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tv   American History TV  CSPAN  April 16, 2016 11:33am-12:01pm EDT

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>> when were they placed in the oval office? approximately the summer of 1970. i cannot begin to recall the precise date. >> actually, the dates are little bit wrong. february 16 of 1971 is when the system was put in the oval office. -- next is the room all do our equal part. as i've already said today, we have not been very good stewards, but you are setting the example to rebuild a government that comes from -- >> ross perot at a campaign rally that may.
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influencenot just journalism at his time. he is such a powerful force. sensationalism is the one word that is possibly linked to joseph pulitzer. asthink of sensationalism tabloid journalism, but he was using it to rights wrongs. at 6:30, we continue with the 100th anniversary of pulitzer prizes in st. petersburg, florida. keynote speaker georgia democratic representative john lewis. [indiscernible]
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you must not give up. you must hold on. >> for the complete american history tv weekend schedule, go to www.c-span.org. all weekend long, american history tv is joining our comcast cable partners to showcase the history of tuscaloosa, alabama. /citiestour-span.org . we continue with a look at the history of tuscaloosa. >> the name of my book is "turning the tide: the university of alabama in the 1960's." thes a student at university of alabama in the 1960's and i missed a lot of it because i was studying. i wanted to take the story of
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beyond the desegregation that occurred in 1963. i want to take it through the rest of the 1960's. while we desegregated in 19 623, we did not integrate. that took a long time, going even beyond 1970. once all that energy that had gone through trying to maintain an illegal and certainly immoral way of doing things, after all that energy could be sent in another direction, the university of alabama begin to turn itself away from a regional party school toward becoming a major national academic institution. that is what it has become, but it was a long journey in the 1960's that sent us that direction. were a lot of changes going on at the beginning of the
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1960's. from 1956. the first effort of desegregation failed horribly. desegregation is desegregation. we were under the same court order in 1963, but officially we that thedesegregated university expelled her to calm the mob that had been raging on this campus. the mob and the presidency of oliver carmichael. they were looking for a new president. , whoapproached frank rose was a minister in the church of christ and president of pennsylvania college. anxious to come here because the university had this bad reputation.
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they finally said, dr. rose, we need you because we are facing desegregation and we need a southerner who can lead it. he came in 1958. his first challenge was, how do we do this peacefully? he went to the governor of big jim surprisingly said i agree, it is time we desegregated the university of alabama. he called his friend rockefeller and said don't be surprised, i have a friend down there, we serve on the tuskegee institute board. he is progressive and very liberal. you need to talk to judge wallace. he called judge wallace and he said, yeah, it's about time we desegregated the university of alabama. then came the election of 1958 and wallace was against john patterson. governor andame
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wallace swore that he would never let the race issue keep them out of politics again. patterson was not about to desegregate the university of alabama. he spent that time building buildings, building infrastructure, building the alumni association. he put an alumni association in every county in the state and established to be new ones across the nation. -- 15 new ones across the nation. he got us moving that direction and then george wallace became governor of the state. he says the ku klux klan yesterday, the ku klux klan today and the ku klux klan
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forever. wallace was using the race issue through his own end. he knew what was going to be desegregated, it was just a matter of time. he went to the students, he went to every student leader and he did not say please help me, he said this is how you are going to help me and he got them on board. then, he went to the faculty in the faculty in the november of -- they were afraid of what happened to all miss -- alole miss in 19 622. -- 1962. he got the town leaders behind peaceful desegregation.
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they worked very hard, knowing it was coming through the winter of 1963 into the spring, they did things like make sure there were no loose objects on campus that can be used as weapons. they moved all the bricks out of here. wallace wanted a peaceful desegregation. he plans to bring in every member of law enforcement across the state that he could. but tuscaloosa police department could muster maybe 35 officers, the university, maybe a dozen. he brought in hundreds of state troopers, prison guards, forest rangers two make sure we had 800 people around this campus when desegregation happened on june 11, 1963. if you look at the student groups and look at the culture of the university of alabama in the early 1960's, this was a
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football party school. most students were interested in football, parties, dating and making at least a "c" and getting by. the student government association was a bastion of the greek system. and sororitieses and the other greeks, but mostly the top four or five return these best fraternities run the student government association. it was filled with young men who wanted to become lawyers or businessmen. y would shape the future of the university. many of them in the 1960's were liberal, progressive. , the deanburn immediately recognize that.
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he formed an alliance with them and show them how to do this within the system. aey formed an alliance with small contra of student radicals student radicals who were extremely intelligent and wanted change. send the they began to student body in a new direction in terms of the kinds of issues they would bring before them. forum tonce, having a discuss civil rights, coming down on the right side of civil rights issues. the establishment of an african-american student association. and then, academic freedom was a big issue on campus and in the state. realizedge wallace
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what was going on here, they decided they needed to take control of the university. at them powell came here to speak in 19 624. powell came here to speak in 1964. some of the more radical student decided they did not when he kind of us want any kind of impediments in bringing speakers. sts invited the founder of and the president said no. the university would have gone under the thumb of the legislature very drastically. what battles were worth fighting and what battles were not. we had a program here called
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emphasis that started in 1966. bobby kennedy was the first keynote speaker. you bring in people to discuss issues from various sites. in 19 67, it was called revolution. there was a magazine that accompanied this that had articles in it, one from a black student from berkeley. her father was a member of the american communist party. general wheeler wrote an article defending american policy in vietnam. out andazine came caused a real stir in the legislature.
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it was being used to say we have -- they made an issue out of it and they wrote the speaker ban bill. the legislature would affect fico power over any -- would veto power over any speaker coming to the institution. johnson hadm finally gotten tired of the saidce administration and desegregate schools now, 1967, now. 1% of our public schools had been desegregated at that point. maureen wallace wanted to put man whools under one
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was a staunch segregationist. she called in the presidents of all the historically white colleges and universities and ask them to sign a document endorsing that point of view and they all did, except frank rose. his refusal meant more than all the others because he was so powerful politically. that really got the legislature after rose. president toice montgomery to stop this speaker ban bill. we had enough alumni in the state legislature to stop it, but they passed a resolution requiring that at all football , the confederate battle flag be raced along with the
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american flag in the state flag and in addition to paying the -- playing the national anthem in the states on, they would play "dixie." they said we are not going to play "dixie" after the national anthem and state song. he knew that battle was not worth fighting at that point. at all football games, they would march out the confederate flag and the band would play "dixie." the black students would sit down and many other students would not. that stopped after one year. confederatewn battle flag issues here in 19 six to seven and 1968.
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that's 1967 in 19 68. yet understand the role of football. to understand the role of football at the university of alabama. even before frank rose was on , he called here coach bryant and offered him a job at his on the monitor. coach bryant was reluctant to accept it at first. when frank rose told him he would go and talk to but wilkinson, he accepted immediately. it took him two years to turn around the football program. 1960's, football kept the intention -- the attention of that mass of alabama football fans who knew nothing about the university and turn thee could
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university and most of the people did not care what we did. what frank rose west frank to , was get the university of alabama away from this party school focus and get us headed a new direction to a viable academic institution, first in the south and then nationally. first thing he had to do was hire faculty. only a third of the faculty here had their degrees. by 1965, two thirds had them. that made us competitive. share of thee our finest faculty in the country. here today whos could have gone to harvard, yale. we lead the country in the number of national merit scholars that come here.
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that was where rose wanted to get us. he had to grow the student population, but he also wanted to raise the intellectual level of the student population. my books are about institutions under stress and how they handle change. , ourg the vietnam war military services did not do that well. they fought the last war. at the university of alabama, tradition is important here, history is important here, but we learn from that history. we learn from the history of a region that has had a sad history. we are the only part of the country that knows total defeat in the warfare, occupation, racial strife.
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and we learned from that have appreciated what capacity -- what the past can teach us. the university of alabama can stand as a symbol of how you can and become turmoil something greater than even you anticipated you could be. great to do that in a place that is beautiful, a place that is genteel and traditional and maintains that while moving in a new direction. with that, roll tide. recently traveled to tuscaloosa, alabama to learn about its rich history. learn more about tuscaloosa and other stops on our tour at /citiestour.rg you are watching american history tv, every weekend on c-span3. >> madam secretary, we proudly
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give 72 of our delegate votes to the next president of the united states -- [applause] ♪ [applause] ♪ >> to mark the 100th anniversary of the pulitzer prizes, the pointer instituted -- pointer poynter institute focused on civil rights. >> good morning, everyone.
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mr. royext door to peter clark. [laughter] >> who is the best neighbor in the whole world. he told me to say that. [laughter] >> for tonight, you can call me scout. as a 10-year-old girl if you've read the novel "to kill a mockingbird." lee won therper pulitzer prize for fiction. go ahead, you can clap. [laughter] [applause] we were all sad to hear about her passing. but something strange happened last year. another book about me was published called "go set a watch man."
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finch, played by gregory peck? a lot of people love my daddy in mockingbird. he was kind, fair and loving. don't know what happened to him. grumpy. let's forget about that old atticus and remember the young one who inspired us all. mcguinness is about to give you his closing statement. gentleman, i shall be free. i would like to use my remaining , it with you to remind you
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requires you to be certain beyond all reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. this case should have never come to trial. this case is as simple as black and white. and so, a humble, quiet, who felt sorryro for a white woman has had to put his words against two white people. they have wanted you to go along with them with cynical confidence that you can go along with their evil assumptions that , that all aree immoral beings, that all negro men are not to be trusted with our women. assumption -- thomas jefferson once said that all men
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are created equal. there is one way in which all men are created equal. there is one human institution the coffers the equals of the rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of an einstein. an ignorant man the equal of any college president. that institution is the court. our courts have their faults, as does any human institution. in this country, our courts are the great levelers. in this country come all men are created equal. i don't firmly hold on to the ideal that our courts are all they are supposed to be. that is no ideal to me.
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but they are representative of our people. gentlemen, you have heard all the evidence given, you heard the testimony. i would like you to release the defendant to his family. dutye name of god, do your . >> you can watch the entire event sunday at 6:30 p.m. and 10:30 p.m. eastern. this is american history tv, only on c-span3. he had a couple of meals and a steam shovel. it's one of the other ironies to be so radically owe yournment and entire fortune to the government. talks about her
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book "the profiteers" which takes a critical look at one of the largest engineering and construction companies in the world. >> who else is the u.s. government going to get to build these projects throughout the world. if the american taxpayer is paying for it, it would seem the american taxpayers should have some access to information about the contracts, the amount of , the, the worker safety political relationships. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. >> up next on the presidency, tyler parry, an african-american studies professor at california state university, fullerton talks about the american presidents that dealt directly with slavery. 12 presidents were slave owners and eight owned slaves while in
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office. professor parry discusses these cases and the broader discussion of racism in the states. broader legacy of racism in the united states. >> now, let's get to today's topic, which i am glad we did pick because it seems to have struck a chord. u.s. presidents who owned slaves while we're creating this democracy, they were leaders who had people enslaved, and we are honored to have dr. tyler parry, with an "a." i want to tell you a bit about him. dr. parry received his bachelor's of arts from the university of nevada and 2008 -- in 2008 and earned his master's degree in 2011 and his phd in 2014 in history from the

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