Skip to main content

tv   Politics and Public Policy Today  CSPAN  April 5, 2016 5:00pm-7:01pm EDT

5:00 pm
>> zoe said that the transformation from industrial to a digital economy is comparable to the one we went through when we went from an agricultural to industrial. one of the things we did back then, 100-some-odd years ago, we radically changed education in the united states. by saying high school should be free and universal. what radical changes in education should a company in this transition? >> well, it has to start at the bottom. and this has been said now for -- losing track of decades. the nation at risk report is now 3 1/2 decades old. and one cannot say we've made nearly sufficient progress. some would say very little at all there. everything you're doing after
5:01 pm
12th grade as far as i'm concerned is factory recall work. i always favored one change we didn't get made in indiana, but i rather favored e-- i think i favored, if a student turns up with a diploma and they're not ready for college or work, the remediation costs go back to the high school that certified them. not the taxpayers who have to pay a second time to do something we're not very good at. so as simplistic at that is, you won't have a complete solution that doesn't feel finally with the difficulties of our k-12 system. after that, i love the things zoe is talking about, the programs that the governor has in his state. as i answered your previous question, i think this is one thing we didn't make enough head way on, during my time in public service, one additional obvious
5:02 pm
target of opportunity is that huge, astonishly big number of americans who have some post secondary education and never finished. >> what about -- >> and going after them in a big way and there's some really great stuff going on in the online world that probably fits them better than it does, let's say, today's 18 to 22-year-olds. >> one of the proposals from both parties, but obama has embraced it, is to make things like purdue poly tech, or a two-year community or trade school as common and free as high school was made a hundred years ago. does that make sense? >> it would if we weren't $19 trillion in debt and counting. >> do you think it will add to the debt? >> of course. there is no free. so socializing those costs, i'm not saying all such ideas are bad. you know, purdue university, we're in the third year of what will be at least a four-year tuition freeze.
5:03 pm
self-imposed. nobody made us do it. i think of them as my classmates, the cohort that graduates next month, and the one after that, and at least one after that, will leave a purdue that costs less than it did when they entered it, because room and board and books cost less now than when they went in the system. so there's scholarship across the spectrum, just like this room, that flooding any marketplace, same thing happens in health care. flooding the marketplace with subsidy dollars did not lead to less expensive education. the system pocketed much of the money and passed the cost on to its -- the intended beneficiaries of the subsidies. so i don't think that's a fruitful avenue. >> and one more question for you, since you're shorter on your answers than some, i'll
5:04 pm
keep hounding you. >> it's because i have less to say. >> you're the co-chair that zoe has helped to sort, we at the aspen foundation were hosting mark warner on something that ties into everything we've been discussing, which is how do you have an economy and an social contract that deals with what you could call the gig economy, or the 1099 economy, where people aren't just going to a factory at age 20 and retiring at 60. i think -- is conner mckay here? conner, stand up. did you have some particular way you wanted to frame a question, because i wanted zoe to speak on it as well. >> -- specifically certification and qualifications could be applied to people in new kinds of work arrangements and how you make skills portable from job to
5:05 pm
job -- >> skills and to some extent, pensions, benefits, all the things that used to be part of an employer-based economy. >> i'll answer you the way i did sandra warner, who i kept trying to evade on this thing, but i have such high regard for him, i finally couldn't do it. i don't pretend to have these answers. i'll sign up as an exercise in continuing education, because i fully expect to learn a lot more than i have to impart. it's a fascinating phenomenon since that assignment came along. by one measure, i think a recent study, fell into this category of temporary or on-demand, to contracted. that runs the spectrum from janitor down to uber. but still it's a real and it's a
5:06 pm
growing phenomenon. one question we got to ask ourselves, do we like this or don't like this? i read sometimes, i think, conflicting sense from the same people on this. if we -- there's a lot to be said for the flexibility, the independence, perhaps the dignity that goes with choosing your own work, time, place and all that. it has all the down sides that conner is asking about. a lot of these folks don't have health insurance, workers comp, the things we've associated with full-time work. are we going to try to introduce that into the system and if so, how? the last thing i'll say, if we don't think it's a positive trend and i'm agnostic right now, but if we don't, we're sure doing a lot, and i mentioned some examples before, to push things in that direction. you would think we had a
5:07 pm
conscious strategy to maximize the number of temporary, part-time, and independent workers, because of things we put in place that militate against their traditional and full-time employment. >> so that's a topic the foundation helped to full together. what do you feel about this new phenomenon, since it's like the tides, we can't be railing against it? >> yeah, i think we touched on it a little bit, but mostly raised questions, and that's why we're collaborating with mitch and mark warner to try to think through some of these. it's a very fundamental values question for this country. and we're driven by policies and laws that were enacted in a prior time. so to mitch's point, i don't think we're intentionally driving things in this way, i just think we aren't having the policy and public and political debate to right the framework that works with the present
5:08 pm
economy. and we haven't had in washington certainly, a political environment where that can happen. the states are doing some of this better. but the challenge is not in the first instance, in my judgment, figuring out what law to change. the challenge is, what are the values that create the whole of america in a new economy? and when you're talking about social safety nets, when you're talking about economic security and some of these broader questions, we haven't even begun to have that conversation. arthur alluded to it in his opening comments, for which i'm very grateful. to aei and cap for collaborating with us. i think we need to have a fundamental conversation in this country. we can debate where the government does, businesses do it, communities do it, goodwill
5:09 pm
does it. we've got goodwill working with us and that's not what i used to go to goodwill for. it's changing because of the needs in cities and states. we need to figure out what we're going after, and then we can address the policy, as mitch said. >> i have a question for the two governors and then il be opening it up. i've watched steve case who has a new book out, going to the rise of the rest. meaning, cities across this country that are suddenly coming back as opposed to it all happening in silicon valley or new york. and in your state, whether it's boulder or denver, certainly indianapolis, but south bend, many other places in indiana, there's a new creative economy that's coming back into cities in particular.
5:10 pm
and starting new jobs, being innovators, being entrepreneurs. what can we do to encourage that? is it a real phenomenon? and where do you see it happening in your state? >> well, certainly i think it's real and a lot of it is richard florida's predictions, 12 or 13 years ago. not saying he got everything right, but the notion there's a creative class, the young graduates will come out of school. and they will live where they want to live, rather than starting with a company and spending their career there. so we started in denver, focused on modifying taxes for places that did live music. and interesting to say it's superfluous, but now there are more live music venues in denver than nashville or austin. and they're one of the top two destinations for millenials looking for a place to relocate. we have a thousand miles of bike
5:11 pm
paths in metropolitan denver now. again, these are things that you would say just superfluous quality of life, but it attracts these -- all these young people. so many of the kids who write code for the internet or create software, they were the nerds in the school and didn't really hang out with the football players or the class president or maybe the cheer leaders. they hung around with the poets and the musicians and they like to be in a place where everyone is accepted and welcomed. and i think that's why you're seeing cities that adapt to this, like indianapolis, like denver, really are succeeding. you're seeing a blossoming all over the country around this sense that young people are kind of defining their own lives. >> yeah, i gave steve case a chute-out, but i also just read james fals great cover in the atlantic, which talks about even in very small towns, he came to indiana. you're seeing a revival. what can we do to nurture that?
5:12 pm
>> our predecessors weren't as farsided as john's and they didn't build and rocky mountains -- >> [ laughter ] >> so we have to work a little harder. one of the great strengths of our federal system is that there's a genuine competition. and states, we see it all the time, that screw up long enough, somebody comes along, says, that's not working, let's try something different. there's nothing that states compete more aggressively on, most states, than to build a hospitable climate for jobs and investment and the kind of people that the governor is talking about. so that's all we worked on, essentially. that's the organizing principle of the eight years i spent in public life and i hope we made some head way. now i will say this, i've had the same, so far i think, romantic notion that their
5:13 pm
fallows has and rich carlburg wrote a book called something 2.0, same basic idea, it's absolutely true, and i've seen it a hundred -- hundreds of times in my state, that individual enterprises can thrive in a wired world in an unlikely place. but the rural parts of our state and almost every state i know, they're still depopulated. so the jobs are not all going to the coast, because frankly they do everything they can to push them away. california acts like they're doing you a favor if you try to hair somebody and they're going to make it as hard and expensive as they can. you come to indiana and the index to the national cost of living is 92 cents. index to california or an east coast state, you're going to take home 25 to 30 more cents from every dollar of revenue. colorado's pretty hospitable too. so you can do all those things, but i do think we still have a
5:14 pm
challenge with regard to the smaller communities. it's the metro areas. it's the areas frankly with university -- significant university presence that seem to be attracting these folks. i'll leave you with one last thing. we're taking something of a calculated gamble in our university. we live in a nice town, but it doesn't have all the features that some of our competitors do. so we're doing a 50/50 deal with our town. an arrangement, i don't know who tried this before, we're going to transform the whole stretch that connects us to the town and runs through our school. this is either going to be a big step forward in attracting students and faculty of exactly the kind that the governor sees coming to denver, or somebody in 20 years is going to go, what idiot pooled money on that? we'll find out.
5:15 pm
>> well, daniel, patrick morna han once said if you want to build a great city, build a university and wait a hundred years. so we'll find out in a hundred years. yes, sir. i'm sorry. quick hands came up. i'll get you, and you and you. >> i'm with the progressive policy institute. miss baird, you mentioned the jobs that don't really require a college degree but ask for a college degree. governor daniels mentioned the many people who don't have a degree but have the skills that are relevant. wondering if the panel can talk about those kinds of information failure in the labor market. the long-term unemployed who never get their resumes seen, or people who serve their time as felons and whose talents are not accepted into the labor market. what can we do about the large populations whose resume signals are wrong right now? >> well, that's part of what we're trying to take on in skillful. you guys have done a lot of
5:16 pm
really good work and particularly on some of these issues of where the information comes from. but it is possible to take a biotech job, for example, they've done interesting work where they looked at biotech jobs that require a college diploma and broke down the skills required for those jobs based on what people are doing in the job and what they say they need to know, and they found that most of the middle-skill jobs that they looked at, which are good-paying jobs, that lead to great career paths in biotech, which is a growing field, could be done by someone with an associate's degree and two biology courses. that's one example. there are other examples of jobs like an executive assistant job,
5:17 pm
which 20% of the people who are executive assistants today in america have a college diploma, but 60% of the job postings require a college diploma. it's hard to believe that the job's changed that much. but if it has, the kinds of skills someone's picked up, a new program they're comfortable working with, new kind of spread sheet, whatever, you can reveal that on a profile online and demonstrate that even though you didn't get the college diploma, you have all the skills needed for an executive assistant or an advanced manufacturing job in biote biotech. so that's what we're doing with skillful, with linked in. we're training people, we have an employer tool kit, where employers can look and see what the skills are at different levels of jobs in these fields and apply that to their own job postings and we're trying to break through and obviously we have a lot to learn and this
5:18 pm
will be reiterated and revised and there will be many new versions as we learn what works and what doesn't. but that's just what we're trying to go after. >> yes, ma'am. and would you introduce yourself. [ inaudible ] you don't need a mike. >> i'm paula stern. >> i didn't recognize you. hey, paula. >> thank you very much for the very excellent, very rich conversation. my question is, i'm asking on behalf of the national center for women in information technology and one way you can do something about that problem is don't ask for gender. ask for what your skills are when you post those jobs. but we're actually doing a study with the mayor of new orleans to see if we can find the biases that might skew who is eligible for jobs too. so we're actually trying to get at that, not just gender, but a lot of other issues.
5:19 pm
>> and that's what we do. we have 150 documents for free. pull them down, use them, apply them to your own culture, your corporation or setting, academia included. my question really goes to the president and the federal government's role as the leader who has enunciated this computer science for all initiative, which is a dramatic program, dealing with the fact that the states and the local level have not put computing and computing science in curriculum. and how we get this done at the state level, knowing that there are those who feel that we're spending too much money and are in debt too much, and therefore, we should be hesitant about investing in our workforce, or in our infrastructure. but education is a lot of money
5:20 pm
being spent already by the states and local. i'd like to see -- >> yeah, let me see, you're the sitting governor. >> i thought that question was really about the federal government. no -- [ laughter ] [ inaudible ] >> so, states, colorado -- >> we'll run you for national office if you want. >> not right now. i think that the different states are progressing at different rates. and actually i'd be interested to hear what mitch says on this as well. you know, the controls of pedagogy, what gets taught in the schools, you want to change that and take it on, you have to go against the academic bureaucracy within our universities and it's very hard to ply them, to mold them outside of their traditional way of approaching this stuff. so we have different school districts that have been able to do this. colorado's a state that lets the local school districts have a great deal of leeway in how they
5:21 pm
address this. and we have, i think, some great successes. and my job is to make sure those successes get spread to all -- you know, that each other school district can see the outcomes that they're getting and embrace these approaches. when you start teaching coding in sixth or seventh grade and let kids work up into stuff that's fun. right? how do you design a very simple computer game that you can play on your smartphone. the next step then, the governors compete with each other, as governor daniel said, we governors, we work better, republicans and democrats, we can come to maybe not a consensus, but agreements quite easily, but it doesn't mean we're not intensely competitive. and i mean, intensely competitive. so hopefully as those of us that are doing this kind of broadcast the success and kind of brag in governors meetings, it will change rapidly. i think what the president's
5:22 pm
trying to do is saying, that process is too slow. we need realtime change right now. and i don't disagree with him. the motivational incentive. like anything, you've got to align self-interests to really make change happen. you know, the process that's going on right now, needs to be incentivized. we gotta find the right incentive. >> purdue university had the first computer science department in the world, just passed its 52nd -- >> that may be true. >> and so we're very committed to this, making major investments to grow it. the demand exceeds any supply we can create. i've had more than one person suggest to me an interesting idea, we haven't acted on it, but it's worth thinking about it, and that is that we ought to add computer science as a candidate for fulfilling our language requirement. that it's a language like spanish or german.
5:23 pm
and perhaps in some -- in this age, even more useful. we ought to let that satisfy our language requirement. so i'm going to think about that, talk to our folks about it. to me, it's an intriguing -- it's animated by a sentiment much like yours. >> and i'd suggest too, on math requirements, we put in calculus, it's great for missile trajectories, but algorithms and that thinking can be part of the math curriculum. >> we require four years of math. doesn't have to include calculus. we don't -- it doesn't -- you don't have to have any particular score. but statistically many of the scholars in the room will know this, last i looked, the single strongest part to completing college to time, et cetera, was four years of math. something about the discipline and so forth. so one simple thing that schools
5:24 pm
could do, dial that up, if they're not there already, and you might see improvements. purdue certainly has in terms of progress and completion and so forth. >> the gentleman here, the woman there and then we'll get -- make this loop, thank you. keep the microphone here. we'll pass it around and then to the -- yeah. >> thank you. this is for president daniels, in his role at purdue. [ inaudible ] >> i'm sorry? i'm nick farmer. independent citizen. >> if i could interrupt, president daniels has a nice ring to it. [ laughter ] i'll be quiet. >> john, behave yourself. >> what percentage of your students are u.s. citizens, and what percentage of your graduates end up working in the united states? and how does this inform your
5:25 pm
thinking about policies that's working and not working in the country today? >> 85% of our undergraduates and only -- probably 55% of your graduate students are domestic. and we think we have, a lot of us talk about the undergraduates. we have 30,000 on the main campus. we think we're in about the right balance. i like the fact -- internationally, we're one of the most diverse universities, with, as i say, 15, and in some recent years, it was a little higher than that, percent, coming from other lands. i tell our students all the time, you can learn a lot about this world before the first time you study abroad or the first foreign trip you take if you just make the effort on this campus. but we talk about that a lot. and i think we're in a reasonably good balance point. we do look very hard. i mean, i hope we'll fix visa policy in this country sometime. i understand it's been held
5:26 pm
hostage to other issues in the immigration area. it is one of those things, i think, where people who disagree about other things understand. we ought to take all the smart people who want to come here and stay. we think we keep about 15%. it's hard to know. we think we keep 15 to 20% of the international students. i'm not counting those who stay for graduate school. that would add to it. but those who go into the workforce. i wish it was a multiple of that. and from talking to hundreds and hundreds of them by now, i promise you, more would stay if it weren't so darn hard. >> and just to follow-up on your saying to an undergraduate, this is the most diverse community you'd probably be in, and if you want to learn about a global economy, just look around you. do you think diversity in and of itself is a asset for a university? >> sure. up to a point.
5:27 pm
but, yes. not to open up another subject, but the most important diversity of all is sometimes the hardest to find, upoint and outlook, but there are ways to work on that, and we do. >> yes, i'll catch all of you and unfortunately, i'm -- and then we'll go over there, because i'm prejudiced to this side of the room. >> i'm sharon, voice of a moderate. i'd like to challenge you on saying your bike trails are not the reason why people are going to colorado. [ laughter ] i just went to colorado, and i look forward to going back. but my question is -- kind of gave me flash backs to my childhood. i'm 53 years old. but 43% of americans cannot afford broadband. we find that jobs have to be applied for online. college applications are online. the internet is the new telephone.
5:28 pm
people no longer need to call 911. they're not having those lines. they need a way to communicate, basic communication. when you look at that, 47%, so it's like there's 4% of america that are not paying taxes and they can't afford broadband, and it's very disturbing to middle people. so this is my question. we had a recent metro shutdown. people found out they could do their work from home. women found out they could do their work, whether it be taking administrative roles, they could do appointments and reservations from their home. they couldn't travel into the city and their employers allowed them to work from home because of that situation. do you think in a digital economy we can create more roles for women to work from home but not lose our pay, because we are being just as productive. i think a digital economy can change the current mind-set of the people that are the leaders, we can bring it back to this
5:29 pm
topic -- >> -- appointed you to look into these and many other issues. do you want to take that? >> sure. i'm going to be co-chairing this advisory board on the digital economy and one of the questions that the commerce department's really put a lot of time and effort into, as have other agencies, is access to the internet in rural areas. and there's certainly a lot of companies that put a lot of time and effort into that as well. it's clearly critical. your question about women working from home, though, is more complicated, because it gets back to some of the issues mitch raised. there's a tension over whether people who work full time for a company from home get benefits whereas if they go to an office building, they would get benefits. and you know, we need to resolve some of those tensions. most of our population has been
5:30 pm
moving toward cities. so for the vast numbers of the women that you're talking about, the issue is less internet access and more some of these other benefit, job condition issues. but certainly access to the internet universally in this country is something we have to pay critical attention to. and if you look at what china is doing and other countries, it's not lost on them that that's going to be the engine of both economic growth as well as individual opportunity. >> i'll just interject, because i hope you'll look at it when you do it. the core of your question is an interesting one, which is whether place-based, and being in a place with other people, and we've seen marissa marror when she took over yahoo saying quit trying to telecommute from home. you have to be physically around, because people are more productive. steve jobs certainly felt that
5:31 pm
way as well. and yet it's somewhat discriminatory also to feel that way. so it's not an answer i have, but it's a great question going forward. >> 30 years ago, everyone said as the internet began to kind of appear and televisions became bigger, that people wouldn't go to movies anymore. i think there's a natural inclination. people want to be in groups. so it's not just being demanded. >> that's what this forum and marco thrive on, people actually like being together. [ laughter ] anybody with the name walter gets called on early. >> thank you very much. my name is walter tejada. till december last year, i was 30 years as the county board supervisor in arlington, virginia. now i'm in the private industry trying to earn a living. but the lofls of local, state,
5:32 pm
or federal government are being mentioned. at local level a lot of action is taking place and probably arlington might be the best example because we're very technology driven. the pentagon is located in arlington. yet there's still a digital divide. and that's not confined only to the white male from the heart of america that may have been displaced from a manufacturing job because of a trade agreement or whatever issues are involved. the skills for technology really are for everybody. in areas of great diversity, a lot of folks are being left out that are probably described most as being in the service industry, where folks want to have their cup of coffee and have someone smile at them and give their change back and say have a nice day. they're not worried where they live or the kind of skills they
5:33 pm
might have. what options, or who do you say to folks who perhaps vocational training with some quick technology certification might expedite a world into a higher ladder in society and maybe into more knowledgeable technology skills down the line? a lot of times when they talk about the workforce development, it usually start about high-paying jobs and usually requires a high level of education. but a lot of people, for whatever reasons, immigrant or whatever the case, might only have a high school diploma, so it's not just confined to one segment of the country or one particular population, but in general. so what suggestion and advice would you offer? >> anyone want to take that? >> zoe. >> zoe? >> before she -- i think that's what skillful is about. going forward i think you're going to see less -- employers are not going to look for a specific generic document. they're going to look for what is the aggregation of skills
5:34 pm
that i'm looking for in this job? because they're going to get a better price for it. the employer will get someone better suited and be happier in the job and be less expensive, which i think is going to drive the transition. i think that's a lot of what skillful is about, getting employers and potential employees together, much closer and much more rapidly. >> and what mitch is doing is really extraordinarily innovative. because universities and community colleges have basically been paid on seat time, not skills acquired. and so -- and that's how we provide financial aid and everything else. so what mitch is doing at purdue in his polytechnic institute is giving people certificates at whatever pace they can pick them up, in order to achieve certain skills, still in a diploma-based curriculum. and that's starting to happen more and more. arizona state university is
5:35 pm
doing a lot of online teaching where people can pick up at their own pace, the things that they're trying to learn and demonstrate that they've gotten the training and the learning that's provided by that. and i think there are a number of community colleges that are grappling with this, how do they move from being seat time to certificate or diploma-based, because the graduation rates over even three years in community colleges is staggering low. i'm not even going to shock you with the number. and so if they can give people achievement along the way for the investments they're making, we also are trying, as mitch mentioned, to get people who have had some college, who have run up big debt, but don't have a diploma to show for it, the way to show that they have picked up the skills. they took statistics. they took coding.
5:36 pm
so they can demonstrate they have skills that are in demand in the workplace, and finally feel proud as well as economically satisfied. feel proud of what they've learned. because i think that a critical part of this equation is to have americans believe in themselves again, and believe in the country again, and to believe that the things that they know are valued skills in the public arena. and that's a -- i think, a critical part of what we have to achieve. >> yes, ma'am. >> hi, nicole turner lee. i'm at the multi cultural media, telecom and internet council. and i'm affiliated with arizona state university center for gender equity for women and girls of color. so my question is actually this. we talked about the knowledge economy and this has been a great conversation, but how do you reconcile implicit and
5:37 pm
explicit bias that exists in institutions and employers, particularly for people of color and more vulnerable populations, like people who are disabled or seniors. so how do we think about this conversation of disparities and push it past just the skills-building phase and more towards shifting institutional paradigm so they're more accepting of people once they're able to obtain these competencies. >> you know, at the end of malcolm gladwell's book, the link, than as anecdote that describes in 1982 almost every trombone and tuba player in every orchestra was a man. because women didn't have the lung capacity, their lips weren't strong enough. and then this woman did the blind audition because the son of the first violinist at berlin symphony or something.
5:38 pm
so the blind test, they let everyone else go home. you're it. then she came out and everyone freaked out and there were lawsuits. now of course every symphony has blind auditions, and now it's almost 50/50. i think that blind audition should be everywhere. each defendant should be offered a right to have, if they don't want to be seen by the injury, because they have tattoos all over themselves for whatever reason. they should have that choice. they should have that right. and certainly when you're applying for jobs, i think. and technology helps us do that. >> it helps and it hurts. >> way over there. >> i'm stephanie berry, i'm actually retired from government. but my question is, how do we create a new labour force to go against problems like
5:39 pm
infrastructure? in the digital age, seems to me technology could figure out how to help us build infrastructure what matches the advances in the digital world, but i haven't heard much about how do we push these companies to actually buy that new thing that brings in a lot of people, to take on some of the hard problems that we have right now? >> well, i think it's coming. your car is going to talk to the road very soon. and talk to other cars. the infrastructure we build in the future is going to be smart in a way that we never imagined just recently. you know, i'm not sure, stephanie, this is quite encompassed in your question, but no bigger believer in infrastructure in the room than i am. we built more than our state had seen in a long, long time -- or
5:40 pm
ever. and i'm a true believer this is a major issue for the country, to rebuild and build the new infrastructure we need. but two things. one, we ought not overestimate the degree of employment that comes with it. only so many people -- you want to talk about a high-skilled job. try to drive a bulldozer, or a grader. so this is not, you know, ccc in the 1930s. some people have an imaginary view that's going to put jillions of people to work. employment is the second after businesses relocate to try to take advantage of the infrastructure. so you're seeing important new investments, but -- oh, the last point. if you want to talk about a place where public policy gets in the way of progress, this is it. it's so easy to talk about building infrastructure. go try to do it sometime and
5:41 pm
spend eight years in an environmental impact statement, or a statement to check and see if maybe somebody can find an arrowhead somewhere. we have really -- everybody concerned about the infrastructure crisis ought to read philip howard's work about how ridiculously difficult we make it for no compelling societal reason. >> let me follow-up on that, because we talked earlier about making trade schools and community colleges free. talked about infrastructure spending. as a governor, how do you calculate return on investment? whether it's creating free community college or new water systems and internet systems, so that you know whether it's costing society or benefitting society? >> you do your best. every investment involves a leap of faith. i would say when you're building roads or bridges or broadband,
5:42 pm
or pipelines, whatever, for the long-term, you can only -- you have to imagine things that aren't in view yet. the value of infrastructure, i always believed and i've seen this -- now i think i can say this with some authority -- is what comes along after. you can't always predict that. the market will tell you. >> like when they built the internet to connect a few university computers. >> absolutely. and it doesn't mean you can't be more rigorous about it. we got rid of, frankly it was a political patronage system for deciding which roads and bridges to build, swept all of that away and had more of a blind system, we had algorithms based on what we believed were the safety, convenience, and economic advantages. abo but you have to be modest enough to know these are estimates and you could be wrong. you can try to proceed and should try to proceed based on some logic that gets at your question, knowing that some of them are going to work out better than you imagined, and
5:43 pm
some of them you'll put it there, and where is everybody. >> anybody in the way back? i'm discriminating. >> mike from the national governors association. thank you both for being here today. you've done great work with us in the past. governor daniels, you mentioned earlier how the k-12 system is one of the most important points to address the problems that face our nation. what are the opportunities to integrate work-based learning or other apprenticeships or other activities across the entire education system to better link the world of work to the education path? >> it's a great question. like everything else, i don't pretend do have an answer. but i'll tell you this. of all the new things we're starting at purdue, we're starting a high school of our own and it's going to look a lot like -- it's a mirror image of this polytechnic institute.
5:44 pm
now, i'll confess to you that seeing if we can more -- if we can contribute something to a high school education that does exactly what john was talking about, by the way, gives certificates or badges. we imagine that a number of these graduates will go straight from high school to work. but my real -- the number one objective, honestly, is to go back to something else we talked about before, the pool of first generation and minority students who are even remotely likely to succeed at our university, in our state is heart-breakingly small. and i'm tired of waiting on the k-12 system. so this high school, if we can make it work, and we never started a high school, so, i don't know. if we can make it work, though, the one rule that i've established is, in every diploma
5:45 pm
of every graduate, there will be a direct admission to purdue university. because we can't wait anymore. every year at this time i check and the total number of african american graduates in the state of indiana at the purdue median and we're a land-grant school. we have high standards, but we're not a highly, highly, highly selective school. we want to be the opposite. we were put there to -- and someone made mention -- to bring the -- to throw open the doors of higher education beyond the elites. and in every year i've been there it's been a low three-digit number. just at our medium. that's the whole universe. i'm not going to tell you how many of those are young men. and so we're going to try to jump into the deep end of this pool. yes, i think we can, i hope, contribute something or learn
5:46 pm
some things that will speed young people to remun rattive employment, but also it's really aimed at trying to have a university community that includes more people of low income and first generation. >> last quick question. back there. i'm sorry. i see a couple other hands, but i'm trying to be fair here. >> thank you. good afternoon. brian wright, independent citizen. we've heard some conversation about the lack of wages, or the wage growth issue. we've talked a little bit about the issue of student debt, burdening young people. also heard a little bit about the tremendous debt for folks who are 40, 50, and above. what you all say as the economy works its way forward, the fourth industrial revolution moves forward, this idea of a data mining royalty, that is, when we are data-mined, our personal data is mined, ought there be a royalty assessed against that, and the funds contributed to something like the alaska permanent fund that
5:47 pm
was launched by the republicans up in alaska, so that each year individuals targeted, as we would like to or otherwise, that a check is cut to those people based on the amount of data that they are mined. >> it's such an interesting question. i was recently with some leading m.i.t. researchers and a bunch of people from silicon valley talking about what the research vea agenda should be. and i put on the table, why don't you take a hard question, forget all the stuff that people suggest to you that, you know, how many people are going to work in the gig economy or things like that. take a hard question, which is your question, how do you evaluate whether or not people should benefit from the value of what they provide into an internet system relative to what they get from all the free goods, all the fact that they
5:48 pm
can use all these services for free? i mean, those are the kinds of questions for this economy that i hope institutions like aei will take a look at, because we don't have a clue. we don't know how to measure the economy that we're in either. you know, gdp isn't really the best measurement for the economy we're in now either. so there's a really ripe field for new understandings that can lead to new policy decisions and business decisions. >> and i'll let both the governors have a quick last word too, if you want. and then we're going to turn it back to arthur. >> sure. so, thank you very much, walter, for doing this and zoe for helping create this platform that brought us together. before i get home and my wife yells at me -- >> your new wife. >> i want to point out i'm a strong supporter of hillary clinton. when i said president daniels, it was really in contrast to the primaries. i just want to be clear so i don't get yelled at when i get
5:49 pm
home. [ laughter ] i think this is one of the key issues that this country faces, how do we more rapidly connect kids with the skills, not necessarily the knowledge, but the skills that they're going to need to succeed in life. and i think skillful and what mark has been working on is part of this. i think apprenticeship is going to be a huge part of it. high school, like what president daniels refers to, is another part of this. my son is in a public school, longer school day, longer school year, but no homework. he's in eighth great. loves it. and the school's out-achieving -- we have experiments like that all over the country. how come we're not skilling? and i think that may be where you get institutions of higher learning that get to be in the ground floor and then it gets scaled more rapidly. >> mr. president? [ laughter ] >> well, it's a really provocative question, i think arthur should be the subject of one of your upcoming programs. one thing that just strikes me,
5:50 pm
our own students and everything else i read, young people, in particular, but all americans seem very complacent about giving up all this data. and by the way, if you tell them, we'll them we'll give you 10 cents every time, we're fine. but we haven't thought enough about that, i don't think. it probably ought to be a matter of free choice but we ought to make sure it's an informed choice and i don't feel informed to know exactly what the implications are when i let somebody look through my personal affairs. >> it's one of the many new elements in this new economy. i first want to thank zoe. it's been amazing how since you've taken over marco, you've been at the forefront of every interesting and important issue. i thank you very much for it. and arthur brooks. of those of us who work here on think tank row, we look upon arthur as our moral compass, especially with your new book. thanks for all you've done.
5:51 pm
arthur. >> please watch this space for more conversations on this incredibly important topic. i'm sure the most newsworthy items is the nomination by -- [ laughter ] >> we'll have a conversation about what it means to have policy and help people earn their success, which is on which this entire discussion is centered. i thank all of you on behalf of all of us.
5:52 pm
campaign 2016 continues today with the wisconsin primary. tune in for complete election results, candidate speeches and viewer reaction. takes you on the road to the white house on c-span, c-span radio and c-span.org. >> american history tv. this weekend on lectures and history. >> old kinds of obstacles
5:53 pm
falling by the wayside. lincoln has decided when the time is right, he will enact a new aim for a war effort that would add to the union human freedom. >> at 10:00 on "reel america" -- >> how it was possible for america to achieve such production and at the same time have an army? and an amazing report came in from an agency of the united states, 20% of the america of manpower was woman power. forsaking a round of revelry for the blink test of war. >> this 1944 war department film
5:54 pm
documents how women in world war ii helped the war effort, alluding that they are the main reason that germany lost the war. >> one thing that stands out at this time period is this creation of this imagery of the apotheosis. the concept goes back to ancient times where a warrior is made god-like by lifting him up and celebrating him. >> on the presidency at 8:00 -- >> though washington and jefferson are the two most prominent examples of slave owning as presidency, it is worth highlighting key facets of their successors who owned slaves, especially those who did
5:55 pm
so while they occupied the white house. james madison owned over 100 slaves, holding a large percentage while he occupied the white house. he is responsible for proposing and expanding the 3/5 compromise to preserve and uphold slave owner interests. >> for the complete american history tv weekend schedule, go to c-span.org. white house cabinet secretary brodrick johnson visited his alma mater, the university of michigan law school, to talk about what it's like to work at the white house for president obama.
5:56 pm
he discussed the white house's my brother's keeper task force which he chairs and his observations about president obama's priorities in his last year in office. this is about an hour. >> good afternoon, everybody. welcome. i'm susan collins, from the gerald r. ford school of public policy. it's great to have all of you join us this afternoon. today it is really an honor to be introducing broderick johnson who joins us as part of the university's month-long martin luther king jr. symposium. in that context as well, it's really a special pleasure to have all of you here with us for today's policy talks. broderick is assistant to president obama, white house cabinet secretary and chair of the president's my brother's keeper task force. i suspect that some of you are a little curious to know about just what a cabinet secretary does. well, just briefly, thurgood
5:57 pm
marshall jr. was the first person to hold this important position under president clinton and as you will hear more about a little bit later today, broderick johnson in that role is the primary liaison between president obama and the many cabinet departments and agencies so during his lecture i'm sure he will share quite a bit more about that with us and also about the interagency federal policy process. so much to look forward to. many in the audience may be quite familiar with my brother's keeper, which is president obama's challenge to cities across the country to address the disparity in opportunities for men of color. detroit took that challenge head-on. in fact, one of the ford school's alumni, ebony wells, was a huge part of setting up detroit's response and i have heard from our guest that detroit is really developing a particularly strong program in that context and so ebony, i wanted to invite you to stand so we could recognize you.
5:58 pm
thank you. [ applause ] well, before chairing the my brother's keeper task force, broderick was an assistant in the clinton administration and he previously served as chief democratic counsel in congress. he's also been very successful in the private sector. he was a vice president of at & t and bell south corporations, a partner with the large international law firm, and in addition, he co-founded a strategic consulting business. so those who know broderick may know only parts of his very distinguished and varied career but i suspect that all of them know where he studied law and his great pride in being a university of michigan alum. go, blue. so before i turn the floor over to him, i just want to say a word about our format. our special guest will speak for about 20 minutes, then we will open things up to the audience
5:59 pm
for questions. about ten minutes from now, our staff will be circulating to collect your question cards. you should have received them as you came into the auditorium today. if you are watching online, please tweet your questions using #policytalks. then professor ann lynch, ford school professor with four students will facilitate our question and answer session. so time to get started. please join me in welcoming broderick johnson to the podium. >> thank you. good afternoon. i'm going to try to set my book here without hitting a delete button on these screens here. if i do, i'm sorry. well, it's great to be here in ann arbor. it's great to be back on this beautiful campus. you know, when you're in washington all the time, and you get a chance to go out to a campus like this one, you feel a sense of energy, the excitement,
6:00 pm
the youthfulness, it warms the heart. and back in d.c., by the way, you all should know my west wing office is filled with michigan paraphernalia to remind me of this place, but also so that i can strike up conversations with people who come and visit and they're like oh, you went to michigan and then about a half hour later, we finally have stopped talking about the university of michigan. so it's all over the place and i'm quite proud to have it there. i have really appreciated not only having gone to this school and graduated from this school from the great law school, but many, many important moments of my own life which i will get to in a few minutes, but suffice it to say this place has had an enormous impact on my life and my career. i have got maize and blue running in my veins.
6:01 pm
when i hear the fight song i get teary-eyed depending on what the score is when the fight song comes on. when i think of michigan, i think about many, many things. i think about president ford and stories of how he stood up against segregation when he was on the football team here in the 1930s. i think about fellow alums and dear friends the law school like former senator and former interior secretary ken salazar who was my first year mentor here at the law school. he was a third year student who kept encouraging me and telling me that if i studied just a little bit harder i would make law review and that whatever happened, life was going to be good. i think about my dear friend, valerie jarrett, who is also a graduate of the law school. senior advisor and long-time friend of the president and first lady. i think of great games in the big house over many seasons with law school friends of more than 30 decades. i also think about lee bollinger, my first professor back in 1982, and he became dean of the law school and president of the university.
6:02 pm
and as you all know, he stood relentlessly in defense of affirmative action. and i think of my friend and president of the alumni association, steve grafton, a white dude from mississippi who navigated a largely white alumni association board to take an overwhelming position supporting affirmative action and opposing prop 2. then there are a lot of very personal moments for me, very poignant family moments which i'm going to share a bit with you all, because michigan has become a true legacy for my family. i think of my late mom, who became a huge wolverine fan. had not attended college but she adopted the university of michigan really as her alma mater. we would spend many afternoons, phone calls back and forth about the michigan game. she would call me and say did you see that? did you see that mistake? did you see this great play? i would say mom, the game's still on, why don't you call me in a few minutes. and one afternoon in 2011, i was
6:03 pm
able to bring her here the big house for the first time in her life with my youngest son at the time. and it was cold and thank you very much. it was cold, but it was really warm for us to be there and share that moment. my mother was decked out in maize and blue literally from head to toe. i also think about my late father, who set foot on a law school campus for the first time in his life in 1983 for my graduation. and i proudly put that moment in the context of fulfillment of many of the dreams my dad had about what would happen for his sons, his daughters, his grandchildren and i became really the epitome of the bridge for that for a generation. you see, when my youngest son came to visit the law school in 2011, he was only 10 years old. his father first set foot on a law school campus when he was 50. so the idea that his grandson at
6:04 pm
10 could go to a law school campus was really quite the fulfillment of his dreams. i remember really really vividly my son asking me after i had brought him through a tour of the law school at 10 years old, the idea of like visiting a law school late at night on a saturday night wasn't the coolest thing, but he was intrigued by all of it and i remember he asked me, he said dad, if i decide to come to school at michigan, if i decide to come to school at michigan. not do you think i could maybe qualify? it was clear in his mind, maybe it's because of all the investment in his education so far, that he could come to school here if he decided to and that would be a choice that we have and not some far-off dream that it would take many, many civil rights movements to change. and then when i think of michigan, i think about my wife michelle norse, formerly with national public radio who gave the commencement speech at this university in the winter of 2014. she received an honorary
6:05 pm
doctorate that day and closed her inspiring remarks with a bit of maize and blue poetry. she said it's great to be a michigan wolverine and the crowd broke out in great applause and i'm glad i told her she should do that, because it was the icing on the cake to what was really otherwise quite a memorable day. thank you very much, dean collins, for your most kind introduction and for having me back here. you know how much i love this place. so michael barr is here as well. michael and i go back to the clinton administration and we have a secret between us about a job he took that i didn't take that he did a great job at and i'm glad he did, because it helped to save washington, d.c. but i'm really surprised that my friend sally gindy is here. so little bit of history. i was between undergrad and grad school, i didn't know what i wanted to do except continue to study philosophy. there was a program in bowling green, ohio, a master's program in something called applied
6:06 pm
philosophy. have any of you applied for that program? okay. so the best thing about it is that it let people like sally and i decide applied philosophy would best be applied if we went to law school and became lawyers. so i can't remember the last time i have seen you but it is so great to see you. we decided on ann arbor because we came up here one weekend and the football team was playing and it was like i got to go to school there. sally, it's great to see you. love you. it's really wonderful to see you. it's an incredible honor and privilege to be here to bring greetings on behalf of the 44th president of the united states, president barack obama. the president has visited the university of michigan more than any other sitting president. sometimes he pokes fun at me about my wolverine passion. i don't know why. but he gets it. i remember back in the spring of 2014, the president visited this
6:07 pm
campus after the basketball team went to the elite eight. his bracket, there was a big deal made about the president's bracket every year. but he hadn't picked the wolverines. so then he had to come here. and as he stood before our pretty raucous crowd that included several of that year's overachievers like jordan morgan and glenn robinson, the president manned up and admitted his misjudgment about the team. he also admitted that his bracket, quote, was a mess. those are his words. we're talking about a man who barely makes mistakes in sports, politics and government. one of my jobs as cabinet secretary is to make sure as
6:08 pm
long as i'm there he does not make that mistake again. working in the white house is really the hardest job, particularly this time, that i've ever had. the cabinet secretary job, some people would describe it as herding cats. michael, you know better than that. i would never describe it as herding cats. i say this with all sincerity. there are great members of the president's cabinet throughout. it's great to work with them, but we do have often surreal challenges, unexpected crises that come, trying to get things done with a congress that often times has a lot of challenges working within itself. but i get to work with some of the hardest working people on the planet. there are many improbable and remarkable moments for me. for example, being able to travel with the president and first lady when they went to selma last march. being in the east room of the white house a few weeks ago when
6:09 pm
the president announced executive actions on guns. and watching him get as emotional as i've ever seen the president that day. briefing the president in the oval office along with other advisers. and you look around and you say i'm in the oval office and i'm briefing the president, and i have to say something very intelligent. and then about, i don't know, maybe two or three months ago, i ushered coach harbaugh into the oval office. this was a monday after the michigan state game. and coach harbaugh had already agreed to come to d.c. to do something with the first lady. but the president wanted to meet with coach harbaugh that day, but watching their rapport was quite something. even talked about harbaugh's khakis. i have to admit the president did not ask coach harbaugh, hey, where can i get some of those slacks? but it was really quite a conversation. there were some similarities between the two of them that are quite positive. now, you all didn't invite me to share a host of personal anecdotes and stories about my life here. i've got a lot more.
6:10 pm
in the q&a if you want to ask for more, i'll give you more. but let's talk about what i do for the president and why it's so rewarding and so incredibly consequential. >> as was mentioned, i have two primary roles. i serve as the cabinet secretary, an i serve as the chair of his my brother's keeper task force. i'll talk about both of those a little bit and how they indeed intersect. then i look forward to having a conversation with all of you and your questions and suggestions i look forward to. i was asked to join the senior team at the white house in february of 2014. this white house. but it's been my privilege to have known barack obama in 2003 when he was a u.s. senate candidate, to have helped advise him in that race, in his presidential race the first time in his re-election campaign, during his two successful terms as president. i should also add that it's been my distinct honor to get to know the president as a friend.
6:11 pm
he's quite a human being. when i got the call in late 2013, it would have been the professional mistake of my life, bar none, if i had said no thank you, mr. president. i can't even imagine saying that, but some people do. but i didn't. and it's a good thing that i didn't. because again, it's hard but it's incredibly rewarding. the institution of the cabinet is as old as our democracy. article 2, section 2 of the constitution states that the president, quote, may require the opinion of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, closed quote. today's cabinet includes as a head, so 15 departments. everyone from the secretary of state to the attorney general to secretaries of relatively
6:12 pm
recently established departments, such as department of homeland security. the cabinet also includes the heads of agencies that have been extended, cabinet rank, like the epa and the small business administration. the cabinet wears many hats. the part of the board of the director of the president. he or she serves as liaison being the eyes and ears of the president and vice versa to the cabinet. he or she coordinates among various departments and agency efforts around the many, many policy programs of the 2k5r789s and he or she works on implementation and communication with the president's agenda.
6:13 pm
the president regularly engages with his cabinet. the team i have in the white house coordinates much of that with me. we have formal cabinet sessions that are held nearly every quarter. you all have seen some of the press around those. you see the spt in the cabinet room and a pool spray will come in. video or still press.
6:14 pm
the president will have some remarks at the top, maybe about the subject of the day that he wants to get out and have the press carry. and then, of course, members of the press try to ask the president questions. they yell questions at him and they're ushered out of the room pretty quickly at that point. i had really my first cabinet meeting in may of 2014. i asked people who had been there throughout the administration whether i should be prepared to answer any questions or address any issues. the cabinet meeting they all said no, it never happened in the list of history of the republic. of course you know he turned to me and said, broderick, would you present what's going on in your cabinet? i said yes, of course. i had no idea what i said after that point. >> we've actually adopted various new approaches to engaging the cabinet with the president. for example, there are department-specific briefings that focus on updates,
6:15 pm
challenges and related accidents, using a specific one-on-one engagement between the president and relevant cabinet secretaries. we also have group meetings that will be based on issue areas. for example, we have a trade cabinet, a climate cabinet. these are informal designations of groups but they get together and they've done that throughout the time i've been in this white house. president obama has always been clear on his guidance to all of us that we have to anticipate challenges, proactively address them, and be candid in opening how departments will stay on track to meet the priorities and objectives. this president is a leader who digs deep into substance. it's like he has a highlighter in his head. you can give him a 30-page memo, and you would think he would get lost in all of it. he has so much information and so little time because he has so much time to read. michael can attest to this. it's like he goes right to the subject -- or right to the question at the very moment when it needs to be asked. and you sit there and say this man is unbelievably smart. i've seen it time and time again. he hates small talk. and happy talk. so don't be the cabinet secretary that comes in and says mr. president, everything is great, we're doing just fine. if it's not. if it is, that's great. but it better be.
6:16 pm
he doesn't belief people should air brush over the challenges they face. >> the president's cabinet is focused on implementation of his priorities in the time we have remaining in the next 11 months. policy priorities, but also management priorities and rule making. and quite honestly, we don't expect to get a whole lot done with the congress. that's not the top of our list of expectations. although an exception for that will be around criminal justice reform, and we are quite optimistic about being able to get a criminal justice reform bill to the president that he can sign before he leaves office. the cabinet embodies that approach in a number of ways. let me share a couple of cross agency collaboration examples. >> two weeks ago, the president visited detroit to talk about the resurgence of that have great american city. and in case anyone has forgotten, when we inherited the white house when the president took office in 2009, a crisis on wall street had plunged this nation into a great recession and the effects were being felt certainly in detroit and throughout communities deeply connected to the auto industry. so in addition to actions the president took to support the american car manufactures to bet on their resurgence, he bet on
6:17 pm
the entire cabinet to support the recovery of detroit. the question was whether or not detroit would survive. these are just some of the examples of what happened. the department of treasury certainly reached out to provide capital and state and local finance to the city of detroit. the department of energy helped install or finance new l.e.d. lights that bring security to a community where there are many people worried about their safety. while saving money and reducing carbon footprint. as i said, i was with the president on his trip to detroit. and look, we know there are challenges that still remain in the city of detroit, especially around education. but detroit without question is on its way back and the president has directed the
6:18 pm
cabinet to remain present in detroit and continue to invest in detroit and look for ways to make change happen in the city of detroit. >> climate change. the end of 2015 saw one of the most consequential moments. the most historic agreement coming out of the top 21 negotiations in paris. there are many people who said that's just not going to happen. that they were not going to be able to achieve much in paris. again, his whole cabinet needed to get involved in a tightly coordinated approach. for example, for the epa, promulgating rules on clean power and clean water, for the department of interior, for the department of energy, standards and renewable energy standards, incorporating climate considerations into policy and grant making and for had you udd
6:19 pm
which recently announced grant to cities and states so we can mitigate the effects of climate change. secretary kerry has made top priority in virtually all of his engagements in other nations in china and india. with regard to criminal justice reform, the current attorney general and her team have continued the work that was done by the previous attorney general eric holder, looking at what we can do to reform criminal justice, provide reentry opportunities for many in our society who want a second chance. it leads me then to talk a few minutes about my brother's keeper, which we also referred to affectionately as mbk. two and a half years ago, the president spoke from the white
6:20 pm
house to the entire nation in response to the verdict in the trayvon martin case. the president smoke about the angst and anger that parents and families were feeling and about the challenges facing too many of this nation's young people, especially boys and young men of color. in those remarks, the president observed trayvon martin could be his only son or 45 years ago, he could have been trayvon martin. the president said, quote, there are a lot of kids out there who need help who are getting a lot of negative re-enforcement. there has to be a lot more we can give them in the sense that the country cares about them and values them and is willing to invest in them. the president and i talked about what he could do to lift up a the importance of this work and the president was very clear that he wanted to go big on this. he wanted to do something significant. he wanted to use the power over the federal government and also to convene people from the private sector to engage in this
6:21 pm
work. he gave the ceremony in the east room of the white house. that demonstrated how this was a priority of this president, just by where he held the ceremony to launch this treat -- great effort to address issues that boys and men of color are confronted with.great effort to address issues that boys and men of color are confronted with. during the speech, the president reflected on how personal the work is with him. he said i could see myself in a lot of young men. there were young men behind the president that day on the stage. he went on to say the only difference is that i grew up in
6:22 pm
an environment that was a little bit more forgiving, so that when i made a mistake, the consequences were not as severe. he continued, quote, the plain fact is there are some americans who in the aggregate are consistently doing worse in our society groups that have had the odds stacked against them in unique ways that require unique solutions. groups who have seen fewer opportunities that have spanned generations, and by almost every measure, the group that's facing some of the most severe challenges in the 21st century in this country are boys and young men of color. so here are some of the measures the president was alluding to. i could go on and on with many, many negative statistics, but i just want to site a few. boys and men of color are more likely than it appears to be born in low income families and live in concentrated poverty. to live with one or no parents or attend poor performing schools.
6:23 pm
boy and men of color too often receive harsher penalties for same infractions as similarly charged white males, are less likely to be given a second chance. finally, they're more likely to live in communities with higher crime. black boys, for instance, are 6% of the nation's population, but more than half of the nation's homicide victims. the president thinks about these issues in a very, very personal way, as i've mentioned. he talks about it as often as he possibly can. for example, a few months ago when he visited el reno federal
6:24 pm
when he visited el reno federal penetentiary in oklahoma, he said he met young people there who made mistakes that aren't that different than the mistake he has made and the mistakes a lot of us make. the difference is the guys he met at that prison did not have the kinds of support structures, the second chances, the resources, that would allow them to survive or get beyond those mistakes. the disparity is mind numbing. we an economic obligation. we're compelled to act because there is an economic imperative if our country is to remain globally competitive. we cannot continue to have so many millions of young people missing from this society. a recent cent report from the president's own council of economic advisers showed that if we close the gap that exists in labor force participation between 16 and 54-year-old men
6:25 pm
of color and nonhispanic white men of the same age, total u.s. gdp would increase by 2%. there's an economic imperative as much as there's a moral obligation. mbk is about obliterating the barriers or kids face and building stronger communities and stronger opportunity strains. in less than two years, we could not be more excited. super charged private sector investment and collaboration, let me talk about those work streams. first, federal policy. over the course of the past two years, the mbk task force, an interagency working group of a dozen federal agencies has led to new and expanded grant opportunities out of the department of labor, department of education, department of energy. in july of last year, i joined arnie duncan and loretta lynch at a correctional facility in jessup, maryland.
6:26 pm
they were testing new models to allow incarcerated americans to receive pell grants to pursue secondary education. and of course, we've already received hundreds of applications nationwide. the way out of prison has to be a good education and a good job when they get out. the president visited newark, new jersey, which is one of the stronger mbk communities to highlight the entry process of formally incarcerated
6:27 pm
individuals and announce new actions aimed at helping americans who have paid their debt to society, rehabilitate and reintegrate themselves back into their communities. it was during that visit the president announced a round of what we called mbk federal policy deliverables, responding to recommendations that were also a part of the task force on criminal youth. first, banning the box for almost all federal judges until later in the hiring process. so that again, once someone has served their debt, pay paid their debt to society, they get a fair shot at a federal job. another one was department of housing and urban development or department of justice, working together now with the national bar association to seal an expunge records for hundreds d expunge records for hundreds of
6:28 pm
young adults who have made mistakes but who need a fresh start in housing. the department of energy education awarded millions of grants to help formally carcerated youth and young adults successfully re-enter school and other educational programs. there are dozens and dozens if not hundreds of new programs that have been launched across federal agencies. there are now more than 200 communities that have accepted the my brothers keeper community challenge, representing 49 states, the district of columbia, 49 tribal nations. the 50th state is going to have a primary next week. anyway, that's the hint. it's been remarkable. there are some states in this country that have as many as six to eight to 12 mbk communities. and what it's done is brought together the public sector and the private sector, local government with the help of foundations and others who have been doing this work for a long time to get together and design cradle to college and career action plans. that's the work that's being done in communities all across this country. and it's evidence based. and it's goal oriented. it's both urgent and long term.
6:29 pm
in detroit, mayor duggan announced their action plan by more than 100 leaders and youth from the detroit area. the next five years, detroit plans to recruit and match 5,000 new mentors, to employ 5,000 additional men to reduce suspensions by 50%. and enroll 90% of its 4-year-olds in preschool. and they have matched strategies to get that work done. in boston, the boston foundation has invested millions to expand street safe outreach programs to youth at risk of violent crime. and they're doing this in coordination with the boston police department. and the mayor's public safety initiative. in philadelphia, philadelphia has already reduced school-based arrests by 50%. two weeks ago, more than 90 million dollars in new
6:30 pm
investments and mbk programs in philadelphia alone. $90 million just in philadelphia. d.c. has recruited 500 volunteers to work asme mentors and increase literacy. they've given more than 100 student paid internships. again, in response to the president's call to action, foundations and businesses and social enterprises have responded to his call for action. thus far, more than half a
6:31 pm
billion dollars of grants. the earlier this month, the nonprofit organization in real life campaign it's part of the mbk's commitment to my brother's keeper activities shared across the country. this mbk's all-star month. we'll see a lot of tension around my brother's keeper and mbk. earlier this month, mentor and the national basketball association launched the relife campaign as part of the nba's compliment to my brother's keeper. this campaign challenges
6:32 pm
americans across the franchises that the nba is based in to mentor so that every young person who wants to be connected to a mentor has that opportunity. the nba is using player stories alongside stories about mentors and mentee s. just recently in "usa today," bill russell, one of the greatest players in nba history, released an op-ed that was accomplished in the "usa today" about mentoring and my brother's keeper and last week kendrick lamar released a video on his story and how it relates to the president's initiative. so there's a lot of attention being brought to you from the private sector.
6:33 pm
to sum all this mbk stuff up, let me say the following -- when we were in the president in the bronx, he took a moment to speak directly to the youth who had gathered there. i say these things in the president's own word because these are very, very personal issues to him. he said, quote, to the young people there, "there's nothing, not a single thing that's more important to the future of america than whether or not you and the young people across this country can achieve your dreams." the president has made it clear this will be important for him after he leaves the white house, if his personal capacity, it will be among his priorities. for me, everything i get to do is about disrupting the status quo, focusing on what works and uniting diverse stakeholders to realize the president's vision for a more fair and equitable
6:34 pm
society, where everybody has a fair shot and everybody is in the game. and while admitable social transformation is complex and often measured over decades, i can personally see from the trips i take across this country that we are getting closer and closer of that goal every day of a more fair and equitable society. i want to be close with an observation about where we are in the last parts of this presidency, the last 11 months, really going back to the beginning of what we call the fourth quarter. i would ask you all not to ask me any questions about the iowa caucuses because i'm not going to talk about those at all. makes me a little bit too emotional because it's the reality that we are getting closer to the end of this incredible administration. so i don't gloat, so this isn't to gloat so let's just stipulate that. after the 2014 mid-term
6:35 pm
elections in which democrats suffered some pretty significant losses across the country, the political media in washington was quick to assign labels to the president, to his administration, pretty harshly minimizing the remainder of his time in office in many cases. for example, there were some commentators who were referring to barack obama as the lamest lame duck in american history, that he was going to run the clock out. some even said the president was tired and looking defeated. i listened to some of that stuff and thought they just don't know. so that has not been the case. instead the president the day after the election called all his advisers into a meeting and said we are entering the fourth quarter. the president is a huge sports fan as many of you know. so if the first part of fourth quarter in 2015, we had 12 more
6:36 pm
months of job growth adding to an unparalleled record of consecutive months of job growth. we reached an an historic international agreement to combat climate change. we reached an agreement with iran and other countries around the world that verifiably cuts off all of its path to a nuclear weapon. we advanced relations with cuba, achieved conclusion of an historic 12-month trade agreement, saw marriage equality upheld in 50 states and also saw a bipartisan agreement to further improve k-12 education. that was all in 2015. of course the beginning of 2016, among other things, we saw the president's announcement of executive actions to better protect communities and children across this country from gun violence. all those achievements and all that we will continue to do is not the result of an accident or lucky timing. it really is a result of a president who has steely
6:37 pm
determination, he looks downfield, his vision focused on the future and he makes sure that all of us understand that and work with the same approach. so we're halfway through the fourth quarter. the president and all of us in his cabinet are going to hustle on every play, every down -- let me finish with some football analogies. here's a basketball one. maybe football, too. there's no prevent defense happening. we're not just sort of this to say, oh, please don't do this to us. we're just looking for every opportunity to continue to execute until the very end, just like they do in the big house in better times. so thank all of you for listening to me. i look forward to your questions, your observations, again as long as they're not about the iowa caulk escaulkes. thanks for listening and go blue. thanks very much. [ applause ]
6:38 pm
>> good evening, everyone. my name is tabitha bentley. i'm a student here. part of my work is actually working with the my brother's keeper initiative here in the county and it great to see some of the county leaders here. this is our q & a session. we encourage you to continue to write your questions down and feed them to us. our first question here is for mr. john, what do you think the single largest problem faced by people of color? >> well, there's certainly the material problems they face that relate to poor schools, living in impoverished neighborhoods,
6:39 pm
being surrounded by violence, all things that we know to be true and that we have to address. there's also, though, what i would call the perception set of problems that have to do with the importance of changing the narrative. and by that i mean the way they view themselves, the way they think people like us view them, the way we view them. right? because so much of what we do is based on the expectations that people have about us. so i think as much as anything else, it's about changing the narrative in all those many ways. did you say there were some young people here from washinaw county that you work with? or did i misunderstand? do you want my mic? >> i was mentioning the county my brother's keeper initiative
6:40 pm
and they were here. >> they raise their hand. thank you very much. >> my question is how do we incorporate social justice in urban development. and secondly, how do you expect things to change with the change of leadership? and what will be your next step professionally with the conclusion of the obama administration? it's sort of caucusy but not. >> do i have to answer the second question? no, no, i know. so i can actually -- your first question has to do with how we will continue to work after the end of the obama administration. is that fair? i guess in several ways. one is, as i mentioned, we have been working across the federal agencies, whether it's the labor department, the education, even the energy department around nabs labs and stem education and
6:41 pm
opportunities to try to make sure we are able to make changes that people will be able to point to that have made a difference, you know, again the next 11 months are really critical to that, too. we would want whoever the next president is to look at a lot of the programs and the way we have focused those programs where the greater disparities are and maintain those approaches. while i can't say my brother's keeper will be an initiative of the next president, i know we're going to try continue to institutionalize change that will bring about change we believe important. second, the president has said he is committed to this work for the rest of his life. there's the my brother's keeper alliance is a startup and hopefully it will continue to progress rapidly and well. it may be through that that the
6:42 pm
president will continue his efforts and for me personally, i will stay engaged in it work for the rest of my life because it means that much to me, too. and then i'll find some other things to do after i get some rest. >> so this question comes from twitter. how does the president respond to criticism that mbk either does not do enough or is misguided in scope? >> is that a softball question? >> i think so. >> look, i know what difference we are able to make and how the various heads of agencies view their role in addressing these issues and the fact that it is clear, that means the president pays a lot of attention to it. and looking at how we've been able to get private sector partners involved in this work
6:43 pm
who either weren't involved or just couldn't figure out how to collaborate with other folks on the ground to make a difference. the third thing i'll say, i grew up in baltimore, which is a pretty tough place. when i was growing up it was tough and it continues to be tough and it's seen its share of unrest over time. you go to baltimore and talk to the young people being affected by my brother's keeper, baltimore already, and they are more helpful than people would imagine they are. you see it over and over again in cities. to me we have to be able to prove it makes a difference. don't get my me wrong. it's not going to be about happy sto story. i'm confident that it's making a big difference. and we'll have statistics to show that. >> that leads to the next
6:44 pm
question. with mbk, what has been the most significant indicator of mesh g measuring its success? >> i think the 200 communities that have agreed to do the work and they're doing it under the frame of my brother's keeper and they determine defending on the circumstances in their cities. for example, in some cities youth unemployment and the education of 3 and 4-year-olds, little preschoolers suspended from school across the country. come on. so we are able to make sure that communities have the flexibility to do the work that is important is to where they are but the fact that so many communities have agreed to do this work, they're building sustaining work. it's not work that is, like,
6:45 pm
okay, this will expire on january 20th, 2017 but have three and four-year plans in place already to do the work going forward. >> so this question is in regards to your position as cabinet secretary. who are the most rewarding and difficult cabinet members to work with? [ laughter ] >> michael, do you want to answer that question for me? they're all great. it's no more sophisticated than that. i love my job. >> okay. our next question asks, "how can cities like flint, michigan pursue all the reforms necessary to pursue all the reforms for its residents, mbk, private
6:46 pm
sector, economic development?" >> well, flint of course has some real emergency challenges that it has to attend to that has implications to the health of its children and therefore the education of its children as well. nevertheless, flint by no means can do by itself what it needs do across the board in those areas that you mentioned. i can just tell you from perspective of the federal government that as we've done in other cities, i don't know that we'll follow exactly this model in flint, we'll see, but we've been able with regard to detroit and it's been the case for baltimore where we have actually sent federal teams led by a particular person in to provide as much federal assistance as possible. i don't know whether or not that will be the case with flint, but it's a model, as i mentioned, a place-based model of work that needs to be replicated, i think, by the federal government, whoever is in charge of in january of 2017.
6:47 pm
it has to be comprehensive and it has to be based on a broader view of the needs of flint as in any other city. >> what have been some of the fund beiing mechanisms used to local mbk forward? >> i mentioned that communities get together and develop action plans. and those action plans include not just an approach they're going to take where they're going to address one of the six milestones, whether it's it's from cradle or whether it's about reentry programs but also how they're going to go about getting the private sector to invest in collaboration with the public sector in those communities. again, for example, philadelphia being a great example of a city that got together with a lot of businesses in the city of philadelphia, either based there or that have strong operations there and came up with guaranteed investments, what
6:48 pm
they would put into the mbk-related work. it's through those collaborations and frankly among people who maybe haven't been talking to each other about getting involved in the work, it's about franchises, where they're going to put their next restaurant as opposed to young people and their jobs. >> was there any concern the potus waited until too late in his administration to launch mbk? >> no. there's a long history of the work that of course we've been doing across many, many issues, whether having to do with the american economy and jobs, having to do with health care, having to do with education opportunities and reforms that would lead to what we've seen in terms of increased graduation rates and attendance in colleges. i think, again, what i'd say about mbk is that the president
6:49 pm
was profoundly affected by what happened in the trayvon martin situation and decided it was an important opportunity given where the country was and the circumstances to pull this all together in one initiative. that's not to say we had been ignoring those issues before because we weren't. >> what is the likelihood of mbk remaining a key program and are there better chances under a democratic president of the united states? >> so i'm not going to talk about partisan political stuff, except to say that we have -- well, this isn't except to say because this is in fact true in that we have found a lot of support among republicans for my brother's keeper, particularly in the communities like indianapolis, for example, that had a republican mayor who was one of the early mayors to endorse mbk. we've seen that in fresno, california, for example, a
6:50 pm
republican mayor did it as well. and we've gotten a lot of expressions for support, not necessarily support for a new appropriation that would fund mbk-related programs but that funding can come through a variety can come through a variety of other things of the department of education funding and the like but we have seen a tremendous amount of support of republicans for mbk and religious conservatives, as well. it's one of the -- you know, it's viewed as one of the least partisan things that we have developed by those who want to view what we do as partisan which is not the case. >> all right. our next question ask, how's the mbk task force encouraging cities that haven't join, especially those with high percentage of boys and young men of color to declare itself an mbk city? >> i don't think there are any of those left in terms of large and medium-sized cities. there are still some. it's, honestly, keeping up with
6:51 pm
the 200 or so that are already mbk communities and making sure all the communities are doing their work effectively is a challenging mission for us so we're really focused on that. community that is -- this is something that has to be drib by the local communities largely, though. right? local leaders have to decide and what kind of mbk community they want to become. they need to make those determinations, really, at a local level. >> how does mbk talk with boys on the ground about the planning and implementation of mbk? are there leadership roles for black and brown males, youth and the decision making? >> so it is mandated sort to speak under kind of mbk construct that your action plan address how you make sure locally that you have young people involved in the planning of the work. that's one thing that goes to really the quality of the mbk plan, so that's baked in to what
6:52 pm
communities should do. second, though, i've gone around probably to two dozen mbk communities over the past year and always insist that the listening session, sort to speak or summit that they have include young people in both the planning and also in terms of who i can speak to to solicit their ideas and i can't tell you how many times i've gone back to the white house and had a young person saying tell president obama i said such and such. i remember once i had -- probably about a year after we had started mbk and "wall street journal" written something positive and "the washington post" had, as well. i was feel happy about that having republican support and the president asked me not long after those editorials ran, how were we doing with mbk. i was like, well, we got this great editorial from "wall
6:53 pm
street journal" and such and such and he kind of shut me off and said i want to know what the young people think about the work we're putting into it and he meant that because he asks when he's out on the road all the time. >> how do you think that my brother's keeper works to address issues that face young men of color without the e raise your of problems that young women of color may face? >> in one of the things that i think we need to highlight more and should have highlighted better at the beginning of mbk, quite frankly, is that the federal government cannot design programs that are race or gender exclusive. there's the u.s. constitution first after all and then there's just fairness. right? so, while we have had, of course, an emphasis on boys and young men of color because of -- as president mentioned in his own voice, some of these disparities that really trouble the society are especially the case with them, everything we
6:54 pm
have designed around mbk is gender or race neutral. has to be. but if you're attacking issues where the disparities are greatest then just as a matter of fact the it will have a greater impact on boys and young men of color if that's where you're focusing on did disparities so by no way is what we're doing under mbk especially from the federal task force work exclusive of helping girls. and even helping all children quite frankly. >> so, i believe this is going to be our last question. >> oh. >> and it's a two-part question so that's okay. >> should have shut up. do you have a one-part question. no, no. it's all right. >> what is your most rewarding experience at the university of michigan as a student? and also, what experiences helped prepare you for your current role with mbk?
6:55 pm
>> so, can i say something as sort of frivolous as going to see -- what was his name? see, my memory is fading too much, too. it was one saturday when -- it was early in the semester when you don't have to study as hard as you have to it's later in the semester and going to see michigan-notre dame game. right? and then a jazz concert that night and it's terrible because the name of that musician, he's a trumpeter. come on here. help me. he's deceased now. yes. miles davis. thank you very much. that was just a trick question. i knew who it was! and just starting my second year of law school and that was like the most fun weekend i had when i was at school. i think just the most rewarding thing was really not as a student but it's been really quite frankly as an alum and some of the things i mentioned
6:56 pm
about my own father and my children and my mom and stuff because, you know, this legacy, these leg silts, these family legacies are incredible important. they really are and they provide tremendous opportunities but they also provide you with opportunities that are priceless. experiences that are priceless. and so, i'm really so drawn to that. i think in terms of my job now and what prepared me for it having bb in school here is just the rigor of the studies here at the law school and also the sense that you should if you're willing and able to commit yourself to do public service. and for me, i've been able to do public service and also private law firm and other work. but just the commitment to public service i left here with since i needed to go and make a difference and give back. it's all very true. good way to end this with this question. thank you so much. [ applause ]
6:57 pm
>> so, my thanks, of course, to our special guest. i'd also like to thank all of your few joining us for all of your questions. i hope you will stay for continuing the conversation at a reception out in our great hall and i hope you'll consider coming back next monday. we'll be hosting u.s. secretary of labor thomas perez and so hope to see many of you become. >> he's one of my favorites zblt tell him that, please. he's one of my favorites. tell him. >> and so, just a final thank you for your thoughts, your perspective, all of your experien experiences. we have learned a lot. >> of course. thank you very much, susan. >> thank you. [ applause ]
6:58 pm
president obama made a rare visit to the white house briefing room today to talk about treasury department steps to deter a corporate financial practice known as tax inversions. that's where corporations move overseas to avoid u.s. taxes. the president called on congress to close the loophole for good. >> in the news over the last couple of days, we have had another reminder in this big dump of data coming out of panama that tax avoidance is a big, global problem. it's not unique to other countries because, frankly, there are folks here in america who are taking advantage of the same stuff. a lot of it's legal. but that's exactly the problem. it's not that they're breaking the laws. it's that the laws are so poorly designed they allow people if they have enough lawyers and enough accountants to wiggle out of responsibilities that
6:59 pm
ordinary citizens are having to abide by. here in thunited states, there are loopholes that only wealthy individuals and powerful corporations have access to. they have access to offshore accounts. and they're gaming the system. middle class families are not in the same position to do this. in fact, a lot of these loopholes come at the expense of middle class families because that lost revenue has to be made up somewhere. alternatively, it means that we are not investing as much as we should in schools, in making college more affordable, and putting people back to work, rebuilding our roads, our bridges, our infrastructure, creating more opportunities for our children. so, this is important stuff. and these new actions by the treasury department build on steps that we have already taken to make the system fairer but i want to be clear. while the treasury department actions will make it more difficult and less lucrative for
7:00 pm
companies to exploit this particular corporate inversions loophole, only congress can close it for good. and only congress can make sure that all the other loopholes that are being taken advantage of are closed. campaign 2016 continues today with the wisconsin primary. live coverage begins tonight at 9:00 eastern, tune in for complete election results, candidate speeches and viewer reaction. taking you on the road to the white house on c-span, c-span radio and c-span.org. next, remarks from a german security policy analyst about the recent terror attacks in belgium. and about how europe is dealing with terrorism and with refugees. the world affairs council of dallas/ft. worth hosted this discussion. it's about an hour.

37 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on