the banks and was only worth the treasury notes. demonstration had no money to fund the war or pay the troops.
remained,e money flowed into canada from british troops eager for food. two thirds of our army are at this moment eating beef provided by american contractors, drawn from the states of new york and vermont. president madison was described miserable at wobegon. the sentiment had very few cards to play the negotiating table. the boston gazette conceded that having declared war and failed the nation must now pay the price. the treaty of ghent could be spun as having lost the war but won one the peace. it restored the u.s. canada border to its 1783 definition. and left open the door to more disputes.
the first of these is the the pork and beans war of 1839 known as the lumberjack war, as eager as many people in maine had been to do business with canadians in the war of 1812, maine lumberjacks were fed up with people from new brunswick coming over and stealing their trees. in early 1839, they organized a posse of militia to invade new brunswick and capture any new brunswick lumberjacks who were selling trees that maine thought belongs to them. they were captured by canadian militia and marched off in chains to prison. the united states may be overreacted, authorized 50,000 men under the command of winfield scott. and $10 million to start a war against new brunswick.
to release the maine lumberjacks. lord ashburton was keen not to have another arms conflict with united states. they gave a good chunk of new brunswick to the united states to avoid war. the territory, he wrote later, was worth nothing. there is only one casualty, who either froze to death, drowned or was run over by a cannon or supply wagon, or all of the above. his grave marker is on route u.s. 2a. in haynesville, maine. it is not worth the drive. [laughter] the next one, i don't know what it is about pork and canada, this was on the west coast. because of the vagaries of the mitchell's map and the fact that it was mostly uncharted
territory, it wasn't clear where the border went through the island. both united states and british citizens occupy the san juan island. the british merchant had a farm there. and had also settlers on the northern part. one morning, and american looked out of his farmhouse and saw the british pig rooting around in his potato garden. he did what any good american farmer would do, he shot the pig dead. this quickly escalated into an argument about whose fault that was, and what reparations and claims. an early echo of the falklands islands resulted in a military buildup. the united states sent in 500 troops under george pickett.
the british sent in warships and 2000 men. with the clear middle theory advantage, the -- military advantage, the governor general of vancouver told the british rear admiral to invade and engage the americans. he said to engage two great countries in a squabble over a pig is foolish though, this were -- this war also ended with a negotiated settlement. each side kept 100 men and you can go there today and that is worth the trip. you can see the remnants of the english and american camp's on the san juan island. we will come back, i will skip ahead. the civil war was a bit writtented because of's -- because of britain's alleged neutrality. maybe we couldn't fight our way into canada, maybe we could buy
it. william stewart had done this with alaska from russia. russia needed the cash and were eager to sell. we were afraid that britain would take alaska if they had taken another war. stewart wanted it to surround it with american soil. he also sought to buy greenland from denmark. denmark was not interested. this idea resurfaced at the beginning of world war ii. america tried to buy greenland from denmark to keep the germans from building bases there. our offer was declined. this is the check for the purchase. of alaska from russia. the idea of buying canada reached its pitch with house resolution 754, introduced by massachusetts representative nathaniel banks.
it was to assume $85 million of canadian debt, give $2 million, and put another $50 million to shore up the infrastructure. that bill died a quiet death in committee. some things never change. in the civil war, the british were officially neutral. that meant they just wanted to do trade with both sides. one of the things they did was build ships for the confederacy. they built this amazing ship, the css alabama, this is the captain aboard the ship. 250 foot long, which was propelled by steam or by sale. they boarded 450 union ships and took 2000 prisoners without a single casualty. it was the confederate death star. worst of all, it sank the uss griswold which was a relief ship
that left from boston headed for lancashire filled with supplies. for england's textile workers who were suffering the ghost they could not get cotton from the south. -- because they could not get cotton from the south. after the war, the union sought reparations for the sinking of the griswold and for the damage by the alabama. they were looking for official apology from england and reparations of several hundred million dollars. england was not about to apologize. they did not have several million dollars because their economy wasn't hatters -- their economy was in tatters because of the fallout from the textile industry. hamilton fish, they said tell you what, give us canada and call it square.
but some irish-americans had a better idea. why don't we trade ireland for canada. are there any canadians who can answer -- is this fenian? they were a group of irish-americans who founded the fenian brotherhood. based on intense and undying hatred toward the monarchy and oligarchy of great britain. they quickly gained a 10,000 members over $500,000 in cash and call themselves the irish republican army. the first known use of that acronym. canadadea was to capture and exchange it in a hostage swap or find an irish public america or encourage the united states to annex canada.
secretary of state william seward looking at $1.6 million -- 1.6 million irish voters. they expected to be welcomed as liberators and overlooked the fact that most canadian irish were protestant and not catholic. outside of québec, they wanted to break ties with britain. in 1866 they invaded new brunswick but were turned back by canadian militia. in june, they tried again and floated a thousand men on barges from buffalo and were defeated in the battle of ridgeway by better troops. and the cross back into the united states where they were arrested for violating american neutrality laws. the arrests were mostly for show and they were quickly released. they announced several more raids.
where franken, vermont they amassed 15,000 firearms and 3 million rounds of ammunition. this failed and the u.s. agreed to stop looking the other way and president grant reaffirmed our neutrality act. the raids have the unintended consequence of galvanizing canadian national spirit which may have hastened the grant for -- britain granting independence. this created a new country out of new brunswick, and rupert's land, 1.5 million square miles of land owned by the hudson bay company. most of western canada and parts of minnesota, montana, and the dakotas. the general sense was the new canadian nation would not survive long and would be peacefully absorbed into the great north american republic.
the publisher of the st. paul press pushed for annexation saying the northwest along to canada, in the long geographically to minnesota, and a michigan politician warned the continent is our land and we might as well notify the world that we will fight for it. the railroads were willing to play hardball. the president of the northern pacific railroads sent a letter to his canadian counterpart that he had intentionally built land close to the border to keep canadians out of the western territories where there was some sip the towards annexation i america. in fact, the largest hotel in winnipeg flew the stars & stripes. canada's new political status increased tensions with united states. the trent affair 1861 was a case in point. a confederate ship intercepted
carrying two diplomats urging british recognition of the confederacy. canada readied troops, 46,000 men at arms of the u.s. border. lincoln decided he could find only one were at a time. -- fight only one war at a time. the crisis passed. the canadian nationalism reached fever pitch with world war i when obligated as part of his empire status to send troops, send 30,000 troops, although -- 38,000 troops, although many without training or equipment. historians explained that canadian nationalism spring not just from darwinian ideas of racial superiority, but also from the unifying symbol of the british empire. british national consciousness was entwined with imperial glory , rights, and responsibilities.
the empire was the source of in their and belief superiority. it meant something in a way we find today incomprehensible if not embarrassing. it is impossible for us to realize how strong a unifying feature the empire was. imperial ties were sufficient enough to bring canadians, australians, new zealanders and south africans from the white colonial dominions back to volunteer and fight and die for the mother country. one of these battles was on easter day in 1917 where the canadian troops won a decisive battle. after the french had lost thousands of men two years prior. rising nationalism and success -- spawned a
creation of a new canada first movement. more manly, more real, then those superstitions of an effeminate south. this carried racist overtones. the states for water down with -- were watered down with vagrant populations of italy and other countries of southern europe. one writer suggested that what canada needed to prove its new macho identity was a war with the united states. it is not clear whether one witness the battle, a young lieutenant, james sutherland brown. if he felt this way about the united states. he did think that war with united states was inevitable in -- that the best defense was a
good offense. he returned to canada and became director of the military operations and intelligence and begin to give the whole thing real thought in 1920. it was good reason to think a war between united states and great britain was inevitable. we loaned the u.k. a huge sum for their war effort. for world war i. $22 billion. the secret communiqué from the american ambassador in 1920 related britons irritation that we expected it to be repaid in cash or gold. he warned that britain was nervous about us becoming too serious a rival and would block us at every turn and surround us with potential enemies. buster brown rounded up a few colleagues and did some undercover espionage. there is him on the left. there they are undercover.
they surveyed the roads and bridges of upstate new york and vermont. some of the notes are hilarious. the people of burlington, vermont seem very affable and not as american as other u.s. cities we have visited. in rural vermont, he noted americans, not lazy, had a deliberate way of working and believe in frequent rest and gossip. the women appear to be heavy and not comely. a large number of men in the state of vermont are fat and lazy but pleasant and congenial. buster was convinced that canadians would be welcomed if not as liberators then as bartenders. asking a local to identify a one of canada's highest peaks, he said you people are like a camel, you can go seven days without a drink.
he did find a large number of american citizens who are not pleased with democracy and had a sneaking regard for british law and constitution civilization. on the whole, he concluded vermont was at best an abstraction for any invading canadian force. here is the cover of his defense, called the defense game number one, a full-scale invasion plan. urging secrecy. what buster envisioned was lightening rates, to sting like a bee. to buy time for the british to sell to canada's rescue. you can see his five pronged attack.
you can keep that in mind. you'll recognize the mirror image of that in a few minutes. us another 10 years to come up with our war plan red when the war department decided they needed a contingency for a war with britain on canadian soil. they called it a nexus size in peacetime preparedness -- an exercise in peacetime preparedness. this is the cover sheet. on this you see the declassified 1974 stamp on the bottom. this is our version of the same thing. we all agreed on what the weak points were along the border. we envisioned a long war.
this is not going to be a quick lightning raid. although in the words of the plan, they are known to fight to the finish and can muster 2.5 million men in canada within 40 days of the start of hostilities. the plan was updated in 1935 and given an extra $57 million , including money to build three secret airbases on the canadian border and to hold the wargames.acetime only a grenade launcher the border involving 6500 soldiers. suddenly they had more enemies to fight and found themselves on the same side in world war ii. that is the detailed east coast version. from a population of 11 million people, one million canadians served in world war ii.
they built the fourth largest airports -- air force and fifth-largest maybe. -- fifth-largest maybe. -- fifth-largest navy. perhaps a recognition of this contribution canada and the u.s. were equal partners in norad, when canada worried about being a target or collateral damage between the states and russia. these are the blast doors of the command headquarters. we were good buddies during the cold war. we sat side-by-side. one canadian general and one american general at the table at norad. in april 2000, two days after the 9/11 attacks president bush created nor come to including canada, alaska and mexico, bahamas, u.s. virgin islands, and even pre-obama did not make the cut.
based in colorado springs, it has unilateral jurisdiction. donald rumsfeld responds to land and sea threats from attacks and other major emergencies in canada or the united states. the fact that the prime minister declined to join was a minor detail having pass on the opportunity to send troops to iraq. instead agreeing to a neighborhood watch committee, bpg, which morphed into the security and prosperity partnership. cnn journalist lou dobbs speculated it was a covert plan to merge the u.s. and canada after george bush declared a state of emergency to keep himself in office. obama canceled in 2009. though in effect we got norad,
om by expanding the definition of norad. war plan red seems a bit silly now. our economies and cultures are so intertwined. our trade last year with canada was $617 billion, versus $536 billion with china. a deficit of 32 billion versus $315 billion, respectively. canadian exports come here, 51% of imports come from the states. one in 10 canadians work in the united states including 250,000 in hollywood and 350,000 in new york city, making new york city canada's 15th largest city by population. i made a little chart. we snuck in there at the bottom.
700,000 first nation native americans have dual citizenship , u.s. and canadian passports, which makes that larger than the state of alaska. more than 60 million border crossings are made every year. two thirds by americans coming south and one third by americans heading north. havean argue that we achieved some sort of annexation of one another. there is a serious book on the a canadian journalist called merger of these century where he argues we should form a north american union like the european union that together our economy would be so dominant in -- and our military so dominant that we would be set for the long-term. there are some reasons, however, i should say, with apologies, to
-- with apologies to our canadian friends, to consider maybe not to file a war plan, to consider and annexation of canada. they have the second largest reserve of oil after saudi arabia and 20% of the world's freshwater which many think will be the cause of future global conflicts. they have a functioning health care system and a semi-functional political system. longer life expectancy and lower rates of cancer, stroke, heart disease, infant mortality. they are a happier nation. if you believe the global warming will continue to melt the northwest passage, they will have one of the hemispheres to have a navigable sea passages, maybe the only one of the panama canal if it is closed for political or natural reasons. they bring some stuff to the table. i had a harder time thinking why canada might want to blow the
dust off the defense team and invade the united states. here is the best i could come up with. miles of warm southern beaches. many these are occupied by canadians in the winter months. repatriation of many celebrities, mike myers, william shatner, justin bieber, . and the real prize is the zamboni company located in california. plus, if canada took over, the stanley cup would never leave. we do think about it. dan coats of indiana said in a hearing last june the pentagon has a contingency plan on the shelf for just about every scenario, including an invasion of canada. real quickly, these are in the
book. there are full text transcripts of defense scheme number one and war plan red. you can see, back in the day, we could list their ships, we could do a detailed inventory of everything canada has. maybe that is in a giant database. now it is too big. ditto defense scheme number one. the first thing a parent in the defense of canada is that we lack depth. i think there was a 15-1 population gap in 1920. so, this is buster brown 's thinking about future wars, europeans, united states, japan, or a combination of all the above attacking canada. i am happy that none of this ever happened but it is fun to
look back and see what might have been. what some people thought might have been. i would be happy to answer any questions or hear any speculations about reasons -- [applause] thank you. >> thank you, very interesting. for the plans of each country looking into taking over the other, if canada is part of a commonwealth, -- kevin: that was the plan. that was buster brown's plan. he would basically invade quickly, to buy time for the british to get here. the british were always a little ambivalent about whether -- how much canadians could count on them and sent mixed messages. throughout the 19 century. you are part of the empire, we will use all available means to defend you.
on another hand, when approached by american politicians who asked, how would you feel about annexation of canada reply was , if canada wants to go, we won't stand in the way. canada counted on that but who can tell? >> a few blocks from here in , in 1969, peter trudeau gave a speech at the national press club, and he quoted his distinguished predecessor from an 1867 letter to live in lived inentleman who calcutta and the sentence from the letter was were will come some day between england and the united states, and india could do a service by sending an army of sikhs, burqas, and baluchi's
across these pacific to san francisco and holding that beautiful and immoral city with the surrounding california as security for montréal and canada. [laughter] kevin: john a. mcdonnell is fascinating. he is an incredible man. he put canada together more or less single-handedly. while usually on a bender. there is a great biography of him which i recommend to all of you. in the war plan red, we anticipated the british would bring over colored troops, sikhs and indians, other people from the far reaches of the british
empire. troops not to be underestimated. along with the royal canadian mounted police. the war plan anticipated that -- 2.5 million med would million men would arrive within a few weeks of outbreak of war, and some would be british, most of the troops. those troops were excellent fighters. there is a letter in the book, a draft of a speech that fdr delivered when he accepted an honorary doctorate at queenston, where the defense scheme was in which he said we are such good friends, such great neighbors because we don't engage in secret diplomacy behind each other's back, only a few months after he signed off
on building fake air force bases near the border. thank you for bringing up him. >> you and people interested enough in the topic to attend this lecture might be interested to know about a nova scotia and writer who wrote historical novels and works of history that are very interesting. one of the most interesting is called his majesty's yankees, how nearly nova scotia was the 14th colony to join. in fighting the american revolution. raddle. -- raddall.
kevin: ok. thank you for that. >> so, all this being the case, how would you summarize the inability of the united states to take canada. was there economy strong and independent? did they get a lot from britain? couldn't we interrupt supplies is an arms? overall. kevin: in the 19th century, canada was an extremely poor and agricultural nation without a standing army until 1899 when obligation of treaty they had to muster some troops to go fight a war with the british. the northwest came out of the east.
they had 450 men. they had an equal number of cattle and livestock to fight the liquor runners. but i think there was a sense that canada would basically at some point need to be part of the united states. economically, it could not stand on its own. a lot of newspaper editorials and writers throughout the 19 century thought it was a matter of time before canada would be absorbed into the union. out of financial and economic necessity. that we did need to waste men and bullets having that fight that would come our way one way or the other. after that, by now, -- in wikileaks there was a document about the north american initiative which was a document about how to sell the idea of a
u.s./canada merger to the canadians. the idea is not dead by a long stretch but by this point it would be some sort of passive aggressive war. or mutual agreement. instead of cutting off mail service, we cut off internet service. or takeaway atm service. then i will become canadian in a matter of minutes. [laughter] thank you. >> i believe you have a poster, i assume that is the west coast -- the pig war, a close call. were there other things later in history, skirmishes for liquor or things that you talked about, bases, shotsorce were fired or things close to be fired that occurred?
after the pig war -- >> the 20th century, with the 1920's and 1930's. kevin: there were no that i know of -- almost wars like the pig war. there are some border disputes, steel island, off the coast of maine is an unresolved border dispute between the united states and canada. it is sort of maybe jointly held, maybe officially american territory. there are two canadian lighthouse keepers who live there nine months out of the year. i don't think either country feels like pressing it. there was an american guy who used to sail out and put their lobster pots near the island. an american lobstermen who would
go out just to plant an american flag in front of the canadian lighthouse as a kind of reminder. [laughter] that is as close as they are today. i do not think any shots have been fired other than verbal shots. thankfully. >> issues of war aside, there are sometimes significant trade disputes over fishing rights between the two countries. is that an outgrowth of these earlier, low-level conflicts? or is that based on commerce? kevin: i think, absolutely. also in 1968, 1969 we sent the ice break for the u.s. manhattan to the northwest passage without
asking permission. without notifying the canadians. that caused a great deal of upset. after a verbal war between canada and the united states we agreed, in the future, we would notify canada first leader going -- the united states said we do not recognize your claim over the arctic portion of the northwest passage. that is still in the unresolved category. it is hard not to detect a sense of bullying about that. vladimir putin planted at the bottom on the russian side of metal plaque, he did not do this himself or bare chested, at the
saying the arctic is russian! he has some skin in that game, i think. i think that is one of the arguments and diane francis's book, that together the united states and canada can fight off any russian threat. the canadian border with russia is at least until recently defended by a volunteer militia of canadians -- which is what buster brown imagined. >> where do they have a border with russia? kevin: alaska. british columbia and north of that. but i think most of our lobster timber, and fishing rights have been either resolved or we just helped ourselves.
ok. thank you very much. [applause] as a publisher i would be remiss if i didn't say there was going to be a book sale and signing upstairs immediately following. if you are so inclined, come up and buy a book. thank you for your time. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv all weekend every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. >> i have been watching the campaign this year it is interesting to look at the republicans more than the democratic side. that may have some -- something
to do with why there is more interest in these candidates and their books. >> sunday night on q&a, a nonfiction book critic for the washington post discusses books written by the 20 16th president of candidates. >> everyone has interesting stories in their lives and politicians who are so single-minded in this pursuit of power and ideology. they could have interesting stories but when they put out these memoirs, they are sanitized. vetted. vented -- four -- therefore minimum controversy. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's two monday -- q and a. this morning