tv Book Discussion on The Cherokee Diaspora CSPAN January 24, 2016 12:55pm-2:01pm EST
[applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you are watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. > according to the u.s. census, nearly one million americans self identify as cherokee. up next on american history tv, historian and author gregory smithers discusses his book, "the cherokee the indigenousaspora: an history of migration, resettlement, and identity."
chair keep,orical maps, storytelling, and pictures to explore my friday of people identify with the cherokee nation. mr. smithers: according to the u.s. census, nearly one million americans self identify as cherokee. wherever someone travels in the united states, they will likely someone in their family tree who identifies as cherokee. trouble as far as scotland, australia, and someone will claim to have cherokee for ers.ers -- forbear gregory smithers reveals for the first time the diaspora of the
cherokee people. he takes readers back to the 18th and 19th century to recover the importance of migration, land, choosing, and culture and language into defining what it means to be cherokee while living in diaspora. the story is a remarkable one, filled with bravery, innovation, and resilience. gregory smithers is associate professor of history at virginia commonwealth university. his research and writing focuses on history of native americans and african american people since the 18th century. gave a, he just recently popular two-part class here in early november on the history of native americans in virginia. some of you may have been here for it. he is interested in the rich history of the cherokee people and environmental history. he is the author of numerous
books and articles, the most recent one being, "cherokee : an indigenous history of migration, resettlement, and identity." please join me in a very warm welcome to greg smithers. [applause] smithers: thank you. thank you for the lovely introduction. that was very nice. thank you all for coming this afternoon. over the years, i have spent n ie time at the dhs thea care to count -- upstairs in the reading room, reading manuscripts. i know this place well. it is always lovely to come back. now that i live here, it is really cheap to get to the dhs. thank you for coming in
supporting the dhs. this is a very important institution in our city. i'm appreciative, and i'm sure the staff are of your support. this project of mine, which ended up in this book the you see on the screen there, did not begin in georgia, north carolina, or oklahoma, for that matter. .t began in australia i was sitting in the national i'm from australia originally. there.up i was educated there. my family all still lived there. i moved away. moved to california to try to get a phd in history. along the way i met my wife there. back in australia though one summer. in australia.ter research on another project. i stumbled across an immigration
file. it was an immigrations file to a named cherokee meeks. miss meeks and her family had migrated or trying to migrate australia, theo queen land, actually, which is a oklahomay much like and much of the west. they doingth were there? what they were thinking in 1965 try to relocate their family. three small children from memory. why they were trying to move the world?er side of what would possibility compel disastero take such a step? i was fascinated by this file. know more about this family. at the same time, curious to know if there were other people ancestry who had
made similar decisions, not only to migrate to australia but to other parts of the world as well. so that's how this story started. and that cold 2001 winter in cambral, australia, meeks and the her family did not acquire access to australia. they did not receive the permission from the government they were seeking to become of australianers society. you might remember in 1965 a policy still in place until 1972 that was called australia policy. as someone of cherokee ancestry, someone of native american heritage, the commonwealth of teemed this an inappropriate family for theysion despite the fact
came with considerable savings assets.ly nonetheless i was curious then this was the beginning of what an almost out to be decade and a half long search to cherokee dies a dies spa. it has taken me to england and all over north america. the cherokee people today live throughout the world. for cherokees who call toronto home. there are cherokees who san francisco and los angeles home. there are cherokees who call washington, d.c., boston, new york home. "the cherokee diaspora" is
of cherokee innovation and of a cherokee determination a strong sense of their identity as cherokee people. so that initial discovery in 1965 document has been what is -- what has been decade me for the last and a half to know more about constituted and made the cherokee diaspora. the book is about. find thisnecessarily "the cherokee diaspora" in textbooks from 1920's and today. the cherokee story is one in europeans,encounter they adapt and become quote civilized, and they are ultimately forcibly relocated in
1830's by the federal government. shameful of the more episodes in american history. forcedhan this relocation in the early 19th the cherokee are not thought of historically to have any tradition of movement, migration, and travel. the map that you see on the indicative of how we've all been programmed culturally to perceive the cherokees in the 19th century. map from an 1828 textbook from a primmer that was by emmerand educated willard. you can see on the map there the cherokee are positioned authoritativevery appalachian region.
there are movement based on the shawnee, and for eriquoe in the north. this is something that's is wrong and misleading. is, indeed, what i want to talk to you a little bit about today. the history of cherokee migration and resettlement and pride that of cherokee have taken with them diaspora overir the course of the 18th, 19th, and 20th century. is clearly the sense of pride in cherokee identity that parents felt when they gave their daughter the cherokee. one of the things that i was thinking most keenly about all
years that i was researching this book was why would they name their daughter cherokee. clearly there's some sort of concern there on the part of her parents. cherokee meeks parents. may buffeted by the forces of american colonialism and simulation policy in the 20th century, who she is and her ancestors were and where they came from. need to say her name whoecall, to be reminded of she is. so it is, indeed, then a story of extraordinary courage and cultural and community and that made the cherokee diaspora what it was and what it is today. cherokee meeks is just the entry correcting this type of one-dimensional history
exposed to foren many centuries now. so what do we actually know about the cherokee people? cherokee are an i people derended northern region of west virginia and virginia, north and carolina, georgia, alabama, tennessee, and kentucky. towns, one of which you see reproduced their on the a reproduction of a town that's an overhill town that is now under water. in atalk about that second. this town would have been todayd in what is tennessee. names oftenn
cestry.ed the an linguisticted the connection. they offered clues as to where from.erokee came an archaeologist and linguist over the past generation or more now are in general agreement that the evidence that we have that cherokee people descended from migrants from appalachian region more than 4,000 years ago. they were outsiders then to the southeast. they were sometimes referred to by other native peoples in the southeast as cave people or cave dwellers. people whorokee, the come to be known as the
they see themselves as keepers of the sacred fire. cherokee. who by 1,000 in our common era refer to themselves as people andle identifiable, strong and sophisticated political, cultural, and society system connected with other native communities and societies throughout the southeast and connected after the arrival of europeans in the 16th worldy to a transatlantic of trade and cultural exchange. the overhill cherokee are particularly important to the story of the cherokee diaspora. chota that you see on the screen there, they anvided something of an access route. at least from the english the rich ando
fertile lands of the ohio and illinois valley. the tennessee river which was one referred to as the cherokee cherokeesdominated by who lived in town like this. a supereep in mind as highway of the early modern period. cherokee people controlled and dominated those rivers. town, by the way, chota, important townst society in the 18th century. it is now under water. it sits at the bottom. its remains sit at the bottom of teleco dam which was completed after a long legal by thethat was fought cherokee people with ofironmental allies for much the 1960's and 1970's.
colonialism, in other words, people ascts cherokee it does for all maytive -- people.merican what this image indicates is that cherokee people lived in tightly knit communities. life changed one identity. did one clan's identity. the cherokee people belonged to seven clans. women had an enormous amount of in traditional cherokee society. are responsible for food production and distribution. are responsible for and cannot who can become a member of the clan.
often haveexample, the last word on determining who captives -- captives or because they are owe debts to a particular town or clan -- women are responsible when and how individuals will become members of a particular clan. so much political power in cherokee society that observer in the tos cherokeesd petticoatunder a government. the cherokees, by the time the europeans in the 16th century and the establish in the century, have a sophisticated society both culturally, socially, and politically. at the core of that
society. the arc of cherokee history follows the narrative of traditional town and clan women and the of cherokee society. the history often culminates and with removal. an era that i mentioned moments ago is perhaps one of the most tragic in american history. this narrative isn't wrong. incorrect to say generations of school children and college this narrative. cherokee people did encounter settlers, colonial officials, missionaries, and ultimately enslaved african and
african-american people. all of this is part of the life overof cherokee the 17th, 18th, and in to the century. it is not wrong. but it is incomplete. it is an incomplete picture of the cherokee people are and what they become over the course 19th century, and in to the present day. of who thense cherokee people are, to get a richer sense of cherokee history and culture, what i did during the course of the was to revisit the oral traditions and oral narratives and gave the meaning purpose to life for cherokee communities for so many centuries. stories of the earth being once ancestorsf cherokee being forced to cross a great bridge that later sank to the the ocean. stories of lost cherokees.
warriors and hunters who in what europeans call the early modern period migrated temporarily to transmississippi all the way to that great mountain range that know as the rocky mountains buffalo. of the stories that are not often histories ofhe cherokee people. storyrly the most famous of all in cherokee history and the story of salu, the mother, and the lucky hunter. this story draws our attention of humanportance movement in cherokee culture. to be sure it tells us a story of how the cherokee acquired sources of food, sense of
identity, but it does more than that. it places travel and migration and relocation at the center of identity throughout food, sense cherokee history. there are other forms of travel to that we should be aware of in the 1730's and 1760's, for example. cherokees were among visitors to london. diplomats. representatives of their people. representing the interest of cherokee people, asserting their and independence from the english crown. migration, relocation, resettlement, these are all part cherokee history and culture. aey've become much more systemic part, a routine part of cherokee history and the cherokee story after the 1750's. particularly true in the
latter half of the 18th century. a half century that's dominated by the seven years war and the revolution. a half a century that's a cherokeen -- from perspective -- the devastation of their communities. the destruction of their towns and crops at the hands of a very particularlyttler, expansionist virginia settlers during the half century. the half century after the 18th century, cherokee people begin to relocate and reestablish their towns and their culture and their families. in other parts of cherokee country in the southeast. rather than reestablishing their hads and towns as they once tocommonly down, they begin
reestablish town -- excuse me community life around farmsteads. so believing those farmsteads them a course of sustenance and form of protection from the aggressive white people. some cherokees, it should be most notably the chicamaga, led by al listen wanted to lead against american colonialism. chicamaga cherokees become cherokeeard of the diaspora during the period. they migrated to the west, not asppi buffalo or toof hunt and prove their
migrated withhey the entire community. with women and children, people all demographic. they were relocating their life it in theew southeast. they were trying to keep a sense cherokeet meant to be alive, away, at safe distance, americans.gressive some of the people who led the vanguard of the cherokee diaspora during the turn of the 18th and 19th century included figures like this that you see on the screen. ass known to the english john jolly. inrominent overhill chief modern day tennessee. for jolly is most famous being the adoptive father of sam houston. an adopted was cherokee. his youthuch of
living with and learning the history and the culture of the cherokee people. it was this man whom he traveled arkansas territory in the early 19th century, in 1817 actually. where jolly and his community anduded sam houston relocated and attempted to traditional sense of cherokee life in the west.ississippi it is not surprising that we see these ways of migration during the late 18th and early 19th century. historians have long known about a series of removal crises at struck at the heart of the communities. and in 1809 and then in 1817. it prompted jolly and his community to leave. head for arkansas.
1828 and again in 1829 removal.hrough the cherokee are certainly by the early 19th century becoming an increasingly diaspora people. they needed to articulate who they were in the world and in the colonial world for them. one of the individuals -- one of the great minds of the 19th century cherokee community was the man on the screen there better known as elias. who a fascinating character i talk about in great detail in the book. give you a brief summary
who buck oowatie was. he was born to a philanthropist. education was both at the ands of his cherokee elders at the feet of missionaries. famousnded the missionary school in connecticut with he shared a classroom greek, malay,ere mallory, hawaiian, and fellow cherokee. education proved pivotal in his life. actually heay 1827 outlined what i argue in the a framework for both the identity andporaic
he also outlines a very explicit critique of anti-indian racism. indian who nod an argued in the 1826 address. my kindred are indian. my father, they too were indian. i am not as my fathers were. means and nobler influences have fallen upon me. statement about the innovative and adaptive nature of cherokee people and their culture. thattion is not something stays the same generation after generation. adapted.ething that is it adapts to the needs of the meaning.o give it this is what buck oowatie is trying to do.
he's trying to let white people thatin his address in 1826 we are still cherokeeer so-calledtive of the civilized improvements that you perceive we have internalized. so for elias, the cherokee people possessed the skill and agility and a deep sense of commitment to maintaining their cherokee identity irrespective of where settler colonialism pushes them and forces them to theate and relocate in world. elias' cousin, john ridge, added about the past and present,uture -- past, and future nature of the cherokee diaspora. the mingling of the two migratory people,
cherokees.nd cherokee in my blood, ridge will intermingle and wind its course in beings of fair complexion. that has all sorts of intend they that have cherokee ancestors. importantly, i think to note, is elias themselves practiced what they preach. in respect to the intermingling of whites and cherokee blood. ridge married a white woman, sara northrop. and elias married a young woman by the name of harriet gold. infuriated her family one of her cousin wrote a terrible letter to her during their courtship telling her, dear,
harriet, who's gold shall soon be dimmed. it was quite cruel. harriet gold was also burned in afigy in the corn wall on number of occasions. the feelings against her was so intense. one famous quote about their marriage was that it was simply reflection of base lust for one another. that will be produced from bloodn intermingling of are black young one. interesting racial commentary. and buck tried to outline something of an intellectual foundation for life in diaspora, it is this man, sequoya who provides the written arctic what it means to be cherokee.
sequoyah is a great hero of cherokee history. was born in the early 1770's. he was raised by his mother. his father was a white man. a trader. shortly after sequoyah's birth. so his mother raised him. remember tell and and corn tassel, provided him with his former education. tuskey who himself was the ed chief of a town that was famous for taking in the 18th and early 19th century. sequoyah grew up in the environment of movement and migration and people coming and going. this is not uncommon for people
towns in modern day tennessee. humming highway of commerce and cultures being exchanged. but according to an early 19th the namelder, a man by debark, sequoyah saw nothing special in the european writing. fact, dismissed the letters that europeans put on the printed page. nothing special in speaking and in communicating without speaking. sequoyah was determined to fellowrate to his cherokees they too could develop their own system of writing to with each other without talking. set out to do syllabus.
as they recalled, one day he went so far to declare he was of the opinion that he could find the cherokeewhich could detain and communicate ideas just as well as the white people could. it was a source of pride for the cherokee people to do this. and indeed one of the wonderful things about studying the cherokee diaspora is the manner which they do indeed detain their thoughts and put them in writing. english, but also in the syllabus. mind the cherokee people are the first native american people to have a newspaper in the early 1800's. "the cherokee phoenix" newspaper. waysnewspaper was in many part of an emerging cherokee diaspora.
agents who would try to sell the newspaper all over the united states. and indeed there were people, agents, who would travel across and to london to distribute the newspaper. many many years ago i was in the british library. i asked the archivist how they came across a complete set of the cherokee phoenix newspaper. it seems to be the case that there were agents selling the cherokee phoenix to londoners. quite extraordinary the reach with with cherokee ideas and politics and culture was circulated throughout the atlantic world, and ultimately threaten the pacific. -- ultimately throughout the pacific as well. the reason this form of communication in newspaper form
-- the cherokee people wrote detailed letters about the most monday things about everyday life -- the most monday 00 a lesson they had received on astronomy. what they were going to have for dinner. this is committed to the written page, but also the syllabary. what a wonderful gift sequoyah gave to the cherokee people and the world. this is important in the context of the 19th century, and certainly after the removal of the cherokee people from their homeland in the southeast. cherokee people developed two homelands. they re-create a homeland in
indian territory. they also retain, both in reality and then their .imagination, a traditional homeland in the southeast. that is a tradition that the eastern band of cherokee continue to the day. in the context of the 19th century, there are many development that swirled around north america. most notably the gold rush in california, which sees a number of cherokee people migrate along the california road across the rockies. and two, the gold fields of california, where they hope to strike it rich. so many stories i can tell about cherokees that went to california, some who stayed, some who came back and named
towns. buy the book read about them, though. [laughter] many of them did not strike it rich in california. one of the phenomenons in the 1850's the minors -- steam liners in san francisco harbor that advertise their services to gold seekers down on their luck, as many cherokee were. offering their services to transport people to australia. australia is having a simultaneous gold rush in the 1850's. we have evidence that african-americans and cherokee people hopped on those steamers, which they were assured were well-equipped with medical
supplies and physicians that would treat them with any melody they could -- and malady they could come down with. again, many did not strike it rich in australia. in fact, many faced out right persecution, racism, and hopped back on the steamers to san francisco. the importance of all this is in the context dispersing guys board- -- disaporic people. their willingness to foster bonds that connect people over vast differences. i don't want to speak in too
great of detail about the trail of tears, referred mythically as the great immigration. i talk in length in the book about where this phrase the trail of tears comes from. still open to dispute among historians. what you see on the screen is a map from the national park service. it is true the cherokee put up a wonderful and complex and coordinated legal battle to maintain their home. they had wonderful legal victories. people not only walked the trail of tears. that is absolutely true. but it's also true that this was a technological method o
eradicatto -- method to eradicate a people from the southeast. boats, trains, ox-drawn wagons, the military, federal bureaucracy all combined to move upwards of 17,000 cherokee people from their homeland. in total, between 70,000 and 18,000 -- we can learn a lot from this inglorious moment in american history, given we would have candidates that want to institute something like this today. no names need to be mentioned. [laughter]
this looms large in the story of the cherokee diaspora. it looms large in the life of one person that i want to mention briefly. hurting his -- her name is mary jane long knife. i'll save the details when you read it over christmas break. to fight -- suffice to say mary and her sister ultimately migrate hawaii in oahu.
mary died in 1906, but not before she got her name on the roll, which collective names of the cherokee people in 1906. other cherokee, famous and not so famous who become part of the diaspora. including narcissa owen, marries a railroad engineer, has 2 sons that go one to become famous politicians in washington dc. narcissa and her husband live in lynchburg, virginia. but she spends time in washington dc and the cherokee nation. this is a fabulously mobile
cherokee diaspora by the middle and late 19th century. there are problems. it's very difficult when you have so much moment to ascertain who is and is not legitimately cherokee. there were many white people who tried to make a claim to be cherokee during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. including the descendents of friedman -- freedman, african-americans who struggle with poverty, with racism from both whites and native american communities. many of them who file positions for -- petition for citizenship in the cherokee nation, their files and of in these filing
cabinet drawers in the cherokee citizenship commission. discussing in particular how the legal and bureaucratic processes of underscoring once cherokee identity -- one's cherokee identity becomes tied up with a complex history of overlapping diasporas. the afro-cherokee and afr americanp diasporas. the civil war and its conclusion on leashes enormous -- unleashes enormous migration route the united states. again, needed people are caught up in that. by their own choosing and
otherwise. where are we today? there's almost 1 million who self-identify as cherokee. 819,105 people identify themselves as cherokee. these may be high questionable and dubious self-identifications, but it denotes the success of the cherokee cultivating their identity, their culture, and their society, their politics. there are today 3 federally recognized cherokee nations. one in indian territory, the uni ted bands of cherokee in oklahoma, and the band in north carolina. what i would say in conclusion is the reason so many people assert that they have "cherokee blood," an adapted -- and i would be happy to take questions about this. the reason people assert that identity is that cherokee people not only survived centuries of colonialism, migration, and resettlement, but maintained a
deep sense of pride in their history and culture. irrespective of where their travels have taken them. thank you all for listening. [applause] gregory: on happy to take questions if you have any. in the front here. >> i've read that there were cherokee families that state in places like tennessee, they owned property. were these men ever given the right to vote? gregory: one thing that happens in the decade after the removal is that the federal government does that if you stay -- says that if you stay in tennessee, north and south carolina, as
many do, you become a citizen of your respective state. the census bureau defines those people as white. they are in effect, de-racinated by the federal government in the process. does not to say those people don't lose sight of their jerky identity and -- cherokee identity and forbearers. it's clear to me that they don't. this is why you see people reappearing and asserting their cherokee identity during the late 19th and 20th century. you have a musty -- enlistees in the second world war from places like ohio and north carolina who asserted their cherokee identity. families keep this alive. that is part of the cherokee diaspora. while there is this effort on the part of the federal government over the 19th
century, cherokee people do not fold. they do not assimilate to the white american bureaucracy. >> an interesting story, by the way. the cherokee wanted to keep their distinctive culture alive. how did they mix and mingle with the greeks and the choctaw and others they encountered? gregory: good question. 2 things i want to emphasize. one is the the cherokee and the crete were at war with each
other over the course of the 18th century. the relationship between the over hill cherokee's and upper creeks was often volatile. it was not always on a friendly basis. having said that, cherokee people had a long history of trading with outside of the creek confederacy into other native american communities throughout the southeast. indeed, up into the ohio and
illinois valleys also. after removal and relocation to indian territory, the cherokee people work very fast to reestablish government and some semblance of normal life. out of that foundation comes the rekindling and flourishing of cherokee dance and storytelling. but also other native peoples clamoring to become citizens of the cherokee nation in a way that we do not see in the creek or choctaw nations during this period. something is particularly strong, a strong sense of pride that seems to draw other native peoples to the cherokee nation
about 1922, my grandfather pointed up the hills from the farm in stillwell and said, there are indians that live up there. my cousin who died in tulsa, his's second wife was indian. one question that comes from this, can you trace the willingness of americans individually and as a group to gradually come to terms with pride of their background, whoever they were? i say that in the context of
realizing that indians might have some so-called black blood. and those who pride themselve s in indian generally speak-- we say, i might have a little bit of someone else's blood. my question is the progress of accepting black and whites, is there something in the background justice thomas -- backgrouj just as thomas jeffersond had? gregory: that is an important area of arkansas where you do see a lot of interracial cherokee-white families. the rediscovery of cherokee blood is that this is something that the post second world war has made possible. the fall of european fascism and jim crow segregation in the u.s. opened up a cultural space for people to actually embrace publicly what had been kept
private for a generation or more. i'm not always immediate in my dismissal of those that come to me and say that they have cherokee blood. the reason is that the cherokee people have this long history of migration and adopting outsiders, whether it's through traditional means or intermarriage. is not always sincerely beyond the realms of -- it's not beyond the realms of possibility. as i say, the cultural space that has bent opened up -- has been opened up by the fall of fascism and racism -- not to say that we are free of that, certainly not -- but there has been this space opened up. we can reconnect with those over connections in our colonial history they're there. we have denied them for so lon g. people feel safer in -- people feel safer to lay claim to them now.
>> you started by saying that the lady named cherokee tribe to immigrate to australia? gregory: that is right. >> due to either she or her husband have a profession? gregory: they were farmers. >> that could be another reason australia did not want them. in the 1760's they were in desperate need of professionals. there could be two reasons they were rejected. gregory: that is right. in the dying days of white australia and the need for -- in the mid 20th's century australia, there is somewhat of a brain drain. the one thing i will say about that, this family responded to a very specific advertisement for immigrants to northern queensland. they asserted on their
application they not only had savings, but farm equipment to bring with them. they went out of their way to indicate that they were indeed trying to appeal to a very specific request queensland government. -- request of the queensland government. >> i am curious about the picture on your book, i take it of a cherokee. what is the significance of that? i understand there is a difference between wearing feathers down your back and in an upward position. gregory: this is an image that is rarely used. this character is from the 18th century, when the cherokee chiefs that went to england in the 1760's. this is a portrait made by a
french artist that was subsequently purchased by a scot, folder number of these types of images of native american people. -- a scot, who sold a number of these types of images of native american people. the red feather would suggest that he is a war chief. the manner in which he has class thing that k -- in which he is clasping that knife would reinforce that observation. [laughter] but he is wearing regalia to show that he will be an emissary and can engage in dialogue. was referred to in the 18th century as diplomatic friendship. the chain of friendship, is the cherokee and other native americans referred to it.
he's not willing, clearly, based upon his posture, the way in which he has clasping that knife, the feather, and the very firm way in which he has gazing at something in the distance -- he's not willing to roll over, clearly. [laughter] i love this image. this is why i chose it for those very reasons. >> thank you. i noticed on the "virginia is for lovers" website, they promote through the powhatan people and the cherokee indians of virginia. what you think then, that virginia is hesitant to recognize the tribes that are in virginia today? gregory: politics. [laughter] the cherokee people have a long history of virginia, having permanent settlements that date back to about 3000. thereafter also coming into southwestern virginia to hunt. and also in addition to living, hunting in the lands of southwestern virginia, also traveling to engage in trade and
diplomacy with other natives. ultimately with european colonizers. without -- that, virginia lawmakers do not understand. that they do not want to see that history, is a great injustice to the cherokee people, particularly those who call virginia home. it's also a reflection of the many generations of education -- miseducation, we should call it, on the history of native peoples in the commonwealth. that's something we need to work on. [applause] gregory: thank you. >> featured this weekend on american history tv on c-span3. tonight at 8:00 eastern on lectures in history, arizona state university professor on the president's wartime role. including wars waged without formal congressional declaration. >> it is the president's job to educate. the president will say, i know you don't understand this. there is not any reason you should have understood this. it was in a place far, far away with people who seek -- who speak a different language. so i'm going to explain to you what american interests are while people in congress responded to that. i will let opinion makers respond to that. i'm going to educate you and you can make a decision. i will ask you to do this. i will explain why i think this is a course action to pursue. [applause] >> is far more interesting to look at the republicans rather than the democratic side. that may have something to do there is more interest in these candidates in their books. tonight, a nonfiction book critic for "the washington post" discusses books written by the
2016 presidential candidates. >> everyone has interesting stories in their lives. , inle-minded politicians this pursuit of power and ideology, they could have particularly interesting ones. but when they put out these memoirs, you know, they are just sanitized. they are vetted, you know? they are therefore sort of minimum controversy. at 8 p.m. eastern on >> well, the." countdown is on. caucusesroach the iowa we are really the only place where you can watch these events unfolded as they happen. whether it is a town hall meeting or a policy speech, no one else will give you that unfiltered look at the candidates as they work the crowd, talk to voters, and make
their best sales pitch. we will be crisscrossing iowa for the next couple of days, covering all the candidates, democrat and republican, keeping an eye on what happens caucus night itself. we will be the only network that will actually take you to the republican and democratic caucus . if you ever really wondered how it all happens, watch c-span. >> monday night on "the communicators," craig timber joins us from stanford university in california to discuss a series of articles for the post. he examines the creation of the internet, the founder's objective, and why security plate such a small role in what issues play them today. >> as consumers, hundreds and millions, billions of us now, we are always choosing things other than security. we are choosing speed, features.
maybe -- they will tell you, security experts will tell you that security really doesn't pay. >> watch on monday night, 8 p.m. eastern on c-span two. >> the states ratified the 13th amendment abolishing slavery in december, 1865. eight months after the assassination of president lincoln. in commemoration scholars met at his college and washington, d.c. of theuss the legacy amendment. this program is about two hours. >> what entire interview and -- >> good morning, everyone. be