tv American History TV in Santa Barbara CA CSPAN February 7, 2016 2:00pm-2:51pm EST
reel america, only on c-span 3. c-span's campaign 2016 is taking you on the road to the white house. >> klesko when the nomination. >> thank you and god bless you! >> in iowa, c-span brought you candidate speeches. >> thank you folks. >> meet and greets, town halls, and live caucus coverage. this week c-span is on the ground in new hampshire following the candidate leading up to the first in the nation primary. live election coverage starts tuesday at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span, c-span radio and c-span.org. >> welcome to santa barbara on american history tv. this california coastal city of over 90,000 is situated between the sandy naz mountains and the pacific ocean in about 100 all
sorts of launch angeles -- 100 miles north of los angeles. we looks for the city's history. here about the silent film studio that made santa barbara of player in the movie industry during the early 1900s. >> one of the things they specialize in with cowboy films. unlike other studios that were filming around chicago and back east, they had a unit down in new mexico and arizona. they said we have real westerns made with real cowboys in the real west. that is what started to distinguish them from other studios. you havewe will tell the cities looking to its pastor help as the state deals with a prolonged and severe drought. hallmarks is diversification of our water supply. inknow how vulnerable we are an arid climate like this where you can go multiple years without much rainfall. >> first we take you to old mission santa barbara.
we will hear how the native shoe ash peoplee -- shum health california's agricultural roots. [churchville -- church bell] a --nta barbara mission is the 10th of a chain of 21 missions built by the franciscans who were conquering california essentially trying to keep the russians out. along the coast of california -- in betweened the schools and spanish culture which remissions. the idea was to get the coastal indians to be pro-spanish and keep up the russians and possibly the english and whoever else might be encroaching on the northern edge of mexico. it is the only mission in
california that has continuously operated as a church from its founding to present day. in the santa barbara area, the linguistic group of the chumash indians came from malibu, just north of los angeles, to san luis obispo south of monterey county. one of the largest groups in california and they inhabited the area from malibu to san luis obispo to the channel islands off coast to what is now kern county. when they established the mission there were good relationships with the chumash people. that deteriorated over time and the population dwindled due to massive disease incursion. and more restrictions came from the spanish and mexican governments. but in the beginning, the chumash were welcoming.
they enjoyed trade. the spanish noted in all of their early diaries that the chumash people were manufacturers of the most beautiful baskets, stone tools. everything they produced seemed to be high quality and the spanish population was extremely impressed with the quality of the material culture of the chumash people. as time went on and about half of the chumash came into the mission system, there was some discontent. it grew partly because of huge population loss due to disease. and there was a more restrictive life as the spanish became a larger part of the population. they had more laws and rules that were problematic to the chumash. they were cut off from their hunting and gathering places as
the ranchos expanded. eventually in the mexican , period, we see the chumash revolt in what is the largest indian revolt and hispanic california. the spanish wanted to control the santa barbara channel. -- theremore missions are five missions in chumash territory. and the idea was to control the central part of the coast, which shipping would need in order to go from south to north, south to north to expand this territory. it gave them a good deal of control of sea traffic, which is what they wanted to do. and control of the middle of california. in the mission, we have an outdoor museum as well as interior museum rooms.
we are in this outdoor museum, la huerta, a small session best -- section where we are standing. it features plans that the -- plants that the chumash used in their culture that produced the food in basketry materials and so on that were important to them. the other part of the garden, which is below us here, is all plants that were introduced by the spanish and the beginnings of agriculture in california. and all of the plants were brought between 1769 and the 1830's and represent a cross-section from all across the pacific, europe, and asia. so those plants were brought by the spanish, who gave them to the chumash and said see if you can get them to grow. the treatment is right here is a
rare island oak. there were many types of oak in california, all of which produced acorns, which were the staple food of california indians. ground up and leeched to remove the tannen acids from them. they become a nutritious meals. the chumash were hunters and maritime peoples. so lots of fish and acorns. there was a nutritious diet for them before the spanish brought -- showed up with agriculture. the garden below us feature is the diet the chumash changed into in the missions and the things they learn to grow successfully. you can see in the distance the banana growth. there were bananas growing at two missions. they were noted by the french
explorer in 1790, growing between other orchards trees. apparently, to keep them from freezing. they would put them down the center with other trees around the. -- them. so this garden is from cuttings from original plants across the state to become a mother bed. we are kind of involved in what the national park service likes landmarks to do, which is restoration of the cultural environment. and this cultural landscape is important because many times we walk to an old landmark building and it is surrounded by modern structures or plants that were introduced last week from somewhere else in the world. the idea of a cultural landscape is having the landscape around a building meet the same time period and give you the visitor and experience of what it would have been like in its most culturally important period.
now we are down in the spanish period part of la huerta garden. you can see next to me the grapes. they are just getting their autumn look. it is january, but we had a long drought so they are just catching on the rain is coming and dropping their leaves. the mission grapes are infamous for being terrible for wine but good for cognac. that is vancouver's words when he visited santa barbara in the 1790's. the grapes were important. the missionaries always wanted a church service, so you need wine grapes.need to have the they introduced the grapes and . and alleek -- wheat of its. their diet was a mediterranean diet and heavily dependent on olive oil. and oil used in blessings and so
on. this is an early olive taken from a cutting from a mission , early olive growth from the late 1700s. and this one is from gerald valejo's garden. they are all the same variety of all of. -- olive. and citrus, introduced with grapes, are the two major crops we see in california still making a major part of our economic success in agriculture here. we are standing next to a typical mission fence. this is a prickly pear cactus version that produces three things that are useful. it produces fruit. the fruit is delicious.
it makes a wonderful drink. the prickly pear fruit is fabulous. then the little pads that you can cut up and fry with your breakfast eggs. they are terrific. then it is also producing the bugs on it. these guys produce a red dye -- i don't want to put my finger on it because it'll get me red and messy. when you break open this you get down to the little red smear. it will come up a brilliant red. this was used to dye fabric. color came from the bug. they would scrape them off the cactus and produces the dye for the fabrics they were weaving.
so you get clothes dye, and food, and it is a surface you do not want to push your way through. that means it is the ideal fence for all of your agricultural fields, because it will keep the cows and sheep and everything else out of your fields and protect the crops. what we really need to recognize is that the chumash are responsible for agriculture as an industry in california. certainly the local indians are the ones who made success at about culture. -- out of the culture. >> all weekend american history tv is featuring santa barbara, california. plaintiffdge r.b. ord america's first avocado trees. staff recently visited many sites showcasing the city's history. you can learn more all weekend
here on american history tv. >> what brought so many people to santa barbara was is incredible climate and location. the coast give them all day sunshine. and that ocean air, was recommended in various visitors brochures. doctors would say go to santa barbara. fresh ocean air and mountain air. that was seen as the tier for so many people in the 1870's and 1880's when we really boomed, not as a tourist city but as a health resort. in 1871 mn came to california on the transcontinental railroad. it had just been completed for a couple of years. they wanted him to write about the wonders of california and bring people out here. as he came to california he wrote down about the various things he saw. in a section called "california for invalids and health seekers," you put all the places i have named.
santa barbara was one of the best. one could choose your climate. you can go inland a few miles and get one temperature. down at the ocean it is a bit wetter. you will get a different temperature. all 5-10 different degrees from each other but it was this nice constant temperature he felt would be perfect. that is what began or big invalid boomed to come to santa barbara. it's the kind of people they came to santa barbara, they came from wealthier families. tools could afford to take a train to california? the best hotel in santa barbara cost $20 a week. that was big money back then. you had these people that would stay here for weeks, if not months. it was the well-to-do they came out here. that is what put santa barbara on the map and also at that time people had different ideas by california. they thought is full of high women in indians. this book people's minds at rest. what a glorious place california has.
i think tourism got started in santa barbara after he published his book and we have the invalids coming out. people coming out. what do we do? they are reading the fresh air but let's give the rest of the people something to do. they started producing tourist brochures and writing about wonder drives. who would want to go to arrange or form? that was really big. the botany in the year-round climate. people would go to these various farms and ranches and delight in all the agriculture in produced. payers, apricots, walnuts. and the missions. that was probably the biggest draw. after the mission, what else is there? carriage drives are important. -the mountains were important. they started adding other things. festival ina flower the 1890's century thousands to santa barbara to see these wonderful carriages with flowers and roses and different things. at the turn-of-the-century coming into the 1920's the
fiesta program started. this is because many people realized that all these great tales of the past are being lost. the songs of the spanish and mexican era. some people married into the old spanish families. the costumes were still there. the grandparents remembered the songs. they started putting on a communitywide celebration called old spanish days that took place over several days. that started drawing big tourism in the 1920's. that program is still with us today. santa barbara did benefit from tourism. they came, they saw, they stayed. the people that state element of the community and adopted it is their own hometown. we had many extremely wealthy people that stayed at the potter hotel, one of the great beachfront hotels in santa barbara. those people started looking at santa barbara and seeing what it needed. hospitals, schools, they greatly benefited from these people that stay here and invested. we have this remarkable open beachfront.
the entire beach, you will not find condominiums, apartments or hotels on the beachfront. it is open public land because some of these people that came to santa barbara really foresighted and bought up the land and gave it to the city so it would always be open for the public to enjoy. tourism has changed radically. the original people that came up here where captive audience. they really cannot leave the city once they were here. they could maybe take a train, but where are you going to go and why? there were a lot of things created to keep them here and happy. once the automobile arrived, people could stay one day and take off and spend the evening here, take off. we had a more transient type of tourists coming here. now we have people coming in just for the weekend. they contrive a from anywhere and spend a weekend. a lot of people come in for a couple of days. we occasionally have people that are good enough to stay for weeks if not months. tourism is our biggest industry still here and we really rely on tourists to come here and enjoy
the community, have a great time and tell their friends are great santa barbara was. all weekend american history tv is featuring santa barbara, california. the santa barbara museum of natural history displays the oldest human remains in the u.s. dating back 13,000 years. posted by our costume indications cable partners, c-span city store staff recently is it mini site showcasing the city's rich history. you can learn more about santa barbara all weekend here on american history tv. >> given the growing demands for water for environmental needs, there is more of a demand to develop additional sources and i think the candy -- continue to diversify. one of the hallmarks is a versification of our water supply. we know how vulnerable we are in an arid climate like this where you can go multiple years
without much rainfall. we are right on the beach in santa barbara. we are currently in a drought. it officially started in 2011. it takes to have been three years to recognize you are in a drought because we routinely have dry spells. the real challenges in the entire state. typically what we have seen in the past is usually a drought in southern california or a drought in northern california, but to have the entire state in a drought has been really challenging. the state has over the last six years developed a network where we can move waterfront or the california to southern california. -- water from northern california to southern california. it has been difficult to meet everybody's needs. the last major drought in the area started in 1987. it ultimately ended in 1992. it was pretty severe.
not as severe as this one but it was pretty drastic for the community. there was a lot of fear about running out of water. constructingproved a desalinization facility along with making the connections to the state water project so we could import water. ultimately the desalinization facility was completed in late 1991. it was only operated for a couple of months and then put into a standby mode because we had received quite a bit of rainfall. community and the decisions and that time to keep it as a standby mode. that's where it has been roughly for the last 20 years. we are taking a look at it. we are trying to reactivate it and we are in the process of doing that. a lot of technology has changed. we are taking advantage of a lot of the changes in technology. doing isy what we are
trying to separate out that salt molecule, which is very strong bonds with water. it is taking upwards of about 700-800 psi to separate the molecule. you are going through a very tight weeds membrane where the molecule will not fit through. that, is a very similar surface water treatment. very similar to what most communities throughout the united states have. you removing sediment and debris in the water so all that is remaining is salty water. that is exactly what goes through these reverse offices membranes -- loss mosys membranes. it leaves you with so here and instructed all minerals if the ad minerals back to it so it is not corrosive to the pipes. it will actually pull iron
materials out of the pipeline. it's kind of an interesting problem. we have typically a very hard water in santa barbara. it seems odd that the ad .o.erals back in but the r,i= process is very powerful. it starts about half a mile offshore. that is where our screening intake is. it pumps -- the poncho located out there. the water is brought on sure. chemicals are added to start the coagulating, bringing particles together in trapping them so they can be filtered out. once they go into the facility they go through a typical service water treatment where it goes through a media filter for gravel and sand. that pulls out all the particulates. all that is left is salty water. membrane in into the and the gallant of water is made
in the gallon of brine is made. -- we hade water minerals back to it. try to harden it back up and hit it with a limit of chlorine before it is pumped into the distribution system. and then it's sent off to the community. i think there is a lot of communities up and down california looking at this. in particular, i don't see this as the end-all solution to everything. playing at being -- critical role in health and safety needs. it's important it is sized appropriately. you want to make sure you are balancing that with all of your other supplies. it has a great reliability factor to it, but it carries a high unit cost. you balance that with your service water supplies which are
typically a low unit cost is a lot of variability and vulnerabilities with it. as a water supply manager i am looking to kind of manage all of those different -- i related to a stock portfolio. it's investing in different stocks but this would be bonds. it's a very safe place to put your money but it will not grow. it will not be this big moneymaker necessarily for you. i think it's an important part of anybody's portfolio to balance your water supply. >> all weekend long in american history tv is joining our constant indications cable partners to showcase the history of santa barbara, california. to learn more about the city on our current tour, visit c-span.org/citiestour. we look at the history of santa barbara.
in the 1910's, film studios were anybody they had a camera. there were a lot of people realizing there was money to be made in this new endeavor. previously films have been shown in nickelodeon's. they had a camera the ticket picture of a camera doing a shimmy shake or guys drinking. he paid your nickel and you turn the crank and you got to watch a movie like this. it started to develop into a real art. we got real writers and producers and experienced people to put the films together. that is where the flying a arrived in 1910 is things are really getting good. we are currently at what he remaining pieces of the american film company studio and santa barbara, california at the corner -- the building behind us
is the green room for the flying a. this is where they came to change in the costumes, get their makeup on and wait in the main room. they each have private rooms for them to change in in the they would wait in the green room. they would wait to be called into the studio to take their shots and do the things of. there -- up there. the owner found at the walls really were green when he started restoring this. of these little three buildings that are left at the studio. the studio was started in chicago in 1910. when it started became right off the ground perfectly because single hutchinson, the many put the flying a together, once other studios in chicago and robbed them of their personnel. he offered the more money. when they came to the company they had a studio ready to go from start to finish. no training was needed and they started making films. one of the things they
specialize in was cowboy films. unlike other studios and refilling around chicago and back east, they had a unit down in new mexico and arizona. they said we have real westerns made with real cowboys and the real west. that is what started to distinguish them from other studios. we are here at the santa barbara historical museum in downtown santa barbara. i'm standing in front of one of the most interesting items in the museum's extensive collections. this is a silent movie camera. a was used in the flying studio productions. it was owned by cameraman robert feelin and donated by his wife. this camera is interesting. this model camera was used for over 40 years. it was really revolutionary for its time, the 19-teens. they could hold a 400 foot reel of film which allowed for
continuous filming for seven minutes, which was unheard of at that time. came to santaa barbara because they had a unit that was working out of san capistrano, the mesa and lakeside. named --allen -- a man they were looking for something different. in 1912 they came up to santa barbara and set up their first studio in an old abandoned ostrich farm. about two blocks from where we are now. 1913 they built the studio we are currently sitting at. it was huge at that time. covering that it was eventually an entire three quarters of the block we have here. they started off small and started getting bigger and better. this was the largest film studio in california, the largest in
the united states, the largest in the world. it depends on whose publicity agent you are talking to. was of the volume of films they were turning out? what largest means, we don't know. but the newspapers reported that our new studio in santa barbara is the largest. >> a number of successful hollywood figures got their start here in flying a. probably the best-known is the director victor fleming, who would on to direct "gone with the wind" and "the wizard of oz." wascity's biggest star married miles mentor, a mary pickford type. she played innocent young suggest thatifs subjected to danger in temptation and it end of the day everything would turn out all right. she was a huge star in the teens for the flying a studio. her career ended tragically.
in 1922 she was implicated in the shooting death of william desmond taylor, a hollywood movie director. that case was never solved. that case was never solved and there were all sorts of rumors flying that mary miles was the lover of taylor, even though she was 30 years younger than he was, and there were rivals for taylor's affection and one of those stories was one of the rivals was her mother. >> one of the more controversial films was a movie called "spurity." and they got america's top to start.rey munston,
she was bathing in a creek, as -- and he sees is and thinks that hsehe ideal. and she was famous for her new work as a model, and a lot of these actuary featured audrey munston. she is also the head of the mercury head dime. she was a famous model. she posed nude during this film. as anhe was posing nude, artist from model, she did not move, so people said, it's art. it's ok to do that. this is ok, see? this is famous art. this is in the vatican. but it was, of course, highly controversial to have a new woman on the screen. some cities banded altogether.
it.rs embraced it was a big hit for them. it met its and because hollywood became the center for filmmaking. there were a number of different studios in different places, so it was fine, but as hollywood became more and more established , there was camaraderie, people meeting after hours, talking about what they had done, how they had done it, close-ups, dolly shots, all of these things. and santa barbara is getting isolated. and it became more expensive to get to santa barbara. and also getting more and more actors involved because now actors wanted to be in los angeles. you could do a shoot in the morning for one company and then do a shoot in the afternoon for another company. so, they would have to take the entire day to get up he, shoot for a day, and then go back to los angeles.
a started the flying to fade to black. >> the mission, santa barbara 1776.tablished in it was rebuilt after earthquakes in 1812 and 1925. we travel to -- to santa barbara to explore its rich history. you can learn more about santa barbara all weekend on c-span3. norman: hello. i'm norman cohan, the director of the karpeles manuscript
museum in several, california. this is the world's largest rightly owned, original, significant manuscript collection. there are some additives there. we have over a million manuscripts sent -- there are some additives there. we have over a million manuscripts in the collection. are fulcrum points where history hinged on a certain document, a certain signature. of oure of the samples collection, as we take a journey rue american history -- we have that wasuction page sent with the declaration of independence to king george and england, and mr. karpeles believes that this is more valuable than the declaration of independence itself. the declaration of independence had many copy sent to other
countries such as france and germany and spain, but there is only one introduction page to the declaration of independence sent to england. this is a very rare document. these are original drafts. this is the olive branch petition. again, this is an attempts of a ce between the colonies and england. king george same to ignore this leave through the olive branch petition. this is an original working copy of the olive branch petition, written in 1775, and it is given the distinction of such importance by historians that magnaompare it to the carta. this was the last ditch effort of the colonists to send a i, andon to king george ii
he gave it the cold shoulder. that led up to the war of independence. there are two copies in existence, and only one original working draft copy, and that is collection.karpeles and then in keeping with the revolution, this is a promissory benjaminten by franklin, and it was france a certaine americas amount of money to finance the revolution. without this promise very note, we might not have won the revolutionary war. that is how important this document is. this is thomas jefferson's handwriting, and it is a handwritten report by president thomas jefferson about the lewis and clark expedition and it discusses the louisiana purchase
for803, which set the stage the major westward expansion of the united states. the lewis and clarke expedition was sent i president thomas jefferson to determine the this newd extent of purchase. so the country now had a goal of , i dream oftiny extending its boundaries all the way to the pacific ocean. thus captain lewis, who had been explore the missouri river to its source -- the great do us of europe would injury by sea and on our shores, but the spirit of independence in the country at large, they can never bend. those are thomas jefferson's words that he states beginning this document.
we have an extraordinary civil collection now. in the south, the confederacy, they offered accounts are emancipation proclamation and this is a working draft of that document, as well as a constitution of the confederate states of america. and this one, it does start with "we the people of the confederate states," just like america's constitution. they used the same wording. we the people. this is the actual surrender document from the civil war, signed by president jefferson davis, the president of the when theyy, surrendered. and then, toward the end of the war, abraham lincoln's death certificate. i can give you some particulars. it looks like when he died, his estate was worth $85,000.
history comes alive when you can actually feel and touch an original document that you know was touched by thomas jefferson or george washington. as you look into the glass cases we have in the museum, it's as windoware looking into a on a moment in history. and certainly we want to reserve the memory of the historical figures that change the world. all of the museums are offered free of charge. the mission purpose is to preserve these historical documents for posterity. >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring set, california. santa barbara is located on the california central coast. staff cities toward
recently -- cities tour staff recently visited many sites associated with santa barbara's rich history. learn more about santa barbara all weekend on american history tv. john: we have the oldest dated human skeletal remains in north america. the bones of this ancient individual date back 13,000 ours and were found off coast, santa rosa island. 1959, a curator here at our museum, an archaeologist found a feet below buried 37 the existing ground service at the sidewall of arlington canyon , a place called arlington springs. so, arlington springs man, we have now done modern radiocarbon , indicating that is a
little over 13,000 years old. the oldest dated skeletal remains in north america. some people ask the question, why do have native american culture in a natural history museum? we think it is actually important to include people as part of nature, that people have been living here before the useng of europeans, making of their natural environment. they had perspectives on the natural environment. they had substance. they were making all of their tools. we want to study that, too. how did people for thousands of years make use of their natural environment. and because we are located in this part of california, we in the chumash
culture. we show how culture changed through time, through different time periods, and then what was timesh culture like at the that europeans first arrived here. from the time that spanish explorers first arrived, what they found was a thriving with the largest towns being permanently inhabited along the coast. in fact, this is the highest population density reached by any aberrational group in california. right here in the santa barbara challenge josh channel.
barbara channel. what is interesting, these people lived entirely on hunting and gathering for subsistence. they did not practice agriculture here in native california. originally wash the name the indians had for the people of the islands, and it is related to the name for the bead money. it means something like "bead money makers." the only place in north america where the came money, in fact the only place where true money existed north of mexico was here in california. and the main meant for making bead money was the chumash nation.
they were measured in a standardized way. so, they actually counted out and used beads as money in the same way that we use money and is the only place in north america where true money existed. the shell beads were made from a shell and they which about these little discs and drilled them , and ity micro drills was really a household industry on the channel islands that would then be strong and too long strands and used as a form of money for people on the mainland. here in the santa barbara region, and used by the chumash indians and their neighbors to the south is the only place along the whole pacific coast of north america where both were built from planks of wood.
and what they would do would be take driftwood that would come on shore, logs, pinewood that would flow down from northern california and they would split off these points of wood and drilled them along the edges and so them together, sealing the tar they would mix for a good seal. these boats were very seaworthy and were used to go out fishing and were very good supporting people with the amount of fish that were caught. so, it is a very good use. chumash indians were hunters
and gatherers and they had finely made bowls. one example we have in our collection was woven by native woman, chumash woman at the point of ventura -- buena ventura mission. she copied spanish coins into the design of her basket. it was sewed my by the governor, he had her weave a dedication into the rim of the basket and he gave it as a gift to a friend of his who was a general time in mexico in that basket has s ince been acquired by our museum and is now on exhibit in our hall here. the missions had two major impacts on chumash society.
one was the fact that they brought grazing animals with them. as the herds of grazing animals they ate the native plants upon which the chumash indians had relied upon for their seed crops. they would go out and gather wild seeds. and the grazing animals ate there. it caused a problem. if you're not practicing agriculture, where will you go to get your wild seed? that was one of the major impacts. there were environmental changes . the second thing is that they introduced diseases that arrived with europeans. the native population had no these.immunity to
so, you have a high mortality from measles, diphtheria, illnessesrom other that came with the european culture and the european people. so, there was high mortality. was maybe 10% of the people who had been here some 60, 70 years earlier. having these artifacts on exhibit helps educate people about the rich cultural heritage of the native people, the chumash indians, and gives them an appreciation of their culture. also comes from this is how people, you know, interacted with their environment. you know, they did not impact the environment the way we are impacting it today. the population density was much lower than we have today.
and one of the messages, i think we want to tell here at the we need tohat preserve this natural world and there are many useful things about it. many things that are important thatr quality of life and we need to think about that, longas our place in the period of time humans have been here. are we going to be proud of the legacy in the future? >> our city staff recently cinnabar,to california to learn about its rich history. you can learn more about santa barbara and other stops on our tour at www.c-span.org/ci tiestour. you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3.
next weekend on "reel america," vietnam earrings 60 years later. -- hearings 60 years later. hearings televised live to the nation. here's a preview. >> the vietnam hearings were probably some of the most extraordinary hearings ever held by congress. they were investigations into a war that was still being fought. congress, and particularly the senate wanted to know why we were in vietnam, what the administration's policies were and they wanted to hear from opponents of the war. they gave equal status to critics of the war as supporters of the war. kennan was one of the most disting