tv General Pershing and the Battle of Meuse- Argonne CSPAN April 9, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT
programming. whether it's at the capitol or on the campaign trail, they have a camera. they are capturing history as it happens. it brings you inside the chambers, inside the conversations on capitol hill, and lets you have a seat at the table. >> i'm a c-span fan. >> i'm a c-span fan. power of c-span, access for everyone to be a part of the conversation. >> a military historian talks about his book, 47 days, help urgings warriors came of age to -- his book, "forty-seven days: how pershing's warriors came of age to defeat the german army in world war i."
pershing's army fought to victory in the i.t. and taking -- fought to victory in the 1918 battle. u.s. turning point for army fighting strategies. the national archives hosted this hour-long event. >> our guest speaker this afternoon, who just so happens to be celebrating his birthday, is michie aquos and -- is mitch yockelson. is a former professor of military history at the united states naval academy and currently teaches at norwich university. he has received they army historical foundations distinguished writing award. also one of america's foremost experts on the first world war and holds a doctorate from the royal military college of science.
today he will discuss an later answer your questions about his new book, 47 days -- about his new book, "forty-seven days: how pershing's warriors came of age to defeat the german army in world war i." douglas waller, the new york times best-selling author, notes become ahell has preeminent world war i historian, commenting on the book, waller has written -- "40 seven days brings to life that bloody arc, when general pershing and more than one million americans and french soldiers broke the back of the mighty german army." please welcome mitchell yucca's and -- please welcome mitch yockelson.
a pleasure to be here, and i'm excited to see a nice crowd. hear usa lot of -- to talk about a subject that doesn't get a lot of attention. ofgot into the war in april 1917. built our forces until it turned into the climactic -- which is the subject of my book. the talk largely centers around general pershing. it is really his story, and that .s how i tell the battle how it played out and ultimately its success. you often asked when did
begin writing this book? what my colleagues asked if i wrote this a few years ago and waited to release it during the centennial. i wish i thought upon those lines. part of the reason i was able to write a book like this was we are in the midst of a centennial world war i and we will be commemorating america's entrance next year and his participation as combatant the following year. started whene book i was a young man. that is a photo of me around age five. i used to gocause to a pediatrician in silver spring maryland. had any health issues to deal with. i remember we turned onto pershing drive, which is near where his office was. i get this chill and this weird feeling.
he was the nicest guy on the planet. that my experience is good. who was he, and why was there a street name for him. really become clear until we studied history in college. for a number of years i was our subject area specialist for the world war i records. i got to know a fair amount about him, and then when the book, withte a already one million americans from theassistance french, i realized it was more to story and he was going
tell it through his words and what he rose and others wrote about him. in the event you haven't read a book yet, we will talk a little and then that first his warriors, who fought under him and then about the battle itself. general pershing, born in missouri, which is about an hour and a half drive, two hours from kansas city right on the eve of the civil war. he experienced his first warfare when guerrillas came through the town, ransacked his father's business. and with the help of his parents they got through that tragedy. it wasn't until he was a late teenager, he thought about a career as an attorney.
at thatot of people time then, the idea of a free education through one of the a bade academies wasn't idea. his sister sans advertisement in the local newspaper for the examinations of the military academy. iny were going to take place his hometown. he ended up going to west point. he excelled as a leader. of future officers who would serve under him were also classmates. they knew pershing had this ability, he had that kind of charisma. after graduating west point he served out in the west. he was a company commander in the u.s. calvary. one of the american unit formed
after the civil war. he went back and taught in nebraska, through what we would consider rotc. he went back and was caught at west point. he was a horrible instructor. the cadets couldn't stand him, they made fun of him behind his back. that is where the nickname blackjack came from. he had commanded his african-american troops, even commanding them again during the spanish world war and the attack against the spanish in cuba. ater on went back and had number of roles, including serving in the philippines. he was an adviser during the russo japanese war. as he is building his career, he meets a young woman in daughtern, who is the
of one of the higher ranking senators, who also had military affairs. and he falls in love with her and they get married. lo and behold he gets a promotion. not hisstion whether or association with senator warren because of his father-in-law, he left the cross, so many others on the list who were up for promotion. to that,ht be choose but the bottom line is pershing had built up a strong experience as a leader and commander. went and had a nice family of four children, three daughters and one son. pershing was called to mexican border in 1950. tension was heating up between the mexican government and
americans living in mexico. mexico was under a revelation at -- time, and the government there were a number of troubles and americans who were murdered. there in the late 1915. the four children were to join him. the telephone rang and his command and his orderly wasn't there to answer it. and answeredtrated the phone. it was a reporter on the end of the new york newspapers, not knowing it was pershing on the phone, saying we called to verify the fire of the persian home. there was a dead silence on the other end. that point it was obvious to
the reporter that he was talking to general pershing at the time. it is me, id him, need you to tell me what happened. they were doing some renovation and a fire broke out near a fireplace and engulfed the entire house. there was another family living in the home. they escaped the fire. his wife andtely three of his four daughters were in -- three of his four daughters were killed in the fire. he quickly traveled back to san francisco and had to identify the remains, get the family situation in order and take care of his son. a year later, columbus new mexico, president wilson authorizes an expeditionary -- somebodyafter
had to lead it. experience as a leader and commander. this guy is in a bad place right now. to put him in a position of authority, where he can get his mind off things. severely wounded in one fight. ultimately he got away for a number of reasons. the u.s. finally gets into the war in april for a variety of reasons, and somebody needs to lead what will be the expeditionary force overseas. there were a number of commanders who outranked
pershing. secretary of war baker suggested him, president wilson agreed, in a lead foras the first overseas contingent of the united states. he takes the americans into the modern age. and what he has got at his , there is roughly 100 27,000 regulars, professional soldiers. there were 110,000 national guard. each one protect against further incursions. draft.lson authorized a there ended up being three conscription surround world war i. there were roughly about over 2
million who were drafted or volunteered. where they troops, had experience, but not the type of experience one would need to fight in modern warfare overseas, especially on the , you know the remnants are still there. and just the difficult terrain the troops had to fight over. been badly had bloodied. theer killed or wounded on first day. the french had been bloodied, and american troops were badly needed. question among the allies was, why don't you bring these american troops over here and we will join forces with the french and british, we will amalgamate
that. president wilson knew this war was going to come to an end and the the were going to need to have a say. the only way they are going to have a legitimate say is having an independent american army. he gives pershing the instructions, you will form your army independently and fight it independently. we had very few guns. we didn't have aircraft and a number of supplies, but we relied heavily on the branch and the free dish -- french and the british. many trained with the french army. year into the u.s. being involved in the war, more and more american troops are coming over. so he met with this gentleman here. allied head of all the
armies. folks were really excited about pershing having his own independent force. they had a number of very difficult meetings. .hey almost came to blows and fighting in their own front. he selected an area under german control. that is the area between them use river. he allowed pershing to form this. -- came upme out with an idea of attacking another area. being able to fight that one battle, plus what was going to be part of a combined offensive
effort, beginning toward the end of september was extremely difficult. aboutng was adamant again some officers calling him obstinate. i feel like he has america's best interest in this. attacked on september 12, the germans were somewhat aware of the americans in the area and the potential for an offensive, they had begin to withdraw. americans attack about 5000 troops and completely overwhelmed the germans. french citizens who had been basically isolated by the for almost four years, living in sellers, having to give away your homes. all of their supplies, things they finally brought back.
most of the images i'm going to show you today are from the the archives. which is in the process of being digitized. speaking of birthdays, pershing had his birthday on september 13. he turned 58. there was a time to gloat over the battle. i want to show you an image. his ownled around by personal train. he wasn't the only one. you notice some of the theyan-americans here, were actually recruited by the army. it was a full train, have an office in there. kitchen,sleeper car, a
and it had maps and so on. headquarters to the department. you can still see it today. it is well marked. you can go in the building, the steps are worn out. a number of french officers going all the way to the top. they are starting to plan this battle. we are starting to figure out how we get all of these troops, french troops are. get them in line. the person who orchestrates this is one of the unsung heroes in the war. the graduate enters the service to serve as a first division.
he was brought in by pershing. it was really up to marshall to do the planning. he was able to manage to get more than 500,000 troops brought in at night, traveling the long roads and rod and through the front. many of the troops were brought forward by french drivers. they were recruited by the french, brought the americans in . many had been out of their hometowns, much less traveled to france. some thought they were chinese, but they often wrote about their .xperience
sure enough they get their and the germans have no idea that the americans are going to attack. they are flying planes over and they can see more and more american troops are forming for some kind of nomination. around 3:30 in the morning the artillery kicks off. starting firing toward the german position. the american troops jumped off. most of them were not in trenches. they were actually out in the open. area's or hunker down in former shell holds. the american troops make great gains on the first day.
the high ground, the germans have a post there. and they have had a post there since 1914. it is a key post to take out early in the battle. pershing wants it done the first day, the french tell him he is crazy. the attack happens in that area. it is not until the second day that one of the regiments from baltimore, part of the 79th division, driving the germans from that post. as the battle plays out it starts to bog down. of the battle and any world war i battle is communication. there are wires laid by the single core troops that would move them forward.
in order to get messages forward, we need a clear communication. certainly the telephone were a key to any success with an american operation. one of the attributions they had was they had to speak french and they had to handle pressure to hide the lines. to the front,e which is behind the chairs. plus in the bag, gas masks. you never knew when an attack was going to happen. another problem we bemoan about the traffic issues, certainly it
was a problem over there. there are only three roads leading to the front. last of which has been pummeled through the germans --, by the germans through their artillery. once the battle commenced, they started aiming their artillery onto these roads. it is stamp, so the roads would damp, so area -- it is up.riot roads would huddle supplies are not getting to the front, which includes food and water. armaments. -- also armaments. the battle seems to bog down to the point that the americans aren't making any gains and there is significant amount of pressure put on pershing. perhaps he is not the guy to lead the americans. perhaps he doesn't understand the logistics.
and the french are pressuring him to step down and let one of their commanders to's -- let mother commanders to take over. wilson stands behind him. going to thes front, constantly talking to his troops, trying to push them on, he was the ultimate micromanager. mentioned often you would see his signatures in the margins. he would go to the front. if he felt let one of his officers wasn't performing, he would fire them. he would send them to the rear areas or some of them were shipped home. but the pressure was getting to him significantly. on one of his trips to the front, his aide was in the first -- was in the front seein seat. he was calling out his deceased wives name and was having a
nervous breakdown. -- heled himself together pulled himself together, he regrouped. he decided at this point he was going to step down as commander of the first army and in his place he appointed one of the brilliant first corps commanders. this allowed pershing a little bit more lenience in the sense of how he was running things. going back to the micromanager theme, that train he had parked near -- even though he was commanding first army, pershing was a mainstay at headquarters there. around theg wasn't front, he was often in paris, a home he was allowed to use. but he had another reason for going to paris, and that was a
young woman, who was 22 years old when they met in 1917. she was a romanian artisan. they met at a party. do aas commissioned to portrait of purging when she had done a number of all other officers. -- number of other officers. they headed off with a romantic relationship, which lasted until pershing's's death in the late 1940's. previously officers had called her his mistress. she was not married, he was moved -- he was widowed, he certainly had the right to date and have a companion. he was pretty embarrassed by the significant age difference of more than 30 years. and he didn't talk about it very much, but it was the worst kept secret in the army. almost everybody knew about purging and --
progresses, he has a number of things he has to deal with. straggling, troops who did not want to fight anymore. but the bottom line is fighting in that area, troops often got under units. he had the military police come in and gather them up and bring them back to their units. but also getting supplies forward. you can see the roads themselves are hard. different ways to bring supplies to the front. also he had to do with something nobody expected, and that was the influenza epidemic. in october it was in its second phase. now it is even more devastating. hundreds of thousands of troops on all sides were impacted,
especially the first army. believed to be pneumonia. then it was determined to be the flu. we have to deal with the sick and also injured soldiers. brought tom were field hospitals, where they were treated. if their wounds more more serious they were brought back and taken to general hospitals. those caring for them were nurses who volunteered either with the army nurse corps or the red cross. they were often at the front learn -- often at the front working long hours. it was a dangerous situation. the cromwell sisters were from a wealthy new york family. they joined up and served in one of the hospitals toward the front. >> they had seen many, many
mangled men, young boys. when the war was over and they returned home to france, they were on one of the ships heading back in early 1919. they must have made a pass, because of the ship was leaving france and heading into the olympic -- atlantic, they jumped over and committed suicide. one of the mainstays of the army, which was part of the american expeditionary forces, not an independent arm like it is today, was the armed air forces. that was led by the gentleman in the far left, colonel billy mitchell, a very competent officer who really builds the air service. the problem was, because the weather was so poor throughout force did, the air not have as much impact as it had wanted. there were more than 1000 planes they got up, drink meuse-argonne
, only 100. many had to leave later in the day because of the heavy clouds. one of the heroes of the war is the officer standing by the wreckage, that is frank luke three he was known as the balloon buster. germans would wash these balloons, sausages, as they called them. they would get close to them. even though they were protected by antiaircraft either a low, he would shoot them down. he had 18 victories leading up onto the second day of the meuse-argonne, and then on said to him or 27, he was shot down and killed. on september 27, he was shot down and killed. we have this man in the bottom right, the american ace of the war, having 26 victories. another gentleman here underneath frank luke, you may not be as familiar with. he is marion cooper.
cooper, like a lot of young men, joined early. he was at the naval academy, did not do too well, was booted out, joined the national guard, wanted some adventure, joined the air service even though it was incredibly dangerous. and took off on the first day of the meuse-argonne. his plane was shot down, he was held in captivity throughout the war. after the war, he gets out, he actually is responsible for finding the remains of frank luke. he goes on after world war i, he joins polish air force. more famously, many years later, he became the director of king kong, and he was also well known cinematographer. other heroes that you may already know about that at least deserve a prominent role in the patton. course george s he started out as a driver,
actually on purging through. he -- pershing's crew. he ends up in the 10 core, armed in the service. on the first day of the battle, he is attacking in support of the unit to the far right, which was harry s truman. he was a battle commander and the artillery unit of the 35th division. patton, of course, they are near chesne.rea patton is out of the battle for the remainder of the war. in the middle of course is douglas macarthur, who ends up becoming a brigadier general in the 42nd rainbow division, quite a character. longtime service, west point graduate. he was also the highest decorated officer in the first world war, eventually winning several -- seven silver stars
and the gold cross. the battle commences. leadership,ett's the americans are able to overwhelm the germans, break through their lines, break through the wire, get around these machine-gun nets, which are devastating the american troops, and because the germans recognize that the battle is not week,well, by the third about three quarters of the way into the battle, there are more than one million americans fighting along with about 300,000 french. a million orther so americans ready to come over if shipping is available. it is pretty much the end of the road for the germans. negotiating takes place, and armistice is called on november . at 11:00 a.m. on 1918 even the british feared the germans might renege on this
armistice, fighting took place all the way up until 11:00 a.m. we had american casualties killed right up to that last-minute. after the war, hunter liggett was brought before congress and drilled about why the war continued on, but the obvious reason was, it was only an armistice. it is not a surrender. it means we are stopping the war right now to negotiate some sort of surrender. but the armistice does take place at that appointed time, and the battle winds down. the war winds down. the reason the war winds down is because of this 47 day battle, and is because americans came in. pershing was adamant that the americans fight as an independent force. when the battle ends, and the histories are starting to be somen -- written, there is question about what the american role was. certainly, america's bloodshed
in the meuse-argonne was significant. you had heroes all of a sudden that came out through the news media. sam would fill in the fifth division, who defeated a small group of germans on his own with a machine gun net. , the losslsey italian, a group of soldiers from the 77 division that were either lost or in the entire big battalion.alian america's newer were they were, and they fought for over six days to rescue them. i rescue took place in another part of the argonne, a guy named corporal york who was later promoted to sergeant. he captured 100 germans single-handedly, and his story begins synonymous with the meuse-argonne and the first world war. , as the fighting had ended
i mentioned, there is more than a million americans. their accomplishment was significant. they captured 2400 german guns. they fired more than 4 million shells, 840 planes. they also took more than 16,000 german pows and penetrated more than 34 miles. , they also47 days recaptured something like 100 50 french villages. unfortunately, many of them work in habitable -- uninhabitable, but american people came over after the war. than 120,000 warriors were killed and wounded, roughly 36,000 of those had died either from combat or from the influenza. for the germans, the exact number of their belligerence is
roughly around 450,000 with about 28,000 killed, another 100,000 wounded. who werehe americans killed, more than 14,000, or laid to rest -- are laid to rest in the meuse-argonne cemetery, actually the largest of the american battle monuments commission oversees. we often think about normandy, which has a greater acclaim, but meuse-argonne is the largest cemetery. certainly not a reason to brag, but it shows the sacrifice these men made, and there are women there buried as well. to sum up the battle, this was general pershing's battle. this was his to fight, his to lose your it he led the american troops ably, and without american warriors, this battle would not have taken place. it is easy to say perhaps the war might have gone on far into
1919 with more significant luncheon. thank you for your time. [applause] mitchell yockelson: i will be happy to take any questions. were the pershing boots that much of an improvement? i have three questions. could you say he invented the military police, or did he reinvented them? and were the americans a signed that section of the front because the terrain was a rugged in case the enemy broke through, they could not advance as far, as fast? mitchell yockelson: i was not sure about your first question, the pershing boots, but as far as the military police, to this of my knowledge, this is the first time military police or used by the american army. of course, a lot of what we have learned was through the british and the french. they had their own law enforcement with them in the
military, and they played a significant role. your question brings up another point. when you look at the photograph of american troops in the uniforms overseas, we look at the motion pictures from the collection here the archives, it looks archaic. the truth of the matter, this was the modern age of warfare. it had not been for the americans learning to fight on meuse-argonne, we would not have been the army that we became in world war ii and the superpower later on and become a predominant military today. -- as far or question as your question about the sector, this is something pershing had negotiated with the french. he wanted and area where the americans can have some prominence and make an impact. he had had his eye on the meuse-argonne front even before he came over to france. he was a student of military
history. he knew that area was significant, largely because it was also a big supply route, and they will rail lines feeding into the western front. he really encouraged the french to give the americans that front , not because he knew it was the toughest, but he thought it would make the most impact. yes. >> you mentioned there was intense negotiation between pershing and french generals regarding the use of troops. as you know, black troops of the 92nd and 93rd were transferred to 157th french unit. i would like to know the decision behind that. as you know, pershing served with a black unit, 10th cavalry. the treatment of black troops, particularly combat troops in world war i, was arraigned this. -- was horrendous. i would like to know where the nathan 10th cavalry transferred to europe -- ninth and 10th
cavalry to were transferred to europe, why they were subjugated into the western part of the country. those were elite units, but they never got to serve europe. mitchell yockelson: excellent question. more than 200,000 african-americans served with the american expeditionary force is overseas. ,nfortunately, as you point out many of them who had experience fighting either with regular , the ninthhe u.s. and 10th cavalry or put into bases as a support role. many of them unloading ships of dock, or- at the laborers, building the roads, building army facilities. there were the two divisions, the 92nd as you mentioned, an entire division, and then the 93rd, which was a provisional division. you would have thought pershing would have commanded african-american troops on the
have welcomed them. he did not. the answer is not entirely clear , other than the fact the military was segregated at the time. he followed the protocol of the military. how the african-american troops ended up with the french, the 92nd were attached to the french and actually brought to the left of the americans of the meuse-argonne. the 93rd fought in a different sector. that when the negotiations of the french were hammering pershing to get american troops, he said, ok, i am not going to give you some of my white combat units, but i will give you the african-american troops. the french were glad to take them. they had their own african corps troops, so they were used to dealing with african soldiers , and the african-american troops fought externally well. 92nd division had a share of
problems because of poor leadership, but they fought actually well. the 93rd division, the provisional division, had the 369, harlem rattlers, also called harlem soldiers. they were in any more than the war. it is not entirely clear why pershing did not push for more african-american troops other than the fact that he kept the army segregated. i think that was a mistake. yes, sir. >> i have a question related to the training of the officer corps and the different units and the different branches of the army. when pershing arrived or even before he arrived in france, did he realize there was a need for reforming much of the army in terms of schooling and preparing these forces to be in places like france or expeditionary force or the army has never been that large before, was facing is unique challenges? in his mind, was he working on
that already when he arrived in france? mitchell yockelson: he absolutely was. he established schools, almost like universities, to train officers in various places like intelligence and logistics, supplies, and so forth. officers were sent to the schools. were goingme of them on on the eve of the attack, september 26, and a number of officers were not even available to lead their units. he was well aware many of the young officers who did not have the experience he had in the philippines and during the spanish-american war were going to need specialized training. that is really where the allies stepped up to help us. the british and the french were the primary instructors of our officers. many of them, unfortunately, were not very good, site mentioned before. he called out the ones he felt were poor officers, either lazy or did not have the ability or the strength to leave the troops. he dismissed them.
hi, connie. corps,des the signal what other records did he use -- you use? mitchell yockelson: as one historian called the national archives, it is mother's milk for military history. the records here are far greater than any of the document with the aef, the american exodus terry forces, in meuse-argonne. i also spent time in carlisle at the military institute there really had the personal papers of donovan and one of the other staffficers, + number of officers, and the questionnaires. those are the two key areas i also went down to where the mi is inlexington -- vmi lexington and looked at george marshall's paper.
you can't write the story without looking at his papers. i spent a fair amount of time papers andpershing's mitchell and so forth. a key other repositories i was able to sneak in. yes, sir. >> three questions, did pershing himself, with the famous line, lafayette, we are here, or is that some speechwriter's invention? secondly, what happened to the female companion after his death? with the -- was she given any recommendation or compensation? gravesite pershing's at arlington national ceremony is quite moving. i assumed he wanted a simple soldier's headstone, but somebody gave him a whole lot of himself. grave nearby is for his grandson. i want to know how that came about. mitchell yockelson: the first
question, no, it was one of his aides that said that. pershing did not think of that. it was a tribute, and it was his way of showing the french we were here to absolutely support you. we are here, like lafayette was, to -- during the american revolution to support the rebellion against the british. i think i lost you on the second question. oh, right. he remained with her, but they had a long-distance relationship . she stayed back in france, he came back to the u.s., mostly lives here in washington. he became chairman of the american battle monuments commission, and his work took him over where they were constructing the cemeteries and putting up memorials. he was see her there. they had a lengthy correspondence, which is another place i did some research.
their letters were collected by one of pershing's previous biographers, father donald smites, and they are the catholic archives in st. louis. you can see the communication between the two of them. and they were deeply in love, but pershing had his business here, and she had her business over in france. he did bring her over to the u.s. in the 1920's. she set up a gallery in new york for a short period. i don't believe it was very successful, and went back to france. when world war ii broke out in 1939, he brought her back to the u.s. along with her mother. they lived in what is now the shore and portman hotel off of connecticut avenue. they had an apartment there. at this point, pershing was pretty sick. he was getting on in age and had a number of illnesses. he had his own suite at walter reed. she would come visit her there -- she would come visit him there. they did get married i'm a they
brought a priest in the suite, and he officiated their marriage. when he passed away, he left her a significant amount of money through his remaining son, or remaining child, warren, who was an investment banker. i have seen the insurance annuities, making sure she was well taken care of. that leads to your third question. war and had a couple of sons, one of them was richard, killed in the vietnam war. pershing did ask to have a simple folders burial, a plot in arlington ceremony, and when richard was killed during the war, he was brought there, and they face each other on that hill. area a fairly significant , but also not far from there is the last american who served in world war i, frank love it. it is become a tribute to world war i in that area. >> you almost took my question away
. it had to do with the end of pershing's life. commentselation to his to eisenhower or others when he realized they were going to have to be fighting essentially the same war, and he had not been participant, i believe, at the treaty of versailles. did he ever make any comments to eisenhower or anybody else as the second world war began to open up in terms of how he saw the effort in world war i? mitchell yockelson: absolutely, in fact all of the general officers from omar bradley to patent, to eisenhower, they visited searching at his suite in walter reed and said that patent got down on his knees and chris -- just pershing's west point ring. they wanted his words of wisdom before they left to go overseas. in the case of early in the war,
the storm in africa, and the liberation of europe. old ing, even if he was age, he was well aware of what was going on. he tried to give some advice to fdr, who slightly listens. he was a folder of a different , it and had he been younger is hard to say whether he would have had a role in the second world war. certainly the key officers there recognized that if it was not for pershing, they would not be in this situation they were in. yes. >> earlier in his career, when he was dealing with african-americans and then submissions to deal with native americans and also filipinos, was he identified as, oh, he is dealing with diverse populations that other officers were not? mitchell yockelson: absolutely, that is an excellent point. i thought about that for a little bit.
some were not happy about having a americans in the philippines. they rebelled against the spanish hundreds of years, spanish-american war drove the spanish away, and that thing you know, the americans are there. they were very defiant. pershing was able to use unfortunately a little bit of combat along with a lot of perseverance and dramatic -- and diplomatic talking to get to pacify them. became one of his strengths. there are recent comments in the news by a certain presidential candidate who claimed that pershing had helped pacify the moors by dipping the american bullets in pig blood because the moors are muslim. there is no truth to that, whatsoever. [laughter] yes, sir. >> did he use the knowledge of american civil war, mainly the experience of general grant?
mitchell yockelson: he worshiped general grant. grant was his hero. he has studied civil war battles , especially the wilderness, which is somewhat like the meuse-argonne, like the terrain in bourgogne. he was even criticized for that because of the fact that he was throwing american men against the small -- strong german offenses. in american wars like gettysburg, they never basically worked. but pershing's idea of his was not open warfare, out of the trenches. it was the only way to get the war to a close. bonus army marched in 1932. make arthur led the troops with his aide. there is a famous story of passion -- patton.
anyonetion is, did consult -- did pershing ever say anything about the bonus army? mitchell yockelson: i never said anything -- saw anything. i did a previous book on douglas mcarthur, and i knew that eisenhower was against in, but as far as pershing, i never thought any comments. if that he did make them, they were behind the scenes. he could not be happy about it, i assure. these were doughboys, american troops that have fought together on the battlefield, and here was the american army, mcarthur foolishly and basically attacking them. >> with tear gas. mitchell yockelson: and he used to tear gas. it was an embarrassment, and it cost president hoover reelection. i never heard any comments from pershing about it.
ok, i am told we are out of time , which this is a good thing. there are books for sale, but on behalf of -- i will be happy to u. n for yo thank you for coming out, i really appreciate it. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: "american history tv on c-span3. " >> we see new factors making emancipation desirable, old kinds of obstacles falling by the wayside, with the result that by august if not earlier 1862, lincoln has decided with the time is right, he will announce a new angle of where efforts that would add to the union human freedom. announcer: weekend college
history professor tracy mckenzie on the evolving war goals of the north during the civil war. and attend a clock on "reel america," -- >> was it possible for america to achieve such production and at the same time, build an army? and then reports came in. 20% of american industrial manpower was woman power. legions of american women were massing to stop my advance across the world. --st taking the for fully several -- for the sake of the war. announcer: the documents how women in world war ii helped the war effort, saying the hidden army of women working in war manufacturing are the main reason germany lost the war. sunday evening at 6:00 on american artifacts, we visit the daughters of the revolution museum marking the 125th
anniversary found in 1890. >> there is this creation of imagery of the apotheosis, and the apotheosis is an old concept. it goes back to ancient times godlikelawyer is made by lifting him up and celebrating him. announcer: on the presidency at 8:00. >> washington and jefferson are the most common examples of sleigh moving -- slaveowning presidents. it was the fashion, especially those who did so while they occupied the white house. james madison, who followed jefferson as the fourth president of the united states, owned over 100 slaves, only a large percentage while he occupied the white house. he is responsible for imposing compromise, the 3/5
which preserved and upheld slaveowning interests. announcer: african-american studies professional at california university, who talked about presidents who were slave owners. for the complete "american history tv" schedule, go to c-span.org. , the supremespan court cases that shaped our history come to life with the c-span series "landmark cases," historic supreme court decisions. we explore real-life stories with constitutional dramas behind the most significant decisions in american history. >> this is a story in the case of a presidential our. -- presidential power. it says central themes about the president during wartime that may not be set in the constitution. and what congress can put on it.
>> teaching the -- chief justice rehnquist said it could be accepted by the culture. how many cases can we say about that? a sweeping decision, it isolated united states as one of only four nations across the globe that allowed abortions for any reason, and yet it has not settled the issue at all. >> tonight, it is wrote v wade, wade, talng roe v about the right to abortion, but states can restrict that based on the viability of the fetus. watch that tonight at 10 a clock. -- 10:00 eastern. colleger: wheaton history professor tracy mckenzie teaches a class on the evolving northern war aims are in the civil war between unionism and emancipation. he described how public support for a methodie