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tv   Reel America  CSPAN  January 30, 2016 10:00pm-10:38pm EST

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internet created because of any datatitive way that ratings are applied, that causes concern. >> what's the communicators monday night at 8:00 p.m. mcnair,nair, -- ronald followed by mike smith and greg jarvis. 28,0 years ago on january the space shuttle challenger aftered 38 seconds liftoff. taking the lives of the crew members pictured here. conclusions of the
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presidential commission on the space shuttle accident released on june 6 of 1986. first, nasa's video of the launch followed by the remarks from president reagan about five hours after the accident. >> t -15 seconds. t -10. 6, main engine start, off of the and lift 25th special mission and it has clear the tower. roll, challenger. program confirmed, challenger heading down range. engine beginning throttling down
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at 94%, normal throttle for most of the flight at 104%. will throttle down to 65% shortly. 65%, three engines running normally. three good fuel cells, three good ipu's. velocity 257 feet per second. downrange distance three knock on miles. nautical miles. throttlenger, go at up. one minute 15 seconds, altitude 9 nautical miles.
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flight controllers looking carefully at the situation. obviously, a major malfunction. we have no down like. -- downlink. report from the flight dynamics officer that the vehicle has exploded. flight director confirms that. we are checking with the recovery forces to see what can be done at this point.
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reagan: ladies and gentlemen, i planned to speak to you to report on the state of the union. the events today led me to change those plans. today is a day of mourning and remembering. that we sharenow this pain with all the people of our country. this is truly a national loss. day,ars ago, almost to the we lost astronauts to a terrible accident on the ground. we have never lost astronauts in flight. we have never had a tragedy like this. the courage it took for the crew of the shuttle, they, the challenger seven, overcame the danger. six -- seven heroes. michael smith, ronald mcnair,
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judith resnick, craig ray jarvis, ellison onizuka, and christa mcauliffe. we cannot bear the full impact of this tragedy. we feel the loss. and loved ones were daring brave, and they had that special grace, that special spirit that says, give me a challenge and i will meet it with joy. they had a hunger, they wished to serve, and they did. we have grown used to wonders in this century. for 25 years, the united states has done just that. we have grown used to the idea of space, and perhaps we forget that we have just begun. they, the challenger crew, were pioneers.
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i want to say something to the schoolchildren watching the live coverage, i know that it is hard to understand, but painful things like this happen. it is all part of the process of exploration and discovery. it's part of taking a chance at expanding men's horizons. the future does not belong to the faint-hearted, it belongs to the brave. the challenger crew is pulling us into the future, and we will continue to follow. i have always had great respect for our program. we don't hide it, we don't keep secrets and cover it up. we do it all up front and in public. that is the way freedom is. we will continue our quest in space. there will be more shuttle flights, more shuttle crews, more civilians and teachers in
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space. nothing ends here. that i wish i could talk to every man and woman who works for nasa, who worked on this mission, to tell them, your dedication and professionalism has moved us for decades. we know of your anguish, we share it. on this day, 390 years ago, a great explorer sir francis drake died aboard a ship off the coast of panama. in his lifetime, the great frontiers were the oceans. an historian later said, he lived by the sea, died on it, and was burried in it -- buried in it. the crew of the space shuttle challenger, we will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them this morning as they
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prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of god. thank you. >> flight of the space shuttle begannger on mission 51-l at 11:38 a.m. eastern standard 28, 1986.ary it ended 73 seconds later in which the seven crew members perished. the solid rocket boosters continued in flight and were destroyed by the safety officer 110 seconds after launch.
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>> the delivery and assembly of 51-l launch delivery components begin prior to launch. booster segments were transported by rail to the kennedy space center. the srb's were inspected and partially assembled the storage the segments were moved to the vehicle assembly building on thehey were stacked mobile launch platform. tank arrived by vabe and was moved into the where it was checked out and made it to the stacked rocket
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boosters. after orbiter check out, challenger was rolled into the and mated with the assembled tank and srb's. the assembled vehicle was transported to the launch pad to over 22nd, 1985. at a crawler speed of approximately one mile per hour. the journey takes about six hours. the launch was rescheduled several times resulting in a january 28,own 1986. the weather was forecast to be we're and cold. -- to be clear and cold.
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ice had accumulated on the launchpad during the night. several water systems were open slightly and allowed the flow to drain. the drains closed and caused overflows. high wind gusts spread the water over large areas and ice formed. air temperature at launch was 36 degrees fahrenheit. this was 16 degrees colder than any previous launch. at t minus seven minutes and seven seconds -- t -30 minutes and seven seconds, the ground began retracting the arm. it can be put back within 20 seconds if an emergency arises and the crew has to evacuate. gimbel checks of the orbiter main engines were performed. in ahree engines moved
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preprogrammed pattern to verify asset control. gimbel's in the their start positions. at t minus two minutes and 55 seconds, external tank liquid pressure began. it t minus two minutes 50 seconds, retraction of the gaseous oxygen venter began. crown launcher -- sequence verified its full retraction at t -37 seconds. water wasression started at t -16 seconds. at t minus eight seconds, hydrogen igniters were turned on to burn off any free hydrogen. before launch, challenger's liquid fueled main engines were ignited in sequence
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and run up to full thrust. thrust from the main engines spec.he shuttle when it returned to vertical the solid rocket boosters ignited. at t zero, the holdout bolts were explosively released. after the initial prerelease twang ocean, structural force is dissipated at a rate of three cycles per second. >> it has cleared the tower. initiated ater was 7.724 seconds. the maneuver was completed at 21.124 seconds. >> normal throttle for most of the flight, 104%. the main engines were throttled after 65% for about 16 seconds
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in order to alleviate maximum dynamic pressure. the engines were throttled up to 104% at 51.9 19 seconds. during the flight, telemetry data gave no indication of problems. >> one minute 15 seconds, velocity 2900 feet per second. >> the solid rocket boosters
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oftinued in flight and word -- destroyed by the range safety officer 110 seconds after launch. data from nearly 200 cameras were analyzed during the investigation. the following sequence of events is based on the evaluation of film video and telemetry data. viewingphic indicates angles for three cameras in the vicinity of the launch site. the first of you shown us from camera e 63 at the lower right. at 0.678 seconds into the flight, a strong puff of gray smoke can be seen spurting from the vicinity of the right booster. the vaporized material indicates there was not complete sealing action within the joint. this second view is from camera e 60.
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it initially moves in the upward direction. the angle between this view and e 63 is approximately 100 degrees. with e 60 and e 63 side-by-side, smoke isar that when first visible to e 60 it is not yet visible to e 63. .6 seconds later it becomes physical and is seen in multiple puffs reaching maximum visibility at 1.9 seconds. a third higher resolution camera was located east of the launchpad. 67 recorded this view of the smoke at approximately the same time of maximum development. smoke appears to the right side only while normal water condensation vapors appear to the last.
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this plan shows that none of the cameras directly view the surface of the right srb in the shaded region of the graphic. analysis of film from several cameras indicated that the smoke came from between 270 and 200 cap degrees on the circumference of the joint. preflighted on these photos, the smoke emerged from just above the strut between the srb and et at a point along access.inal axis the multiple smoke puffs occurred at a range of four as a result ofd joint flexing. this greatly exaggerated computer animation depicts the flexing of the joint. it increased the gap between the the joint ofis at
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two o-ring seals. at 2.77 seconds, the last indication of smoke appears at 3.5 seconds. film records of the assembly of the rocket booster were reviewed to determine any evidence of cause for the smoke photographs taken just prior to the meeting showed the o-rings installed in decreased crevice groups. -- groups. ooves. a subtle variation was detected, but no evidence of o-ring defects was observed in the photography. the hydrogen vent arm was not captured after retraction at launch. film analysis shows that it did not rebound or contact the
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vehicle or contribute to the accident. revealedch inspection that the kick spring assemblies on four of the posts were missing. detailed analysis determined that the assembly could not have to ae attached prior certain time and were not a factor with the smoke at liftoff. the next significant event was a result of the burn through plume. e 207, located six miles north shows the growth of this plume. the first evidence of flame appeared on the right solid rocket booster and 58.788 seconds. this occurred as the main engines had been throttled up to 104% thrust and the srb's were
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increasing thrust. camera e 203 was located last of the launch seat and gives a wide view. this graphic illustrates the location of the flare. the flare was located near the f field joint, approximately 300 degrees circumferentially. within half a second, the flame had grown into a continuous and well-defined plume. at the same time, telemetry show to divert and chamber pressures between the right and left srb's. pressure in the right chamber was lower as result of the growing week. the plume is seen here impinging directly onto the surface of the external tank and lower cap strut. 62 seconds, the control
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system elements began to respond to the forces carved by the plume. on e 207 and e 204. indication that the anonymous plume penetrated the tank was seen at 64.66 seconds as an abrupt change and color in the plume. this is an indication of hydrogen leaking from the external tank. seconds, and upright sustained glow developed from the external tank. slight changes in hydrogen tank pressure telemetry data confirm the link to point to seconds later when the two tank pressurization system could no longer content retain its normal pressurization rate. it could nonds,
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longer be maintained, indicating that the leak path had significantly increased and was growing rapidly. at 72.2 seconds, the guidance system to show the right srb -- indicating the lower srb strut was severed or pulled loose. front,this time exaggerated stirring commands and control system responses registered in telemetry data. at approximately 73 seconds both liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen pressure to the main engines showed a significant secondslowed at 73.124 by the appearance of a color around the circumference -- circumference region. milliseconds later, vapor was emerged at the inner tank indicative of the liquid oxygen tank failing.
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this can be a tribute to normal loads attributed to the attach point or for the propulsive forces created the aft bulkhead failure. probably both. within milliseconds, liquid oxygen was observed streaming along the external tank. seconds, a flash was observed between the et and orbiter immediately followed by the start of total vehicle breakup at 73.21 seconds. during the next 100 milliseconds, additional flashes occur in the forward attach area . as it broke up the river released fluids vaporized rapidly producing and expanding cloud of gases, vapors and cryogenic fluid with embedded debris and localize combustion of mixed gases. no shockwave are ever -- other
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evidence of explosion was detected in the imagery. illumination from a commendation of srb elements reflected sunlight, and gases gives the cloud the appearance of a fireball. point six seconds, the main engines were in automatic shutdown mode as a result of reduced repellent pressures. the last message from challenger was received 71.8 seconds after launch. wasactual vehicle breakup essentially of skewered from view by the vapor cloud which abruptly enveloped the vehicle. hundreds of fragments were noticed exiting the cloud. those identified included the crew cabin in both srb's. approximately one second after initial breakup, they showed the front section or -- section emerging from the cloud. the nose, crew cabin, and a
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portion of the cargo they make up this view. nitrogen take trust side -- nitrogen tetra oxide oxidizer indicated here by the color of the cloud. by 74.578 seconds, a yellow cloud or flash was visible near the orbiter knows segment. this is believed to have been caused by a burning death from the forward rcs. the flash reaction from the propellant abated revealing separation from the nose section of the crew cabin. less than a quarter of a second later, the crew cabin was noticed to be severed from the cargo bay. igniting a can propellant discharge that continue to be observed from the forward rcs. a camera south of the launchpad recorded a wider array of debris exiting the vapor cloud.
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emergence of the crew cabin from this perspective was at 75.237 seconds. the initial path of the crew cabin from the vapor cloud carried across the cloud of and adjacent contrail, clearly revealing its form and attitude. visible atng became 78.531 seconds. the main engines and crew cabins are also identifiable. seconds, the crew cabin was seen again with the front end and top of the cabin visible. as the subject moved further away and dropped lower on the horizon, the quality of the image for visual analysis deteriorated rapidly.
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long-range tracking cameras follow the srb's through range safety destruct. at approximately 75.8 seconds the right srb was seen exiting the cloud. e 207 shows the srb after the breakup and the joints are clearly visible except for the aft field joint. this confirmed the location of the plume along the longitudinal axis of the srb. cap andrated nose deployed drone parachute are identified and approximately 78 .64 seconds. the shockwave from the detonation of the linear shaped charge on the right srb can be seen clearly. simultaneously, the left srb was destroyed.
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at approximately 37 seconds, challenger had encountered the first of several expected high altitude wind shear conditions which lasted until about 64 seconds. these wind shears are best illustrated by the effect on the booster exhaust trails. the effect of wind shear was immediately sensed and countered by the guidance, navigation, and control system. wind reconstructions were predicted by comparing exhaust trail shapes with photography. trajectorys used in and flight load analyses which verify the loads were in limit's. plumes flashes in the were observed during the flight. as similar flashes have been seen on several previous flights they are considered not to have contributed to the accident.
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the visible condensation that occurs in this frame is crated by shockwaves which developed as the vehicle passes through the speed of sound. a large scale search effort was initiated to recover the space shuttle debris. 22 ships, six underwater search vessels and 33 aircraft participated in the operation. the pieces recovered were those found floating on the surface. the submarine fleet was used to locate and inspect underwater debris. objects testified as being important to the investigation were retrieved. 50% of the entire vehicle was
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recovered in the effort. the ocean search area was located at the edge of the 1200tream at depths up to feet. approximately 96,000 square miles of ocean were searched. the recovered hardware was brought to the logistics facility where reconstruction efforts helped to verify the team findings as well as to analyze the structural breakup mechanics. inside the logistics facility, parts were arranged on the floor according to their location on the vehicle. 45% of the orbiter itself was recovered. the debris confirmed that the orbiter and its payload stood not contribute to the cause of the accident and that the orbiter breakup was the result of aerodynamic effects rather than explosive effects.
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shown here are parts of the orbiter forward fuselage structure which surrounds the crew cabin. extensive heating and erosion was detected in the right aft section of the orbiter. the paint was scorched and blackened on the right side of the fuselage. thermal distress was apparent on the right rudder speed brake. while the left showed little effect. thermal effects were also seen. the aft left side of the orbiter showed no apparent sign of heat damage. remaining recovered parts of the orbiter showed no evidence
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of fire or explosion from within the vehicle. all three main engines were recovered and helped to verify that they did not contribute to the cause of the accident. the external tank was similarly reconstructed. tank, the liquid hydrogen 80% of the inner tank and 5% of the liquid oxygen tank was recovered. of the external hardware was also recovered. the nose cap sustained very little damage. piecesral, the recovered were quite large. the spray on foam installation
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showed varying degrees of charring to practically no effect. tank explosive charges were recovered on detonated. limiting them as a possible factor in external tank breakup. the inner tank regions showed signs of buckling in the four and aft direction. this would be consistent with the impulsive thrust that resulted in the liquid hydrogen aft section of the tank. this shearing failure in the forward attachment fitting with the right srb was caused by the booster rotation after the aft strut area failed. the stringers on the right-hand side show evidence of contact which matched marks on the forward assembly of the right
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srb. a section of the ring frame and a section of the aft dome from the lower strut attachment area was recovered in one piece. a strut attachment fitting had been pulled away. effect of the anomalous plume and be seen on the external tank excluding an area shielded by the strut and attachment fitting. solidimately 50% of rocket booster hardware was recovered. an ordinance storage facility was used to house the pieces of some contained unburned propellant. srb matchon the right the contact area shown previously on the inner tank stringers. the size and location of the burn through as indicated by the
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recovered debris were illustrated on an assembled booster. the aft center section of the joint shows a large hole centered in the 307 degrees circumferential position. the whole is roughly the title or and is about 207i 15 inches. by 15 inches. the material showed evidence of hot gas erosion caused by combustion products flowing through the opening. the aft section of the right srb showed a whole approximately 33 by 21 inches. the burn surface extended into the aft attack strut region. surface of the aft case featured a large heat affected area. the shape and location indicates an impingement from the escaping
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gases. there was a small burn through in the case wall which appeared to have penetrated from the outside in. this was due to the impingement of hot gases from the anomalous plume. the hole in the solid rocket booster segment was the result of joint leakage on the right-hand srb which was determined to be the cause of the accident. the presidential commission concluded that the cause of the challenger accident was the failure of the pressure seal in the aft field joint at the right solid rocket motor. the failure was due to a faulty design rendering the seal unacceptably sensitive to a number of factors. those factors include the effects of temperature, physical dimensions, the character of materials, the effect of reuse and processing in the reaction to joint and dynamic loading.
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more detailed analyses are contained in volume three of the report of the presidential commission of the space shuttle challenger accident. >> 30 years ago i j were 28th 1986. the space shuttle challenger exploded 73 seconds after liftoff taking the lives of the seven crew members pictured here on their way to the launchpad. the crew included christa mcauliffe, selected from more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher in space. next on american history tv's real america, a 10 minute nasa , with backupliffe teacher barbara morgan. they are shown meeting the challenger crew, testing food, and being fitted forpa

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