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tv   Winds of the Storm  CSPAN  February 7, 2016 4:00pm-4:46pm EST

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could be bought in bulk in los angeles. and also getting more and more actors involved because now actors wanted to be in los angeles. you could do a shoot in the morning for one company and then do a shoot in the afternoon for another company. so, they would have to take the entire day to get up he, shoot for a day, and then go back to los angeles. so, slowly the flying a started to fade to black. by 1921 they filmed their last movie. and they were out of business. recentlyty staff traveling to santa barbara california to learn about its rich history. you can learn more about santa barbara all weekend on c-span3. you are watching american , every tv, all weekend weekend on c-span3. >> about 25 years ago on february 27, 1991, president george h.w. bush announced a
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cease-fire in the gulf war, bringing in the end 12 massive air campaign launched a few weeks earlier to remove iraqi forces from kuwait. america, theal story of operation desert storm is told from the perspective of several u.s. air commanders. the air the storm, campaign of operation desert storm is a 37 minute defense thertment report detailing strategy and technology used in what was seen as a new kind of precision war.
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>> this is the road to basra. armie jammed this highway as coalition forces moved to kuwait. they were perfect targets. it became known as the highway of death. a harsh example of allied air power during operation desert storm. the coalition use overwhelming air power to defeat a brutal dictator and see a nation. -- and free a nation. in this program, the air commanders of desert storm talk
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about how they fought the war, focusing on the u.s. air force's role. 1990, president bush responding to the iraqi invasion of kuwait orders american forces to decoy to saudi arabia. u.s. central command air forces had to move its forces several quickly.miles within days five u.s. air force squadrons and two u.s. carriers arrived in the gulf. hornerant general chuck recalls the deployment. >> we had to get people here rapidly because of the threat of iraqi invasion. we brought over those kinds of airplanes you need to defend and deter air defense aircraft. and also the f-15.
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>> in just five weeks the coalition air force outnumbered the iraqi air force. when it became apparent we were successful in that initial effort, we fleshed out the air force with more aircraft, .ore f-16s >> the coalition organized its airpower with general horner as the single air commander, or air boss. >> we created four divisions. one division handled the tankers and bomber aircraft. the second one handled the fighters and attack aircraft. a division associated with electronic warfare. and the airlift operations. we are able to define each air division by function, and that thewe can provide command-and-control needed to execute the war. more we began to get
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operating locations, we moved tankers into location in the united arab emirates. >> the coalition would eventually have close to 3000 planes. these fighter and attack planes patrol the desert, providing cover for the world's largest military airlift in history. airlift, the hidden part of airpower. it was the fastest way to get enough men and material over to defend the desert kingdom. command ofeneral -- the coalition's airlift forces. then that appointment, the craft aircraft, the kc tends , very early on it
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was evident operation desert shield was going to surpass by far the strategic airlift we have had before. >> military and civilian cargo airplanes delivered 72,000 tons of cargo in the month of august alone, to places like -- >> the early goings was wall-to-wall planes. aanes would behold and until plane took off so another plane could land. the president decided we need more forces, we actually went into a second peak. we went through the same thing, using massive strategic forces to bring supplies into the theater. schwarzkopforman was chief of the allied forces. his concept for operation desert storm caused for an intense massive air force campaign to
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prepare the way for an allied ground in festive -- ground offensive. >> it was the most successful air campaign in history. the general became air force chief of staff during operation desert shield. >> our target was the field army. expel from was to kuwait. of all, we knew we needed to operate in iraqi airspace. we had to penetrate into his territory. to do that we had to take apart and disrupt his ability to stop us from coming in. we had to disintegrate his integrated air defense set up. >> director of campaign planned before the war and commanded fighter and attack aircraft
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during the war. >> whether it be in the air or on the ground. we were obviously most concerned with taking it down from the air to start with. >> the coalition would have to overcome saddam's integrated air defense systems. >> a basic iad is setup so that they have an envelope at medium and high altitude you fliy into. he puts his aaa up with the redundancy he had, so basically you are going to fly through. if you are going to force the aaa, his fighters will engage in the fire engagement zone. that's the way it's put together.
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of is the systems itself, the acquisition radars, the fighter aircraft, and what i call the nervous system, the control system, where you have air force operations center, like the one in a dad. a sector force operations center is spread out. and each one of those has interoperation centers. that is what the integrated system does. which airplanes are going to be engaged with fighters and which airplanes are going to be engaged with missiles. --as many as 17,000 purpose 17,000 surface-to-air missiles, under the order of 10,000 aircraft artillery pieces. very modern radars, all lashed together with high-tech equipment. >> it is an integrated system.
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take away the nervous system, and then start tearing down the pieces of it one by one. >> the desert storm air campaign would have four faces. face one would have three goals, gain air superiority, destroy saddam's strategic capability, namely his long range to missiles, and disrupt his command and control. the allies estimated his first would last 25 days. face to would be sure. -- would be short. -- phase two would be short. three, allied airpower would continue to hit the targets of phase one, but they would shift their attack to the iraq he army -- to the iraqi -- bringingg close
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close to half a million men. >> he called it shaping the battlefield. he had to defeat those elements of his ground forces capable of mass casualties, artillery, armor. >> an important target would be troops, theck guard. he was depending on them to drive back the coalition ground forces if they attacked his army. >> one of the centers of gravity is to destroy the republican guard and destroy a lot of the military support. phase threebelieved would take about three weeks. the final days of the campaign was to supply the ground troops as they moved into kuwait. >> now the 28 countries with forces in the gulf area have
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exhausted all reasonable efforts to reach a peaceful resolution and have no choice but to drive saddam from kuwait by force. we will not fail. asir attacks are underway military targets in iran. hours coalition rated 48 as they began their attack. h power was zero 300 on january 17, 1991. that is when the first bomb would ball -- first bomb would fall on baghdad. that is when operation shield would become operation desert storm. over 600 planes were launched that night in bases around the iranian peninsula, from carriers in the red sea and the persian gulf. from even as far as the united states. >> to give he's idea of the
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order of magnitude, within the first 34 through 30 hours, we launched over 300 tankers alone to support the strike package. been never any launch as big in the history of the air force. opening attack, the allies combined their stealth and decision technology and electronic warfare tactics and classical elements of mass and surprise. >> we have been here since august. he was used to seeing that every day, as well as most airplanes. that is what we wanted him to see. beyond the reader aircraft our attack
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would be forming up in orbits so they were able to top off their fuel at the last moment before heading into the target area. >> holding less than 3% of the coalition fighters, the f-117 struck almost one third of the .argets on the first day the stealth fighters led the attack, penetrating the iraqi i iads.- iraqi one that cannot be stopped was -- hour 60minus one minutes, a tomahawk land missile was launched. over 50 cruise missiles were launched that night. they would arrive 10 minutes after the first f-117 strike. >> the first thing was taken down the sites by the special ops forces. tookght apache gunships
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out two iraqi reporting sites on the border. this helped clear the way for non-stealthy fighters heading toward western iraq. to fallirst actual bomb in iraq, that occurred around nine minutes after what we refer to as each hour. -- as h hour. f-117's right down into baghdad in the first hour 20 minutes. target was the principal telephone communication facility, also dubbed the at&t building. >> it was there central, note in the whole country. central comm node in the whole country.
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hour, f-117's took out baghdad.in >> the ability to see airplanes coming out of the south was denigrated. the ability to communicate was taken down and the city went black. the gateway,ned up our other strike packages rushed through and we hit very hard. this is a massive attack at the beginning moments of the war. we attacked all the strategic targets i spoke of, the electric power, communication, defenses and so forth. our goal was to put them in shock and destroy the ability to defend their homeland. we were able to do that with maximum -- with massive attacks across the spectrum of control. also surface-to-air missiles. intercept took down
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operating centers, then we fired hundreds of -- in the first 24 hours. >> arms are high-speed anti-radar missiles. on their mission and destroy anti-radar sites. >> one of the permanent scud launchers -- elevens -- -- the f1 the f-111 took out the power grids. as with the b-52s in striking the southern airfields. making sure that the tankards and the airplanes were protected.
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>> iraqis never recovered from the allies first punch from that first night. >> we brought in the f-16s and f-118s.8's -- and the for all kinds of purposes there were absolutely no images. and that is a tribute to all the details being worked out and the just flew tos we make sure there weren't any more glitches. >> it was very thorough. we used a lot of airplanes and assets to do that. they were never able to recover from that first 24 hours. >> we seize control of the air
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in the initial moments of the and control it much more easier and much more efficient. >> the first bomb dropped and 18 hours later the longest weather -- moved in. we fought weather for eight straight days. we intended in the first three days to take out all of the biological and chemical stories. hampered usreally in this area and that was our number one concern. pamela coalition was able to destroy many nuclear, biological, and chemical story sites and cripple saddam's kid ability produce and research these weapons. able to use these weapons against the allies during the war.
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>> we had to diver an inordinate amount of assets. powerhough coalition air destroyed many permanent scud launchers, they did not destroy saddam's mobile watchers. saddam was still able to send scud towards israel and saudi arabia. >> in terms of psychological impact on both saudi arabia and israel. we locate these very time sensitive fleeting targets. >> we wound up using 24 airplanes continuously and supplement those airplanes with strikes. we are using almost 100 airplanes per day. >> we use a variety of intelligence stores -- and put the sources
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airplanes over the target at the right time. >> the coalition you that mobile launchers had to come out of hiding and drive certain areas. these launch areas were called scud boxes. during the day a tens were on the roadway looking for them. f-16s circled overhead. british special forces use laser designators to target scud missiles for coalition air crews in western iraq. in eastern iraq the new experimental stars aircraft successfully directed several's -- several strikes. they were able to locate mobile watchers, which can track movement on the ground. many mobile watchers were hunted down and destroyed. >> we were at day 4.5 in the war. and then in the first 11 days we had only accomplished three days
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of what we intended to accomplish. were never they fully suppressed, air power greatly reduced to their chances of hitting their targets and dramatically reduced scud launches from five a day to three per week. although the coalition struggled with whether, they had little difficulty with the iraqi air force. they were no match for coalition pilots. >> flash coming out of westbound. >> it was decimating more emotionally and psychologically. they cannot complete intercepts, they cannot even get close to airplanes. that had to be very demoralizing
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for them. >> since they couldn't survive in the air, the iraqis began hiding their aircraft in shelters. >> 4, 3, 2, one, impact. >> there is a hit. secondary. big-time secondary. >> a man concentrated their attacks in these shelters. laserguided bombs penetrated and destroyed over 300 of them. since they couldn't survive in the air or on the ground, iraqi aircraft could begin to run toward iran in mass by day nine.
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>> it has changed mass precision. >> precision guided munitions are fitted with a laser or optical guidance system. was precision. but some estimate that these destroyed 80% of the procedure -- of the strategic targets during the war. >> with a combination of stealth and precision, we were able to attack targets very discreetly. we did not carpet bomb downtown special care to make sure we only attacked military targets and attacked them quite precisely. >> with precision munitions, the coalition could have avoided
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civilian areas and hit leadership targets instead. >> they went after their minister of defense facilities and after the security facilities, after the headquarter facilities. where thethe areas most barbaric acts in supporting those were made and executed. it was critical to be able to take that element out of that society. let theso critical to populace see that that segment of their society was as vulnerable as anyone else. >> this is an electronic war like no one else in history. >> anytime we send a package where we have jammers, the ef 1/11 in a particular spot, we have them sitting back anytime
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the radar did come up. and because of that, fear of , they were very reluctant to have their radars up at the time. if your radar is up for a. of time -- up for a period of time and you are being jammed, you can't break out of that target. they are able to get good pk shots and not us. they started ballistic firing missiles. that is just like shooting a rifle. imagine, that is why they had zero effectiveness. >> another danger was antiaircraft fire. >> if you have many gun sites,
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you can take them all out. what you have to do is with tactics. the basic tactic we use for that we use medium and high-altitude. >> the accommodation of suppressing and not using fire effectively meant from the very beginning we essentially had air superiority. good --nts for the very on our side. >> we had lost 22 airplanes. i think it speaks for himself. >> bombing the iraqi field army did not come after phase one and two as originally planned. it happened at the same time.
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>> we simply diverted it to begin on phase three. that the iraqime ground forces were not under anti-air attack. rescissiones used weapons to take down iraqi bridges, cutting down the army from kuwait of reinforcements and supplies. --117's and four and we put seven bridges in the water first night. >> iraqi engineers built bridges to replace the destroyed once. allies returned and took them out as well. other aircraft trolled for convoys. the resupply of the iraqi armie flowed from 20,000 tons per day to 2000 tons. from the start of the war, b-52s
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hammered airfields, plants like petroleum supplies, and petroleum -- and military centers. we wereearly on b-52s every hour and half over a republican guard target, or target that had to do with the theater operation. struck regardless what kind of whether there was. we struck all day and all night without warning, without their ability to effectively mass a counter air offensive. effective was very putting firepower on their equipment, troop location, artillery, tanks, and they can do nothing about it. and it was extremely demoralizing. >> behind the planes that deliver them were sentry claims.
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-- sentry planes. the coalition average one bombing >> the focus became destroyed equipment as opposed to destroying troops. i would initial intelligence in the force and field was poor. we were sending aircraft's out to destroy army units, and when they would arrive at the location, they were not there and they would have a difficult time getting a valid target for his flight. one thing we did was to put f-16s over the battlefield and called them killers. they were to control a 20 120 by 20 mile box. this made the attacks much more
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efficient. bombing was relentless. >> in the last 11 days of the air campaign before the ground campaign started, the precision in excess ofoyed 1000 tanks, 300 artillery pieces. >> at 8:30 the general gave this assessment of the air war. >> we have had some tough times in the 30 days, particularly unusual weather in january, for worse than was forecasted. it was only because we were doing so well in our counter air campaign that we were able to despite this schedule the weather. i think more importantly, we dig distant -- shown we can out forces in kuwait.
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night and the f-117's, i think they're bombing accuracy is phenomenal. the work is being done by the b-52s and bringing large amounts of ammunition, and i think that is beginning to pay off. it has to be very difficult to be an iraqi soldier, to sit there night after night and day after day and endure this. , theyis vividly described said the airplane they feared the most for the a-"invented by law: alexander graham bell and the patent that changed america _10's because they did not know if they were being picked out.
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this was unnerving psychologically. focus all saddam's around kuwait, his army was weak and expose. the general wanted to exploit it. he had thousands of troops for a massive ally thrust through a rock. move majord to elements starting the day after the bombing. for the first 14 days, we had a 1:30 scheduled every 10 minutes 24 hours a day. that ability to move that amount of people and a lot of vehicles that quickly, in my mind, saddam hussein never caught on until much later on in the ground floor that there was anything up there -- ground war that there was anything up there. >> the ground troops made their final preparations. >> we put massive b-52 strikes
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to bomb through those areas so that there was a clear path that went through the breach area so that when the troops went through, there would be a pathway cleared of mines and the wires would be cut. >> f-117's where the precision guided on's and they entered the battlefield. -- precision guided bombs and they entered the battlefield. this made the preaching more difficult. -- preaching more difficult. the groundral launch floor on faerber 24th, 1991, 39 days from the start of the air campaign. the original ally plan was only nine days off schedule. that.er >> allied power interface for.
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entered phase four. >> we were able to alert those authorities where the army needed them. it was no need for the army to then send them off to a target beyond the coronation line. thoseriefed all of commanders and calverley commanders before the war started and i said, we will destroy a minimum of 50% of the armor and artillery before we crossed the boundary. based on what they found, we exceeded 50%. one of them relate to me and
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said, i hit the majority of the tanks and got the radiator. >> the iraqis were routed. they surrounded by -- surrendered by the tens of thousands. replied, my artillery was destroyed by error 100% before the ground campaign started. i called the division next to mine, and their artillery was destroyed 100% by air as well. my conviction is this is the first time in history that the army had been defeated by air power. ♪
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>> airpower truly was the when that carried --win that carried desert storm. >> it was the excellence of our training and the quality of our people. i say that, not as an advertisement or bombastic statement, but because it is absolutely true. the people who put this whole thing together, the aircraft mechanics to communication to combat to pilots flying the
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mission, there are so many young people who worked day and night and would sleep two or three hours and a hangar and get back up and start again. beyond dedication belief, and they deserve all of the credit. my hat is off to them. ♪ day on american history tv real america. vietnam hearings, 50 years later.
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fulbright senator gives people time and critics of the war and members of the johnson administration to hearings. reel america, here on american history tv, only on c-span three. all weekend long, we are joining the coxcomb indication cable show santa barbara, california. we continue to look at the history of santa barbara. norman: hello, i am the director of the karpeles museum in santa barbara, california. this is the flagship museum.
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this is the world's largest privately owned, original, significant manuscript collection. there are some adjectives there. we have over one million manuscripts in the collection. these are manuscripts that have changed history, fulcrum points where history hinged upon a certain document, certain signature. some of the samples of our collection, as we take a journey through american history, we have an introduction page that was sent with the declaration of independence to king george in england, and mr. karpeles believes this is more valuable than the declaration of independence itself. the declaration of independence as many copies sent to other countries such as france, spain and germany, but there was only
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one introduction page to the declaration of independence sent to england. this is a rare document. these are original drafts. these are the only known original drafts of this operation. forn, this is an attempt englandic peace between that king george seemed to ignore. copy ofginal working the olive branch petition was written in 1775 and it was given the distinction of such importance by historians that they compare it to the magna carta. this was the last ditch effort of the colonists to send a petition to king george the third and he gave it be cold shoulder that led up to the war of independence.
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of there two copies olive branch petition in existence, and only one original, working draft copy and that is here in the karpeles collection. in keeping with the revolution, this is a promissory note written by benjamin franklin and it was france loaning the americas a certain amount of money to finance the revolution. without this promissory note, we may not have won the revolutionary war. that is how important this document is. this is thomas jefferson's handwriting. this is a handwritten report by president thomas jefferson about the lewis-clark expedition. it discusses the louisiana purchase of 1803 which sets the westward the major
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expansion of the united states. the lewis-clark expedition was tot by thomas jefferson determine the nature and extent of this new purchase. the country now had a goal of manifest destiny, dreaming of extending its boundaries all the way to the ocean. lewis, who has been sent to explore the missouri and then to pursue the nearest water communication to the south sea, past through the savages, 1600 miles of the missouri. the great powers of europe do us injury, but the spirit of independence in the country at -- is as it has never been. those are thomas jefferson's words in this document. we have an extraordinary civil war collection now.
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in the south, the confederacy, they offered a counter .roclamation this is the working draft of that document, as well as a constitution of the confederate states of america. this one, it does start with, "we the people, of the confederate states, despite the ."rth this is the surrender document from the civil war signed by president jefferson davis, the president of the confederacy when they surrendered. toward the end of the war, abraham lincoln's death certificate. i can give you some particulars. it looks like when he died, his estate was worth $85,000.
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history comes alive when you can actually feel and touch an original document that you know was touched by thomas jefferson or george washington. as you look into the last cases we have -- glass cases we have in the museum, it is as if you are looking into a window on a moment in history. we want to preserve the memory of the historical figures that changed the world, all the free exhibits.g our city staff recently as it into santa barbara, california to learn of its rich history. c-span.orgrn more on /city tour. you are watching american

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