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tv   American History TV in Long Beach CA  CSPAN  April 3, 2016 2:13pm-3:31pm EDT

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really reducing the impacts of port operations from air quality. because of the nature of what we do here in the port, there is a lot of mobile sources. there is a lot of combustion that comes with those mobile sources. vessels have large engines. at one point, they were burning dirty bunker fuel that was very black and had a lot of toxins in it. we have been very successful in coming up with strategies and programs to reduce the overall emissions from those sources. where we are seeing right now today, we are on the long beach container terminal. we call it our middle harbor project. when it opens up, the phase one portion of it, where we are standing right now, will be opening up in the middle of april and may for full operation. it will be the most modern and
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cleanest marine container terminal in the world. theything from the time vessel reaches the birth to when cargo leaves the gate, whether by truck or train, everything within the fence line is fully electrified. there are no emissions. one of the amazing things of this operation, when we come to the type of systems that are being placed here for moving cargo around within the terminal, loading and unloading, is called an automated guided vehicle. it is completely 100 percent zero emissions. it is electric. everything from the stacking cranes to the short cranes, they are among the most modern and most efficient when it comes to moving cargo. that is an important thing not only for the environment, but also for where our industry has to be for efficiencies in moving cargo. this terminally -- this terminal will really be state-of-the-art. we are focused on this most
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modern terminal. when it goes live, there are a lot of people looking because there are a lot of people who are also thinking about doing similar types of renovations and coming up with new types of operations on their marine terminals as well. we are a port town. we are proud of that. our city is proud of the port. over the years, we may -- we maybe had some bumps in the road , not listening to our community, not thinking about the integration between the art and our city. -- our port and our city. but that will make us even more successful in the future. announcer: all we can come american history tv is featuring long beach, california. the hit -- the city was officially named in 1888 after
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the length of its beaches. c-span cities to her staff recently visited many sites, showcasing the city's rich history. learn more about long beach all weekend here on american history tv. >> we are currently standing in the south gallery of the circle society of long beach. on the table in front of me are teachers, photos of one iconic event in long beach history. that is the discovery of oil in 1921, and these pictures demonstrate how that change the nature of the community over the next 40 or 50 years and helped to produce what the modern city launches today. we are currently getting rights to open an exhibition about oil and long beach and the area called "black gold." and we hope to be able to educate citizens in long beach and schoolchildren and any
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visitors about how important oil was in the development of the city and the region in the 20th century. knewe in the oil industry there would be oil everywhere along the southern california coastal area because oil had been discovered in the central valley of california earlier. angeles.lls above los and alsoople came basically downtown los angeles, they discovered oil in the 1890's. so people who had done that took one look at the long beach area, the huntington beach area, and they knew there was oil here. as early as 1930, 1914, people began to look at possibilities of oil. the problem is that it was really deep and drilling technology did not allow them to go that deep until after world war i. in 1918, 1919, image of things happened for bringing all of
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this together. to thatma canal opened is significant because now you could put products like oil on ships and send them through the panama canal to eastern cities. decided navy stationed to station elements on the west coast. long beach got the bulk of that. other ports were in san diego and san francisco. but san pedro bay, wilmington in the city of long beach also got a huge containment of navy ships and that meant a need for fuel and oil and repair facilities and so on and so forth. so the navy comes to our area. world war i created a sense of the u.s. becoming a global nation and being interested in global affairs. in 1921,is discovered all of these things come together. this is signal hill. this will show you how oil was major overnight becomes a
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ingredient in the development and the growth of the city of long beach. this will get us on our way. the interesting thing about the signal hill strike is that, before this happened, signal hill was basically an agricultural community. a small community of just a few hundred people. many were japanese-american farmers who leased land from the big ranch companies and grew cucumbers and cut flowers. when oil came, this people were overwhelmed. they lost everything. imagine,n well protection of environmental regulations were extremely lax if they existed at all at this time period. big oil companies would come. small islands -- oil companies are conquered they would open a well and take as much oil as a cool -- they could out of the area and very little concerned about environmental issues. waste oil would run down the streets of signal hill into long beach.
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this is why one of the people who live there decided that she people's losses taken care of by the big oil companies. she fought for years to get the big oil companies to pay reparations to land that was lost and props our loss. eventually, she prevailed and she got the oil companies to pony up about half $1 million, about $500,000 to deal with the losses that had been suffered. although signal hill is very important for the next 25 years, a 1936, oil would be discovered in long beach harbor. this is the famous wilmington field, which would produce even more millions of barrels of oil. oil companies are come to the 85% and offer the city royalties. that would allow the city to become from a small beside community to dating the streets
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in creating a water line and a fire department and police department and develop into a modern city that it was for the 1920's in the 1930's. long beach took so much revenue from the early oil production in the 1920's in the 1930's that, at one point, the city council was thinking about canceling city taxes because we had so much oil revenue. this may be apocryphal, i don't know, but there is a boast that long beach was the richest little city in the world. this did not sit well with other cities in california or the state of california or the which sawvernment, these oil revenues as properly belonging to them. so a big fight would break out after world war ii, 1946, 1940 seven, which the state of california would demand a larger share of the oil revenues. the federal government would try
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to restrict the ability of the state and the city to control offshore oil drilling. it would lead to major fights that would go on for years. the end result is that of the golden age of oil revenue comes to an end pretty rapidly. by 1959, long beach has given up most of its oil revenues to the state of california. all of this early oil production, oil extraction being so wasteful and so environmentally destructive, of course, it's going to have to give way in the 1950's and 1960's to more safe and more productive and more efficient oil production. in 1966, the city of long beach will -- and the oil companies will begin to construct artificial islands. this will allow oil extraction directly from the harbor from the wilmington field. this is one answer to that issue of how to make oil extraction less environmentally destructive . although there are problems also with the oil islands as well.
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you drive around southern california, drive around long beach, round signal hill comedians elsie the remnants of around signal hill, you can still see the remnants of oil production. you don't see this anymore. these are the old days. now we see modern oil facilities , verylectronic pumps quietly, very efficiently producing oil and wells around signal hill and long beach. in the same way that the gold ,ush made northern california and oil is important in places like texas and oklahoma, oil was here in southern california, especially in places like huntington beach, long beach in the central valley. all week and come american history tv is featuring long beach, california, located about 20 miles south of los angeles. c-span cities tour staff
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recently visited the side, showcasing the city's history. >> rancho los alamitos is one of the rare sites in southern california that has a continuous history of more than 1500 years of occupancy. if you follow the chain of occupancy, you are really looking at the development of southern california. the site is particularly important to the -- people because the gods ascended from heaven and gave the loss to the people and was given -- and went back to heaven. the design on the floor is to give you an idea of the native american territory and the
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territory given under spanish niet many ofo. the. people who receive the land under spanish rule were former soldiers who had been on expeditions exploring southern california. that was meant -- that was true nieto there was the first grantee here. when he died, the land was split among his children. performance if iran shows, each of which is about 20,000 acres. each rancho is about 20,000 acres. in a ranchoanding los alamitos adobe ranch house. we are in the court of the ranch house right now, which is where
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the adobe is. the walls surrounding us right now are adobe walls. manuelbe was built one owned the ranch house. he was the first grantee. he built the ranch house as an outpost of his huge acreage. it wasn't owner occupied at the time manuel nieto belted. it was decibel it. manuel ned to house -- ieto built it. used to house caballeros. from the first spanish grantee's two owners during the mexican kb the end the american period and everyone who live here added to it. so the original adobe is
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completely encased in additions. additions in this direction where the bedrooms are, the main part of this bedroom is in the adobe. but the little sun room out there was an addition from about 1909. over here, we have the library also inside part of the original adobe. but the room beyond it, the music room is outside of the adobe. it is a rather organic structure that just grew over the last 200 years to see to the families and cultures that were living inside it. right now, we are in the music room of the ranch house. this is a room that is outside of the adobe core. it was added to the house by john and susan bixby when they lived here at the ranch in the 1870's and 1880's. john and susan bixby where the first bixby's to ranch here at
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rancho lasala. the bixby family was a very large family, originally from new england, from maine. and they came out here right after the gold rush with cousins, the flints, and they started out selling things to the minors, which most successful bid at the gold rush. they had a butcher shop. but then they started buying up some of the ranches in some of the land that was here in california after california became part of the united states. they started in central california, but he ended up down here in southern california. first, they purchased a ranch here in long beach called fragilis reaches -- called cerritos.
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bought it with partners. .e lived there with his wife and he invited other of his bixby relatives to come out here and help them on the ranch as well as some of his wife's relatives. one of the cousins who came out to help john bixby with his ranch was john bixby, young men from maine. he had been a schoolteacher, a cabinet maker, a varied background. but he was very young when he arrived in california. when he was on the raise, he was learning how to become a rancher. susan hathaway and married susan hathaway. rancho los alamitos, the adjoining ranch became available for sale, john and susan purchased it through partners. they began leasing the ranch they purchasednd
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it with their partners in 1881. john and susan bixby had two children, a son and a daughter. from inheriting the ranch their parents, susanna and fred tried operating the ranch together. it did not work out so well, so they divided the property between them. did not work out so well so they divided the property between them and fred bixby inherited the ranch house in the central part of rancho los alamitos and he continued to ranch here. he did not continue any sheep operation. fred bixby acquired other ranches throughout california and arizona and mostly was engaged in cattle ranching. he also had a soft spot for horses. he kept his stallions at this
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ranch and he kept the mares at the coast. he had quite a horse breeding operation going on. we have two shire horses on the ranch today. only 75 acres left. at the time he passed away, he had the largest shire horse breeding operation west of the mississippi. there were not any buyers of horses after he died. the last bixby to live here at the ranch was fred bixby's wife and she passed away in 1961. their children, they had four children, got together and
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talked about it and they decided that they should become an historic site available to all of the people of california. even susan bixby had the sense of the history of this place and even when she was making repairs and additions, it was with the history of the place in mind. even 100 years before it was given to the city of long beach, there was a sense of the history of the place. the final donation was made in 1968 and the family donated 7.5 acres to the city and all the buildings, the contents of those buildings, 95% of the furnishings that you see inside the ranch house our original to the family. this is the way they lived and this is the way it looked while they were here.
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some of the barns were just a little bit outside the limits of the seventh and five acres. except for the first barn, all of the barns were moved in just a little bit closer. we completed a restoration in 2014 to align the barns in a more gridlike pattern. the bixby's did make a lot of changes to the grounds. they had gardens here, but back then, you have to hand water everything. you are careful about what you chose to grow here and how much labor it was going to take. you also had animals here. john and susan bixby put in the
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first extensive gardens and the gardens just off of this room, called the old garden, were installed by john and susan bixby. when fred and florence took over, florence began slowly expanding the gardens. one of the things that happened here in long beach in the early 1920's, was the discovery of oil. because the bixby's were very large landowners, a lot of the oil was under their land. this gave them a lot more income
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to play with than just the ranch would provide. florence bixby was able to hire some of the premier landscape architects, including the olmsted brothers. we have four acres of beautiful landscaped gardens. >> there are many levels, you get some relief from being in an environment. you can come and just be in the gardens and not do anything beyond that. you can decide just to take a house tour. we tried to keep it as unstructured and interesting as we can so people can take what they want.
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>> always long, american history tv is joining our communications cable partners to showcase a his three of long beach, california. to learn more about the cities on our current tour, visit we continue with our look at the history of long beach. >> transatlantic crossings during the golding age -- golden vip sales, it-- was almost a rite of passage for your legacy as an individual. the queen mary. it started construction in 1930.
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the hall stopped, and working with the british government, .ork began it was very important to get these people back to work. in 1936.was completed over a combined total of 3500 people, combined guest as well as crew members. it took just shy of five full days. she was wonderfully welcomed in new york harbor when she arrived. travels inships crossing, the area was basically meant to be an entertainment where you can hear
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live music and socialize with fellow passengers. in the evening hours, the stage would light up and it would either be movies projected on-screen or entertainment with live music and live dancing. was wooden floor and they would roll the carpets at night for dancing and entertainment. there are many built in original features in the room that remains. probably one of the most notable features of the first-class main lounge, now the queen salon, is the artwork behind me, that depicts to unicorns playing in battle. that is the name of the piece. unicorns in battle. it is said that when the horns met, on the unicorns, you would hear music. because this room was basically
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built around the notion of entertainment and music, it was an appropriate art installation for this room. we are located now in the original first-class dining room. now called the grand salon aboard rms queen mary. the first-class dining room was where first class passengers would meet to have their meals, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. occasionally, some entertainment, as well. it is a beautiful --, a lot of decorative release that indicates transportation at sea. we have a beautiful, huge chart that navigated rms queen mary and the queen elizabeth as they crossed the atlantic. passengers could actually look up and see the ships movement. throughout the crossing during their meals. in 1939, world war ii or the war was a clear, and there was an agreement between kinnard and the allies that the queen mary and the queen elizabeth would be taken and converted into trip carriers, both of their capacity and their speed allowed both
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ships to be wonderful trip carriers. once in church that due to the a buddy queen mary's capacity, and great speed, the ship actually helped win world war ii. for the allies. there was a conversion process that took place beginning in 1940. in your carpet. it lasted for well over a year. to react at the queen mary and to a true carrier including adding antiaircraft guns and other navigational technologies to help protect the queen mary when she was at sea. she was an impressive force. eight f hitler put a bounty of $200,000 on the queen mary for any summary captain to destroy the queen mary. she was very fortunate and many good skill captains navigated
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the ship. at one point in time, the queen mary carried over 16,800 troops. that capacity again, with great speed, i love the queen mary to serve during world war ii and a wonderful way in making sure that the troops are properly moves between the war efforts. in 1945, the war was declared over, and the queen mary began to repatriate, the war brides and the children back to the various continents and america. during the war brides back to their families, or their in-laws into the united states. once that was completed, the queen mary went back to very evident back to a cruise ship. an ocean liner. in that effort, she is modernized in 1947, actually beating sailing again as a cruise line.
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transit letter crossing cruise liner. in the late 1950's, as air travel became a popular, things to the jet engine, cruising across in the atlantic by ship, ocean liner was not that popular or affordable. it was quicker to go by air to transatlantic jet traffic. it was less expensive. so, the crossings became light in terms of population. that enjoyed selling across in the queen mary and other transatlantic ships. by 1964, 1955, canard was looking to sell the queen mary. the city of long beach was very interested in developing its war complex to make it entertainment and tourism destination venue. they believe the queen mary would serve as a wonderful host, as an intimate venue, as a historic venue. as a hospitality venue. 1957, the city of long beach purchased the queen mary for just under $3.5 million. she arrived in the city of long beach on december 10, 1967. >> the queen mary approaches her final resting place at long beach. on board, there will party of 1200 passengers. overhead, a giant jet is insular, a symbol of the future and saying goodbye to the past.
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john: if you think about it, in 1971, when the queen mary reopened, to a great visitor crowd, she basically continues to do today what she was meant to do in the 1930's, bring people from all over the world to a one-of-a-kind asset, where you can make lifetime memories and hopefully lifetime friends. these wonderful legendary moments you can ever wear the queen mary and showed your family and friends. >> all we can come american history tv is featuring long beach, california, one of the largest oilfields of the united states. .e recently visited many sites you learn more all weekend american history tv.
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>> long beach has always been proud of its aviation history. the first united states -- was held here. it was just amazing. a lot of people works -- were inspired to become aviators. they cut aviation fever. it as the goal to make important as detroit was to the auto world. the first airfield opened in 1920. of the first municipal airports in the united states and one of the people there was amelia ehrhardt. towas where she was inspired
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learn how to fly. oldwas about 20 three years then and decided that she would get a job as a telephone operator. earned money enough to learn how to fly and learn from one long , and it was frank who took her up on her first air flight. 1921, the land became too valuable so they moved the airport here to its present location. in one of the 10 most beautiful airports in the world according to the bbc, the long beach the miscible in long beach, california. the airport terminal was built following the douglas aircraft moving in next door. knew there would be a lot of important dignitaries and other people from other countries flying into the long
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beach airport to visit separate facilities. aey wanted to have state-of-the-art, beautiful facility. in 1940, she decided to buy land adjacent to the long beach airport to the month canada company. this was when world war ii was still going on and he decided it would be wise to make it a state-of-the-art facility. it was the first for a plan in enemy aircraftes could not find it. thereld transport parts were 170,000 people working here at one time or another during the war.
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$113 million. started to become more of a military field with world war ii. aviation craft, aircraft throughout the entire world for world war ii. they were called lost. chargedball drop was in and they knew they were needed. she was going to fly them overseas. ended,he war in europe sort of told we don't need you anymore because pilots were coming from europe and could've
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been used here. to stay here free of charge with her women to continue flying, but her offer was not accepted. >> our cities tour staff recently traveled to long beach, california, to learn about history. learn more, at tour. watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend, on c-span three. >> media teaches us democrats and republicans are supposed to be at odds with each other. need to recognize we need to be respectful toward thatother and understand senators are respectful toward >> the students met
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with members of the legislative branches of government, plus military and media representatives. came to talk to us. i like the insight about the item -- the outside source, reporting back to us and the electorate about what is going on in the government. ruth bader ginsburg was the most inspirational person we met this week. she has been one of our idols for a long time.
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be in the legal profession or possibly a senator. >> i understand the need for bipartisanship at times but i also think it is important politicians go to the state capitals with and i on the goal and they are determined to meet the goal instead of sacrificing it in light of money or by partnership -- bipartisanship or whatever it is. to get back to theecting all americans matter their background. >> tonight, 8:00 eastern, c-span's q&a. week, american history tv's archivalica brings you films that help provide context to today's public affairs issues. applied to is also many of the toughest and least desirable farm jobs. herexample, no stooping
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more difficult than other groups. all farm jobs, which are tough, dirty, and unpleasant, are generally referred to as labor. these are the only areas in which american farm laborers supply falls short and is supplemented by mexican citizens. it so happens that they form if -- fraction >> with americans on relief row, why bring in foreigners to work on our farms? it makes no sense. >> it makes sense to the farmer,
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though. they work for lower pay. >> doesn't a former realize he is kind of american labor? could be done our living standards? >> what is in somebody do something about it? >> inshore -- >> in short, the big question in many minds is why braceros? the question is so widespread that we consider it a public service to tell the why and how of braceros. many crops call for us to blaber especially at harvest when demand for labor it's at its peak. it is not easy to find people willing to take on such undesirable work so the farmer must begin precluding his seasonal labor force long before his labor needs reach a critical
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point. once he has estimated the number of men needed, he coasted to potential sources. one of them is the form placement service, that combines federal and state agencies with been looking for american farmers who have worked to be done. weeks before the season, the groom registers the jobs he has to offer, the types of work, the pay rates. this agency does an excellent recruiting job. workers able than willing to do business labor are always in short supply. he goes to a second source. a private labor recruiting association, an organized effort to recruit the labor force of their own. weeks in advance, he notifies the association of his needs. the farmer knows that if the domestic supply is short, the association can, if authorized, supply braceros to compensate for the shortage. why is this so critical? if labor is not on hand when the crop is ready, the crop in the farmer's investment is lost.
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which is why days before the harvest date, he revisits the form placement service to see whether enough domestic labor is available to meet needs. even if this agency doesn't have enough, the farmer is not authorized to import braceros until he proves that the farmers on recruiting service has utilized all seasonal domestic labor available. federal law says that the farmer can bring in only the number of braceros required to fill the gap. with the domestic supplier farm labor being inadequate, braceros are a must but some people say -- >> make up a high enough and he will pull in other domestic labor you need. >> farm wages have gone up steadily for many years and we still do not have enough seasonal domestic labor willing to do this kind of work. conclusion: unless we have braceros to fill the gaps, stoop labor crops will be forced that of american agriculture. consequences? much of our food processing industries output would be replaced by imports. these jobs now held by americans would be taken by workers in other lands in our plants and
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equipmt will be slow down or shut down. jobs and investment in the transportation industry would feel the love. ♪ >> visit our website, you can see the upcoming schedule or watch a recent program. lectures in history and more. >> every election cycle will remind us how important it is for citizens to be smart. is a vehicle for
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empowering people to make good choices. it is really like you're getting a seven course, gourmet five-star meal. i some again nerd right there but it is true. likes c-span is a home for track as itnkies to happens whether on capitol hill or the agencies. have a television on a desk and c-span is on p a great way for us to stay informed. quite the urge my colleagues to vote for this amendment. when i go back today, they will say i saw you on c-span. like thenga something history of elevators in pennsylvania, or landmark supreme court decisions. >> there is so much more that c-span does in terms of its programming to make sure that people outside the beltway know what is going on inside it.
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i announce my candidacy. >> i am officially running -- >> for president of the united states. >> a reporter who covers politics. so many of my stories, c-span has been part of the research, providing me with quotes and insights about people. nichese are so many within the political blogger sphere. all of those policy areas get covered. >> how many nuclear warheads does russia have aimed at the >> is the place i can go that lets me do the thinking and do the decision-making. >> house meetings and senate meetings, that stuff. >> foam eyes are open. start dialing in. >> it is great. you never know what you will get . >> you are right i am from down south. i'm your mother.
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families areat all like ours. i do not know many families fighting at thanksgiving. >> welcome to live coverage of the 37th annual book coverage. >> becomes book tv. >> it has been a wonderful way to access the work of the folks who are writing really great books. >> every weekend, c-span3 becomes american history tv. >> if you are a history junkie, you have got to watch. talking aboutare a congressional hearing, or we are talking about an era in history, there is so much information that you can convey, if you have got that kind of programming. >> whether it is at the capital or on the campaign trail, they have a camera and they are capturing history as it happens. inside the chambers, inside the conversations on capitol hill, they let you have a seat at the table. you cannot find that anywhere
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else. >> i am a c-span 10 -- fan. >> i am a c-span -- c-span fan. >> that is the power of c-span for everyone to have a part of the conversation. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> during campaign 2016, c-span takes you on the road to the white house. we follow the candidates on c-span, c-span radio, and >> each week leading up to the 2016 presidential election, american history tv brings the archival coverage of residential races. next, a 1980 republican debate before ron -- between ronald reagan and former cia director
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george h.w. bush. it took place in houston 10 days before the texas primary. governor reagan went on to win the primary with 53% of the vote on his way to secure his party's nomination. he then takes mr. bush as his goping mate at the convention that summer. the reagan-bush ticket 144 states in the 1980 general election, defeating incumbent jimmy carter and walter mondale. our coverage of the hour-long debate is courtesy of the league of women voters, at the reagan presidential library and museum. howard: good evening. i'm the national president of the league of women voters. welcome to the houston forum, the third event in our 1980 presidential forum series. this series is part of a very important league tradition providing the public with nonpartisan election information about issues and candidates.
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tonight i am particularly pleased to be evil to tell you the league of women voters is going to continue on with that tradition. we announced we are going to sponsor the 1980 presidential debate. a series of debates that will be held next september and october. the enthusiastic response of the public to the 1976 debate and to our current series provides evidence of the fact that americans will expect candidates to participate in face-to-face debates next fall. now, on with tonight's event and our moderator, the distinguished howard k smith. >> thank you. good evening.
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we are pleased tonight to have two candidates for the republican nomination for the presidency of the united states. former ambassador george bush of texas, former governor ronald reagan of california. before we begin in response to the league of women voters, they will sponsor the presidential debates after the convention as it did four years ago in 1976. if nominated by your party would you agree to participate? mr. bush: i'd love to debate in
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the rose garden. yes, i would. mr. reagan: i can't wait. >> thank you. as you both have agreed there be no time limits to what you have to say. you will have an open discussion. i will reserve the chairman's privilege of asking a question if i want to change the subject. towards the end we will accept questions from the audience. after that there will be brief closing statements. ambassador bush, everyone including your opponent has congratulated you on your victory in pennsylvania yesterday. in the course of the program face the nation sunday you said you hoped to win because you had adopted the strategy of hammering away at the differences between you and mr. reagan. one difference you mentioned was you said in your words, mr. reagan was overpromising the american people. could you explain that? mr. bush: it was meet the press. secondly. i made the point what we must do is defeat jimmy carter. i got that into focus.
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i want to get these differences out with the governor so the voters can make a good determination. i hope that is what has happened in pennsylvania. a big difference the governor and i have is in regard to tax cut. he feelshe feels, i don't want to put words in his mouth, you
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can cut taxes by $70 billion the first year. and gift taxes. we have computed that at $5.4 .we have computed that at $5.4 billion. and balance the budget and increase. resident kennedy suggested the cots were implemented by johnson. it was $11.4 million. it resulted in a $4.4 billion revenue loss. inflation was 1.8%. today it is 18. investor confidence was out there. now there is none. that economic program would exacerbate the deficit. it would result in less stimulation of the economy
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because of the conditions. and i believe before we can have massive across-the-board tax cut's we have to have the budget in balance. i am proposing a supply-side tax cut to stimulate savings for homes and businesses. mr. reagan: that is indeed a major difference. i still believe firmly and think there is some difference of opinion about figures. four times in this century we have had across-the-board tax cut's. the government even in the first year got increased revenue, not less. the total revenue for government and of course government was smaller than. $109 million. according to the figure than the federal government got $1.1 billion additional revenue in the income tax. let me point something out. george mentioned the difference. under jimmy carter the tax burden of the gross national product has reached the highest level in the history of our nation.
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under the revised budget the total federal taxes are projected at $628 billion. of that, 200 one of would be individual income tax. 115 percent increase in the tax since he took office. over the next 10 years, if things are changed it is estimated the total tax increase on the people of america will be one and a half trillion dollars. rather than the bill i support, the idea of a 10% cut across the board administered over a three-year time. , i believe it will stimulate the economy, create jobs, and not reduce federal income. it will only reduce the increase in taxes. we are going to be faced with an
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increase in taxes that is beyond our comprehension right now. if we figure that cut, you would reduce the first year less than 5%, perhaps 4% of the total tax revenues the government is going to beginning. history has proven i believe it will sting like the economy, more people will be working and it will be contrary to the policy of fighting inflation adding to the unemployment lows. i support and stand by the idea of incentive taxes that will provide incentive to increase productivity so we can compete in the international market which we can't do on even terms today. mr. bush: the difference we have is kennedy tax cut implemented
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by lyndon johnson resulted in a $4.4 billion deficit. investor confidence was high, not low. that tax cut applied today in the same percentages, same numbers would result in an inflation rate of 30, 30 2%. i could not agree more about the percent of our gross national product but i believe the first thing we must do is get in balance, not the way jimmy carter proposed it, get and balance by the reduction of expenditures, by a $20 billion supply-side tax cut, and then reduce rates. if we risk with investor confidence where it is a deficit that is going to be already 37 billion. i am afraid we can't break inflation. mr. reagan: i believe in reducing the cost of government more than the decrease than mr. carter has proposed. that is less than the federal
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government is going to get in a single year -- that amounts to more than $20 billion. if we get that and balance and then do what i say, that is the key thing. your plan would risk exacerbating the deficit. today our creditors abroad, our economy is linked to foreign economy. they see us living at deficit after deficit. it is like the kennedy tax cut. there wasn't a surplus. there was a deficit. the economist the proposed it, he says i don't know whether it would work. i don't believe we can take that risk. howard: how much risk is there in going along with what we have been doing? mr. bush: i propose something very different than what we have been going along.
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howard: i heard that we can't possibly reduce taxes, this is washington's cry until we reduce government spending. government does not tax to get the money it needs, government always needs the money it gets. your son can be extravagant with his allowance and you can lecture him about saving money and nothing extravagant or you can solve the problem i cutting his allowance. [applause] mr. bush: the program i am putting forward cut's the allowance. cats on the spending. it doesn't risk of this promise everybody everything. cut taxes $210 billion and you favor increasing and you cut inheritance and gift taxes, and i believe your point and up with a figure deficit. that is where we differ. my whole program is based on getting tax is. i'm not going to do in a way that will make that deficit.
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mr. reagan: one last point we haven't touched on. we are talking as if those dollars that are saved in taxes are not going to have any effect on the people's pockets used out there in society. it has been proven there is a greater multiplier affect and creation of prosperity in people -- money spent by the people and invested by the people then when it is spent by government. we have got to recognize that money isn't buried in a tin can. it is going to be used to buy things. when we buy things productivity. we have the highest percentage today of industrial plant and equipment of any of the industrial nations in the world. we cannot compete evenly with them because they don't have the capital investment.
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mr. bush: you are going to simulate production. howard: i don't want to keep you from a grain. a question i have to ask -- many observers have said many of the arguments all flawed. you spoke of the kennedy tax cut when it was 18%. >> that was the first year. it was a two-year tax cut. howard: you have spoken of a tax cut, a waste in government. you said it cost three dollars to provide one dollars worth of benefit. and they said it cost $.12. mr. reagan: i would not believe them if they were here in the room. [applause] howard: there were several other
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facts like that you disputed. mr. reagan: the upi, and don landrieu has come out with a story that has to do with one set of figures that how many employees the carter administration added. one of the networks went on the air and they had gone to a fellow in government to ask him and he said there were only 6000 added in all these three years. he goes on to say why don't my figures might not have been fairly accurate at this time, i appear to be closer to the mark.
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in the last three years the total number has grown by 63,282. but then, he went on to point out there are 145,000 that work for it the department of a gw. hew is paying the salaries of one million additional workers who governments and other organizations -- federal revenue pays the salaries of 77,000 state workers in the u.s. employment and unemployment offices. all of these workers are excluded from the governments employee records. no official count has ever been taken. when this is added to the civilian and military employees, we see as many as 14 million people are working for the government. at least one u.s. worker out of 806 job to washington. thus reagan's increase is possible and may understate the 77,000 state workers in the u.s. employment and unemployment offices. all of these workers are excluded from the governments employee records. no official count has ever been taken.
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when this is added to the civilian and military employees, we see as many as 14 million people are working for the government. at least one u.s. worker out of 806 job to washington. thus reagan's increase is possible and may understate the rise in federal government. howard: you covered that plane. [applause] >> the figures were wrong, but it is the things i have studied and researched on that. i attributed them to the wrong report. it gave the u.s. geological
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survey the responsibility to use those figures. they checked simply with them who said they were not in the report. i found that is all i had done in that particular one. i have been waiting for an opportunity to do this. i have confidence in the facts and figures i use. howard: benefits. mr. reagan: this appeared in an account by an economist. not having any chance to check with the economist i took the figure used for redistribution of income outside of social security to people below poverty level and the figure of those below the poverty level and divided it into the total figure and it came out if the people below poverty were getting all of the money in that budget, a family of four would be receiving $27,000 a year, four
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times as much as they are receiving. i figured that would be three to one overhead. in my view we should be doing some thing about the employment thing. no one would have been thrown out of a job but people would leave and not be replaced. he campaigned on less people employed. i drove by the other day and the building is staffed, people working for the white house. they don't feel the recession. they don't see these layoffs that the steelworkers feel. that is what i do on that. on energy, i don't believe there is enough in alaska within the reasonable future to replace the 9 million barrels a day we get from overseas. a decline is already set in. some companies have started pulling out of alaska. my energy program is not the control and alaska but it has been using alternate services of energy.
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howard: let me ask you something just developing now. the famous recession which is beginning to happen. it may be there when either of you become president. will you hope that it will reduce inflation or try to halt the recession by things like government expenditures and tax cut's? mr. reagan: i do believe the alternative to inflation is recession. i think that is old-fashioned economics. i don't think you have to trade unemployment. president carter said he would never fight inflation by using unemployment. president carter has said as part of his fight against inflation unemployment is going to be allowed to go up. this is self-destructive. for every percentage what you had to the unemployment role you have 25 to $29 billion to the federal deficit. both in the loss of revenue and
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the benefits that go out to them. i would do the things i have talked about regarding the cut of government and to some experience in a same situation i became governor of california. it was bankrupt. and with a deficit. i know some of these things work. i would even go back to an example that happened since i was governor, prop 13. everyone heard the horrifying things that would happen if they cut the taxes as much as they said it would. the result is there are 100,000 fewer public workers.
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the private sector has created 532,000 new jobs in the state of california ended up with a $3 billion surplus. mr. bush: i don't believe there is an economic plan. i believe you are going to see some increase in unemployment. i believe the way you fight back is to stimulate, risk-taking and production. the way you do that is through this kind of approach i talked about as well as fighting the inflationary side of the government spending. i believe it would work. there are programs that would
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help. for jobs that exist through tax credits rather than train them up to get some kids hopes up. stimulating the private sector, i believe that would work if you hold government under control. you can't go and risk making the deficit bigger at the same time. otherwise you have that inflation. stimulation of employment sector and lowering unemployment. he did that to some degree for a while but inflation went off the charts because of reckless deficits. mr. reagan: he did other things to create the deficits. he was going to streamline
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government pre-decree to the energy industry. he is now created the cabinet level management for the department of education with more billions of dollars. he has the biggest staff as you pointed out in the white house have any president we know of. i think he who was going to trim things as i laugh when he called teddy kennedy the biggest spender in the senate, he's the biggest spender in the white house. i feel when you said provide incentive for increased productivity the american worker today is stating the lowest us an edge of earnings at any time in the last 30 odd years, and a japanese worker could say -- say five times that an american can. it is not going in to savings accounts, not going to insurance premiums, not going as capital to invest in the private section. the only investment they have been able to make have met
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federal requirements, if added to production costs which reduced productivity. i want to see an increase in productivity. the system you're talking about, we have been trying for a lot of years. it is time for something new. and what is new is let's believe in the people that we can spend the money smarter better than the government can. howard: ladies and gentlemen please suppress your enthusiasm until we are finished. mr. reagan and ambassador bush, you blame the government for many issues. but the most productive industry we have is agricultural and its
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productivity is due to government activity and research stations. world war ii the government created the oil industry. and most spectacularly, putting a man on the moon was a government project from a government plan. aren't you underrating the effectiveness of government? mr. bush: no. i don't think government adds to production. the aluminum industry, now it is better done in the private sector. we have a wartime economy, of course you will have government intervention.
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but government has moved in on the private sector with regulation. i built a business here in texas, started it from scratch. when we started to drill a well, it was two permits. now it is 12 permits. every time you turn around there is too much regulation. government does something and they can help people. and they do. i'm not an antigovernment person. they provide for the defense and there are certain functions government has that are compassionate. and i think good. i think there is room for a partnership. what government does is not productive. we ought to be cutting it back.
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it isn't adding to productivity that i think is essential if we are going to beat inflation and bypass citizens. it is being bypassed as they get into the workforce. mr. reagan: i brought some figures because i thought they would come in handy. if americans since 1950, the last 30 years have been able to save and invest, if our economy had grown one and a half percent more a year, our income would be 50% higher, jobs will be plentiful. we would have a balanced budget. lower payroll taxes. stable prices, and our industry economy would be three times as great of the soviet union. we would have a question superiority. there are legitimate functions government must perform. the basic three that are outlined in the basis of our government in our constitution, the federal government exist to protect us from outside aggression and national security, to protect us from disorder within and to guarantee stability of their money. in all three of those at the moment we could say this administration has failed. they have not protected our national security. they have let it declined to the most dangerous part we have been in that i can recall. we know about disorder in the streets.
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crime and so forth. and the stability of our money, our currency is worth less than any time in our history. howard: i want to move to another subject. there was supposed to be a third man tonight. congressman john anderson. he received word he would not take part. tomorrow or the next day he will announce he is forming a third-party. what do you think that will do to the party? mr. bush: i don't really believe after the initial flurry it is going to make that much difference. i believe -- there are those who would be for ted kennedy if they
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thought he was going to have a shot. so i don't view it. i don't think it will be third party. he will run as an independent and they will add the same success. we are a two-party system. it is part of our stability. i asked him in the debate whether he was willing to support the nominee of the party. he made clear he would not prepare that. i think you are right that he will do it. idle think it is going to amount to much after a good trip around the country. i don't see -- he is caught. he doesn't have the true credentials of a candidate and wants to move against the credentials they got him elected to the house. let him do what he wants. that is the way i feel. [applause] [laughter] >> governor reagan said he could get 20% of the vote. would that be a threat?
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>> that would be a disaster. he is probably going to take away from the carter side more than from our side. i know that i speak pejoratively when i said that i miss him tonight. >> let's turn to foreign affairs or both of you have been unsatisfied without the president has handled the iranian crisis. now he is having some thoughts of using force which you have indicated approval. that may run some options past you. the most often quoted is mining the oil in persia, blockading


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