tv Book Discussion on Liar Temptress Soldier Spy CSPAN April 2, 2016 4:00pm-5:01pm EDT
of the two most famous american madams ever. in american rose we learned about an american icon who hasn't been explored the way you explored her. now with liar, temptress, soldier, spy you hit on several things i have door. unexplored american history, espionage, and women with real spines, adventurous incredible women. tell us about what this book is about. i will tell you the origins. i was born and raised in philadelphia and moved to atlanta in 2001. the civil war seats in the conversation in the south in a way that it doesn't in the north. i saw the occasional confederate the, heard the jokes of
norton -- war of northern aggression. [laughter] homehe point was driven that it wasn't a joke. for i was stuck in traffic hours behind a pickup truck that had a bumper sticker that said. blame me, i voted for jeff davis. i looked at this for hours and started thinking of course, what were the women doing? they didn't have easy access to , they didn'tcourse have the right to vote. they couldn't influence battle. i wanted to see what the women were doing. i wanted to find for women who cheated, lied, stole, murdered and flirted through the war. these are women i want to spend time with.
aboutthors we often talk how we find our stories. found it on a bumper sticker hasn't come up quite often. once you got intrigued, how did you come across these incredible women. karen: i wanted to find for news some way thatd in retold the civil war and the way the civil war in a way that had not been told before. even if they weren't physically interacting, although two of , they were running in the same people and there was a cause and effect. one woman's behavior would affect the other woman circumstances. i wanted to weave their stories together in interesting way. denise: one of the things i like is there are these very distinct characters.
they each have their own background, their own experience. a specificthe reader via and entry point into the civil war. spoiler alert. here is how the war in. -- ends. we know where we are headed. this is a personal way to look at not just this war but were in general. are so distinct and talk about the for women who carry the book. , all theth apologies women at different points were liars, temptresses, soldiers and spies. whofirst is belle boyd provided comic relief and my favorite in a lot of ways. she was insane.
denise and i were talking before we went on. she was like a sociopath on spring break all the time. [laughter] that girl, she is having a really good time but something is off about her. that is belle. it made for some dangerous circumstances. belle boyd was 17 years old when the war broke out. she was a confederate sympathizer. she is all in. she had no filter. if sarah palin and miley cyrus had a 19th-century baby it would have been belle boyd. she was over with her opinions and sexuality. you would see pictures of her going -- i am sure there are. she wrote this great letter to her cousin that sums up how she
felt about herself. which is what she thought about most of the time. i will read a tiny snippet. i am tall, she once boasted to her cousin. i weigh 106 pounds. my form is beautiful. my eyes are of a dark blue, and so expressive. my hair of a rich brown and i tie it up nicely. my neck and norms are beautiful and my foot is perfect. i only wear size 2.5 shoes. my teeth are the same pearly whiteness, perhaps wider. roman, greeson nor beautifully shaved. i'm the most beautiful of all of your cousins. that is belle for you. she kicks things off on the fourth of july 1861 by shooting
at a union soldier who threatens to raise a flag over her home. to wanting a husband she tried to get some agreement with her cousin, what does she want in this story? she woke up every day wanting something different. it pointed to what can i do to make myself more famous, which was a strange attitude for someone who purported to be a spy, who after she shoots the union soldier goes to work as a career in spy for the confederate army. while she's trying to help gather and disseminate information, she is also trying to do whatever she can to bring attention to herself. denise: she ends up getting attention from a prominent individual. karen: she was quite obsessed
with stonewall jackson who was my civil war boyfriend. denise: we all have one. an interesting character. a rock star of the civil war area there was a great story, he was in the lobby of a hotel. women just swarm temp. they ran after him on the street. they just followed him and started ripping buttons off his coat, keeping souvenirs. he was great about this. he actually said ladies, ladies, this is the first time i was ever surrounded by the enemy. [laughter] elle was obsessed with him. she said she wanted to occupy his 10th and share his dangers. timepent quite a bit of .oing after that goal
she had another title in her life, rose. rose is another one of the main characters, another key figure in the confederate side of the story. talk about rose. karen: rose was an interesting woman who was in a difficult position when the war broke out. she lost five children in four aars, she lost her husband in freak accident. she lost her access to the white house. she had had access to democratic politicians. she'd been an advisor to james buchanan. with the election of lincoln that disappeared. she was desperate to regain this position with influence she had wielded. when a confederate captain approached her and said would you be interested in running a disregard of that and said of course i want to do
that. she immediately began cold debating sources -- by sleeping with. she managed to bed a high number of union officials including senator henry wilson of massachusetts, and abolitionist republican and chairman of lincoln's committee on military affairs. she entertained these men in her home often. the neighbors watch the men come and go hold her wild rose. it was very catty. .he knew what she was feeling -- what she was doing. belle learndid about rose? she wants to be rose. karen: she went to school in washington dc and she had her
society debut as a debutante. i love this story. she carved her name with her diamond in the window of her was here.lle boyd rose, she was still the leading lady of washington society. the invitations were the most coveted in town. democratic andd republican politicians and was influential across the board. belle knew about this. denise: let's now move, we have two of our for women. the union. let's talk a little bit about elizabeth. was thelizabeth van lew exact opposite situation.
whereas rose was a celebrated beauty, elizabeth, one of her contemporary said she was never as pretty as her portrait showed. [laughter] very true. denise: they didn't have photoshop. was a but elizabeth staunch abolitionist. she was born and raised in richmond but spent time up north educated. when she came back to richmond she was not pleased with the state of things and begin freeing the family slaves. after the war broke out this was a dangerous position to have. before she was this is central spinster who lived with her mother. after she was a traitor, a union sympathizer, someone they send death threats to and detectives started following. denise: this was somebody who did not need to do anything.
she was well taken care of. do you have any idea of what drove her? what motivated her? karen: she was moved by the plight of silly very. -- slavery. she would weep openly and write about this. she would bring prominent guests to richmond and say i need to show you what the situation is. she was overwhelmed by how horrific the situation was. slaves.ly had owned once her father passed she began fleeing -- freeing their slaves. she started to buy slaves just to free them. this was something that was near and dear to her and drove her through the war at the risk of her own life. denise: what i found interesting was her relationship with the african woman who worked in her home.
karen: once elizabeth started assembling her union spy ring she recruited people from all walks of society. she really chose one person to be the linchpin of this operation, mary jane bowser, a former family slaves. elizabeth freed her when she was young. she was a remarkable woman. elizabeth center to be educated. it was against the law at the time. elizabeth went to davis, the confederate first lady and said i hear you need help. i am offering you one of my servants that might assist you in your needs. she is not a smart woman. she might just fit the bill for you for a while. mary jane bowser goes to the confederate white house and she is hired. not only is mary h, she is highly educated and has a photographic memory.
while she is dusting jefferson davis's desk, she is sneaking peeks at papers on his desk and listening to the confidential conversations, reporting every word to elizabeth. denise: i love that. now we move on to frank. emma/frank. --en: she was a canadian who whose father arranged a marriage for her. she was determined to have a life of adventure. she wanted something more for herself. she cut her hair, she binds her breasts, and she flees to the united states. you start hearing about john brown and leading up to the
civil war and she wants a piece of that. she wants to live a life of adventure. .he enlists in the union army it was quite remarkable how she gets away with that. the first thing that came to mind, -- did she have to take a physical. denise: the first in the comes up in everybody's mind. how did that work out for her? karen: she was quite nervous about it. the official protocol dictated all doctors had to conduct a thorough physical examination. doctors flouted these rules. denise: they weren't that thorough. karen: they needed bodies out there. they didn't care if somebody was disease. they needed to have a finger to , and just tor
cared if somebody could march. they wanted somebody who could do the job. the doctor shook her hand and said what sort of living has this hand earned. of theat she was captain army as frank thompson. denise: i love it. abbott has given us for a very unique personal lenses with which to view the civil war. is it the things i liked is so balanced when you were doing your research. were there any others, how did you find and decide on these for? somebody you thought she would be great but? landing in deciding on these four. karen: there were plenty left on the cutting room floor. they have numerous good characters in the civil war. two sisters i was interested in.
i'm always interested in devious sisters. they were two confederate ladies who like many southern ladies hit all manner of goods in the kremlin and smuggled them. they left quite a few union men at the altar. altar.lted them at the i wanted to find a way to fit them in but there wasn't enough for a nonfiction count. and some interesting mail spies. women were dealing with cross-dressing. there was a fellow, benjamin stringfellow, a confederate spy for jeb stuart. he was 94 pounds, delicate features, blonde hair and according to a comrade he had a waste that was as wispy as a woman. he would put on an elaborate down and called himself sally and go to military balls.
he would just say what his general grant up to these days? there were devious people on both sides of both genders. mma was my favorite. do you have a favorite? karen: i like them all for different reasons. belle was comic relief. ise is somebody who attending she is a man. she's on the front lines, in the bloodiest battles. she has an excruciating personal story. she falls in love with a fellow union soldier and has to make the choice, do i suffer in silence. i am.i tell him what denise: they were very close. just, i really appreciate her strength and
vulnerability. denise: one of the things when i came across that part, i got curious about this concept of women dressing as men to enlist in the army. it wasn't -- she was not the only one. were you surprised? karen: i was. one of the most surprising bits of research. an estimated 400 women disguise themselves. it is fascinating how they got away with it. the biggest reason they got away with it was because no one knew what a woman would look like wearing pants. they were so's used to seeing woman's bodies in these exaggerated shapes. wearing pants, and entire army uniform was so unfathomable people were just like know that can't be a woman. it was one of the things that ate at them.
i talked about how they are different, different perspectives. what do these for particular characters, what do they have in common? together all of these women, who were involved in the civil war, it was the first time women took this sort of role publicly in war. there were revolutionary war spies. they did not talk about this. this was not something they boasted about. in the civil war it was the first time women made war their business and did so publicly. everyone was used to women as the victims of war. it was the first time in american history they stepped forward and said this is what i am doing and i am proud of it, and i'll do it a win -- do it again.
shoulders, union define the northern government, saying i am a rebel woman and i will fight to the death. the union government had no idea what to do with this. there was a great quote from a lincoln official. what are we going to do with these women spies? it was a conundrum that follow them throughout the war. it was the first time women made a stance like that. the great things about these characters, the research you have done, they are incredibly fleshed out. they are not perfect. karen: thank you. denise: they have flaws. a couple of them have despicable, difficult views to deal with. there is a lot of hate, a lot of sadness. them,oice is made to show to show all of them.
talk about why you decided to do that, why it was important to include all of those aspects of these characters? karen: they were products of their time. it is important to be as true to them as they were. racist andatrocious said vile things about african-americans. i try to understand what she was coming from. had a loving relationship with her own slaves as much as you can in that situation. rose did not have that same affinity for the women who had served her. it boiled down to the difficult upbringing she had and not only that but her background. roses father -- rose's father had been murdered
by his slave. that fueled her hatred and something that followed her and shape your life. denise: these women, all of them, you talked about them the first time in the history that they said this is our war, we are willing to fight. they were taking incredible risks in a way -- you could argue greater risks than men if only because they were doing something that was not expected at all from their gender in that time. how risky wasn't what they were doing? incredibly risky. rose used her daughter in her missions, something that was proved -- that proved how devoted she was to the cause. emma lived with the threat of being discovered. the risk of being discovered.
she would hear more stories about women soldiers being discovered. woman forgotne, a how to wear pants and started pulling them on over her head. there was a corporal in new jersey who gave birth while she was on duty. the jig was up there. >> bathtub birth. the idea of her getting caught and discovered as a woman , elizabeth was suffering death threats every day, white supremacist groups and confederate spying on her. they believe they were going to be hanged if they were strung up in the gallows. they wrote that on their diaries. i will be front of the gallows if anyone finds this.
denise: there was an element of the trail in a sense in what they were doing. betrayinge tryin everything that it was to be a soldier. anyone who operates as a spy can be viewed as someone who is betraying confidences. they did suffer consequences. this did not go smoothly. you talk about the consequences that they suffer? said earlierave the union government did not always know what to do with them. they were reluctant to make the rebel women into confederate martyrs. they thought that would exacerbate conditions and also cause complications from europe. the confederate government was interested in getting europe to recognize its legitimacy.
it added a whole other wrinkle. they didn't know what to do at the confederate women and where they may or have -- may have hanged them monday through them into prison. and rose had different experience of prison. rose definitely suffered in prison quite a bit and had a difficult time and came near death on a couple of occasions. denise: what was the style of treatment for rose versus belle? karen: rose went to prison and the union officials tortured her. they starved her. denise: she was well known. this was not an anonymous woman who was spying. karen: i should back up and discuss what made her
well-known. rose, after she formed her spy 1861, the first battle of the bull run in an enormous battle, everyone was predicting it would be the end of the war. they thought we are going to capture them and moved to richmond and the war is going to be over. the confederates had different plans. rose, after jumping into bed summoned aals 16-year-old courier to her home named betty duval. she sat her down and she has a cipher. she has a note and she ties up this note and rolls it up into betty's hair. she gives betty a dress and says i have so many dispatches in my air right now --
[laughter] pretend you are a simple farm girl. they won't even notice you. betty passes along, waves to the sentries and they say what a pretty girl. she goes to beauregard's headquarters, let's down her hair and produces this note. it contained important information for the first battle of the bull run. after this you can imagine detective allen pinkerton gets on rose, and she becomes public enemy number one for the union. denise: you mentioned pinkerton. you do have all of these other characters and elements from that moment in history that enter in. pinkerton is one. karen: pinkerton was a main one.
i was surprised by his involvement. someone who was contracted by the union army to do secret service work and has as big an evil -- big an ego as anyone. and pinkerton become so focused conducts a stakeout. there is a great scene where it is a torrential downpour and he goes out with his best detectives to rose's home. she always like to say her home was in distance of the white house. she called lincoln satan. he stands on his detective shoulders and look center window. he sees rose and a traitor captain sitting on a couch looking over maps. they start passionately making
out. pinkerton is enraged. he can't believe this traitor captain is giving these secrets to rose. that is bad. pinkerton goes after her right there. denise: the talking about the young woman who has the elaborate hair. one of my favorite things, all the different ways they hid the notes. favorite couple of the ones. karen: definitely the hair. they had elaborate hairdos conducive to the note. they also have kremlin. -- crinoline. they could smuggle things across the lines. if you don't know, it is this thing of six feet. you can imagine the things you
could attach to this. coffee, sabres, pencils. silk, boots. several pairs of boots at a time. belle boyd was the queen of smuggling. muskets andssing 14 200 sabers. it was all the doing of belle boyd. that was quite an enterprise. here you are, you are a pennsylvania girl living in atlanta who sees a jefferson davis bumper sticker. you end up in this world of the civil war. yourwas your view or experience with civil war history prior to working on this book? karen: absolutely nothing. i started from scratch. i appreciated that. i was not expecting to find anything.
i was quite pleased and find,ated by what i did especially by how the war change women's roles. rabbit hole of a research when you are doing this. i wasted a good bit of time finding you about how courtship rituals changed. denise: how did they change? war,: prior to the civil in the antebellum years it was a rigorous process for a marriage to happen. mate needed ave -- er introduction, denise: from a cousin perhaps. always a selling point. the letter of introduction, meeting the parents, a formal
process that would last for years before you could even consider be engaged. when the war broke out all of that change. so their parents had to loosen the rules. everyone was gone. the women had a newfound freedom. give them more likely heartbreak and real relationships. they went off to confederate camp. before they had the letters of introduction. now they had men they didn't even know, being serenaded and going to all these scandalous behaviors that would never happen before the war. southern women only admitted to flirting but quite a bit more happened, a lot of sexual intimacy. 60,000 widows were left after the war. they didn't have any expectations of getting married.
all the women said i don't care, maid.be an old you started with a blank slate with this book. how did your views about this moment in history of all as you went from interests, through writing? karen: one of the most startling aspects is an interesting and gratifying one, how women could -- you would think of women as the weaker sex. they exploited the idea of women being gentle and a slow, and not educated and genteel. a psychological disguise. it was something they could hide idead with regards to the woman were not capable of this sort of treasonous behavior.
there are some great scenes were detectives would approach women and accuse them and say you are in league with the enemy and the women's response immediately is how dare you accuse me of such behavior. it is the -- it is beneath the gentleman and an officer and i am a defenseless woman. they were anything but defenseless. they were able to exploit societies notions of the weaker sex denise:. denise:you have often written about these intrepid unsung women and their roles in history. you started out in journalism. did you always want to write about women? karen: i would say i fell into it. just turned 96. she always told me the dirtiest stories i know. she is the one who not only led
,e to a 19th-century brothel but met the most famous stripper of the 20th century. when you think of the word maverick you think of male characters, james dean, malcolm x., james garner. --ike to find women metrics mavericks. that is my -- [indiscernible] denise: how would you compare this to your former books? karen: they all have one theme. women whose lives i wish i lived. i'm jealous of all of them. the next best thing is to sit at my computer and dig into their psyches and type away until they start speaking to me. denise: when you are talking about the research and going down the rabbit hole, do you
find you have distinct phases to the process? now i am researching, now i'm going to write -- or do you have overlap and how you operate? was the process for this book different? karen: you probably agree with haveeing a journalist, i two research and write at the same time. i know plenty of authors who have to do the research first. i would research happily for 10 years and not write a word. that gets you in trouble with your editor. they don't like that. denise: that's how we function. karen: it is a function of journalism to write at the same time. you figure out what is important and what is vital to the story. you allow yourself to pull back and say that is interesting but
i can't spend four months on that. that is about that. denise: you do a great job of capturing their voices. what resources did you come across while you were in the rabbit hole? over for thisall one. the national archives have rose's correspondents. that's at the national archives. i was able to hold that in my hand. this confederate spy had held this, it was thrilling. the same thing with elizabeth. the new york public library. i found some of her death threats. please give me some of your blood to write with. how chilling that must have been for her. i was chilled by at how many years later. i spoke with one of her
descendents of her brother and he gave me information about her ring that had never been told or published before. i spent time at reenactments. which is always interesting. little bit about that. a question that would come up through abbott's book and curiosity it spawned in me, the cross-dressers in both genders were not unusual. did you ever encounter anyone at any of these reenactments who was a woman being a man or a man being a woman? karen: i did not but i read an article after i finish my research where women had to fight for the right to reenact as men. they were doing in the actual civil war. karen: there was a movement, it was not immediately accepted they could dress as men and fight as men.
they wanted them to play the traditional women roles and they were saying no, we want to be the women soldiers. there was a movement afoot for that to happen. that was pretty interesting. .nd the anachronisms i went to see the first battle of the bull run reenactment. there was a man with his 10-year-old son. the man said to him look, there is stonewall jackson by the power lines. [laughter] you've got to love that. denise: grab your iphone, take a picture. of course. karen: with your latte. the book is so compelling. it is such a great read. it reads like fiction.
let's talk about the f ford. fiction. is it something you considered? this is a huge part of what you have done for so long. is it something you think about? karen: for the next book may be. not this one. i have 50 pages of in notes and spent five years researching. -- i talk about my author's notes how the south mythologizing. it was important to point out instances in the narrative and the end notes. it is important what people embellish and what they leave out as what they actually did. i bet the sources as much as possible and leave in anecdotes that may blow up and explain why they embellish them. it's important to examine that. it says something about their
role in the work. it is part of their story. it is just as legitimate as the official records of the war of the rebellion. those memoirs are very small part of the large body of research i was lucky enough to have access to for a book like this. denise: it comes together so terrifically. we have time for some questions. does anybody have questions? >> i do. thenteresting thing about southern -- don't you think it is more of a comment -- the southern gothic, the women in southern gothic writing is so prevalent. that has to be a product of the
civil war as well. karen: i think that is probably true. the whole landscape changed after the war. the spies started moving to women's suffrage. it changed the landscape of how they view their roles. people took notice of that and that influenced everything including southern gothic literature. >> especially in the modernist movement. karen: an interesting point. >> can you tell me the process you came up with with the title? denise: it is a great title. karen: it was pretty torturous. saywriter friends would that is not the title. i think in the end we wanted
something that try to encapsulate all for women on something they all were. something that would be recognizable and play on a very manly moving. i thought it would be fun to tweak that a little bit and fuse ,t with a woman's perspective and say this is the women's side. >> was it you are the publisher who fleshed out the title? karen: it was a collaborative process. i sent many e-mails. he ignored them rightfully. i was trying desperately to come up with quotes from hawthorne who covered the war quite extensively. i thought they were great snippets. no. were just like no, that is not working. finally we came up with this.
we all kind of clicked. >> i have a reading request. can you read us the description you did of stonewall jackson. page 138. [laughter] karen: on 138. denise: we have a request for the description of stonewall jackson. i will remind people this is belle's imagined love. i don't think his feet were as pretty as hers. ok. stumble jackson had just turned 38 years old and looked more scarecrow than human, eerily bright blue eyes and a mangy brown mass of beard.
uniform, a single breasted coat left over from his , andce in the mexican war oversized pair of boots for his size 14 feet. stood 15 handsy, high. jackson wrote him with his feet held up. he spoke to sell and almost never laugh. when he did he toss back his head, let his mouth gape open and made no sound one soever -- whatsoever. once he asked to catch a glimpse exclaimed ohl he my god, let me down. jackson was as idiosyncratic as he was brilliant. this took earlier hypochondria became a skill on the battlefield.
he thought of himself as being out of balance and would stop to raise one arm waiting for the blood to rush down his body and establish it will librium. pepper, a to make partial deafness made it difficult for him to detect distant artillery fire. convince everyone of his organs was malfunctioning to some extent he self medicated with a variety of concoctions. glycerin and so overnight rate, ammonium preparations. twice a day jackson slipped away from camp and found a secluded field. hour, handsr an , asped, mouth forming noises ritual that may have had something to do with the fear he was possessed. he was reluctant to read a letter from his wife whom he called my little dove on sundays. profanity, alcohol
and mingling with the campfires. considered himself an admirer of true womanhood and would never pass a lady of high or low degree without tipping his cap. he was unfazed by the prospect of murder or death. he would have had a man shot at the drop of a hat. and he would drop him himself. squad on aa firing man for assaulting a man of a higher rank. during one battle he inquired sharply about a missing career and was told the young men had been killed. very commendable, mary -- veryble he commendable he muttered, and put the matter out of his mind. as i said, that is my boyfriend. denise: it's interesting how
these myths about these individuals built up in that particular time in history. what role did the media play in this war? and revolutionary times when the battle was going on about taking on the u.s. constitution newspapers were very opinionated. no one pretended to try and be objective. what role did the newspapers play in the development of the legend of someone like stonewall jackson? first duty was to convince everybody they were the ones winning. they put out propaganda their side was winning. every battle had different numbers. that was the first and foremost thing they wanted people to think. then they would move into personalities.
belle boyd got a lot of press. in the south she was a hero. in a compth she was was prostitute. girl,s a 17-year-old somebody wandering through the camp. we have no idea why they let her wonder through the camps doing a lot of damage. people would read these reports and she was still wonder through the camps. one of the greatest pieces of was great, there stuff about the barbarism of the confederates. how brutal they were. the reports about people, women wearing jewelry made of yankee bonds. necklaces made of yankee teeth. the confederates were very angry. they had been starved of
supplies. thats sort of the idea these people were so brutal. there is truth to some of it. wearingre some women yankee jewelry but it was exaggerated mostly. each side plate for the best effect. and they were also in mind of what europe was thinking. that was was in the back of their minds. any other we have questions? no? >> of the memoirs did you read, which had the most influence on you? i don't know about influence. i found them -- that had the most impact in one
way or another. karen: rose wrote a memoir when she went to europe lobbying for the confederacy. she wrote quite a bit about her journey meeting dignitaries and royalty. you can imagine this woman who had never before been to year up , lobbying on behalf of her country as a last gasp effort. she was the last hope. it was interesting to read about her frustration. at some point everything was stupid. she wrote my meeting with napoleon with stupid. this party was stupid. the women were fat and ugly. i stood next to them as long as possible so everyone could compare they were fat and ugly compared to me. here is this dignified woman who presented a regal picture and was always business and serious,
and she was clearly falling apart. -- its somebody who was was everything to her. it was falling through her hands. itread her words about boiling down to this is stupid made it universal. everybody has that thought that this is stupid. it was interesting to find that was her last commentary on that. her.e: it meant so much to one of the great things is it does come across how much this conflict meant in different ways to each one of these characters. thank you for being with us. [applause] >> on history bookshelf, here from the country's best-known american history writers of the past decade every saturday at 4:00 eastern. watch our programs at any time
when you visit our website, c-span.org/history. you're watching american history tv. >> this week the c-span cities to her takes you to long beach, california to explore the literary culture of the city located south of los angeles. learn about women's contributions to the world war ii effort from jerry ships key. >> when the u.s. army was looking for a place to build a plant to produce aircraft, they picked long beach because just ups away we have a wonderful airport founded in 1923. one of the first airports that had a takeoff and landing in different directions which the army loved.
what happened is douglas went into full production mode and was turning out planes 24/7. they needed a lot of people to work here. the women for the first time were brought out of the house into the workforce. douglas was employing 45,000 people a day. women.those people per >> we visit the port of long beach and discover the importance of the nation's second-biggest container port. in 1911. established we are 104 years old. through that time this port started on a wooden wharf and was a lumbar terminal that used to, from the northwest for the growing city of long beach in the region.
1940, we have been able station. it was our naval complex. they were here enter the early 1990's. the base closure process, the enable conflict shutdown that we were able to do. we took a federal facility and turned it into one of our modern container terminals. where we are today, 104 years later, the most modern sustainable marine terminal in the world. >> watch the c-span cities to r on c-span3. , workingn cities tour with our affiliates across the country. , on theweekend
presidency, david ward chronicles abraham lincoln's life through photographs and portraits. here is a preview. is the famous crack a lincoln. at some point when he heeded the plate to pull the image, you had to heat the chemical mixture it cracked. the myth was it was dropped. these are incredibly fragile items. there are only two surviving pictures. gardner looked at this and said that's not any good and throw away the plate. there is only one cracked plate image. it is not in very good condition. that in the have show.
this is a single moment. what we are looking at is lincoln in february 1865. he still has to win it. he is thinking about the inauguration, the speech. he is thinking about reconstruction. he is looking forward to the in. he can see that in that photograph. some people disagree with me about this. if you notice the shoulders are out of focus. the left eye doesn't have the usual crispness and clarity. he seems to be disappearing into itself. read if you are metaphorical the crack as
booth's bullet. lincolnre seeing here, is looking forward to the future . and we know he is going to die. >> you can watch "the presidency" here on american history tv on c-span3. tv,ext on american history author and ethnic studies professor david montejano talks about the research that inspired his dissertation and bulk chronicling -- and book chronicling texas jakarta history. the professor discusses the relationship between anglo-americans and mexican americans. and accident -- texas representative's does improvement of the she can't a movement.