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tv   Lectures in History  CSPAN  April 16, 2016 5:10pm-6:01pm EDT

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the ohio river from mississippi. he describes the 18th century effort which divided the territory into a grid pattern and proposed a transportation at roads and the canal. he argues this was applied at -- wasands a purchase applied at the louisiana purchase. behindere two minutes but not too far so. wwhat i will do today is kind of catch up or start were were stopped ande talk about the idea of national planning. it relates to the fishman reading. i hope some of you have looked at it. a specific argument about how the united states has been
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intensively planned. this is the theme we have been building. p is making it a poin oignant argument at the national scale. that is what i will talk about to bring us along in this argument. settlementehash, cities and migration cities referencing lewis mumford. basically, there are a set of cities. other cities like new york, boston and migration cities -- the cities on interior water. how these two groups of cities were some of the earliest plans communities in the u.s. and how important they were to the
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process of planning and how they reflected each other, right? creating this pattern of philadelphia, influenced cities subsequently. today, we are going to extend that and talk about land. the land ordinances. we will talk about canals and roads. about thelk expenses of the u.s. are parts ofieces the same argument about the intensity of national planning and how this process unfolded. not just the government in laid out a plan that determined what would happen with how states were developed. all these kinds of things that
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we often take for granted. we look at this map -- i showed this. thes an example of what early country sort of looked like. you can see the eastern seaboard states. georgia up to massachusetts. this map is from 1783. post-revolution, pre-constitution. it is the credit for this map is often given to thomas jefferson. he played an important factor, an important piece of this discussion. talks about that. jefferson's role. 1783map was produced in and it is after the revolution so we are in this moment of reorganizing. how congress is going on.
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it is later replaced by the constitution but speaking specifically about what the future holds, we have this map which is an interesting look into jefferson's mind about what he was thinking. he draws this map and identifies 14 states in this territory west of the appalachian mountains. goes. know where it people know what it looks like. it is unknown. the u.s. has gotten this territory from the war. they are laying claim to the mississippi river. this is not correctly rendered. -- what isbout this
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out there is unclear. we have groups jockeying for control. there was not a clear sense of exactly what is going on. is is how to allocate this land. how to divide it. turning it into states. everything you of heard, this story, and the ideal of the -- small holding farmers may good democrat. this is one of the myths about jefferson or reality is that he believes this was a necessary component for american democracy. he is looking at creating a map
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and thinking about what the future development with look like. ideal as a ways out for checking the future. he is imagining this turning into a state in terms of size. it shows us in some ways how people were processing or how
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jefferson was processing it. during this time, we have a series of land ordinances that are passed by the continental congress that predates the constitution. we have the series of land ordinance is that our past that are linked to set up a process, a plan for doing what jefferson want which is setting out boundaries, political boundaries, state boundaries. and for this territory going forward. there is a certain sense that we have this land, the federal government has this what turns out to be a large amount of land. the government is kind of broke. they have a lot of land and not a lot of money. land is seen as an important resource.
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they set up a process for settling this land with the europeans. withing this land americans, making sure the u.s. maintains control of it and that it becomes part of the country. it does not remain as an undefined territory, but inactive part of the politics of a social life of the country. these ordinances are set up to it if i how this happens. we identified territory come of , the northwest territory to the township, this sections. i've shown you a map already. we will talk about what it means and how it works. finally, this all instantly
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corridor. does anybody know what the territory was?err don't be scared. where is northwestern university? chicago, right? it is named after the old northwest territory. michigan, wisconsin, indiana -- the states of the old northwest. hence, northwestern university. it is important because it is the place where the township models gets implemented and we see it emerge as a pattern for development, ok? certain flowarned flo ta
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to these ordinances. for doing thisk process of planning and allocating land. another map. something sort of similar to this. this is from an atlas. seaboard.n we see more or less the modern virginia except for because this is west virginia. it broke off later in the 19th century. the rest of the boundaries more or less are set. this is the northwest territory. you can see the outlines of what will become states. is what we are talking about. this is thece, ok, area we would use this planning process to shape for the first
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time. we will make this into an example of what the west will look like. ohio, isually southeastern corner of ohio. along thepart of ohio river. ohio get americanst to communities. you can see the grid. that is an important piece and how this unfolds. you have heard me talk about this stuff. the power of the grid, the importance. i talked about this in relation to philadelphia and importance of the national grid. it is ancient.
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it is an old concept. this is not an american invention even though it seems like it is. cityis an ancient greek where we see the grid implemented as a system of planning. city.elphia, a model we have this established. all of this -- this is where jefferson is coming from. you are using these models when they come up with their plan for giving up the landscape. this is the theoretical diagram. the idea behind this is an orderly way of dividing. what ends up happening is this gets implemented. important.s
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is ait is showing you've set of six by six grid, mild grid, right? each of these areas are considered a township. how many square miles is six by six? 36, yes. 36 square miles, right? the idea is this new territory, utilizing this scheme that is ging divided up, it is a rid. these would be surveyed. they went have surveyors out and survey the land along the lines of the grid and establish ahead of time the four people starting living on it or at least before americans lived on it.
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that did not matter. to lay this out ahead of time to create an orderly way of distributing and selling land, turning into property. that people would own, cultivate. little piece going on, not just about the squares. it is about creating a system for distributing the land. surveyybody take a class? what is a chain? how many feet is it? 66 feet. 480 chains. that is a real measurement. 66, you get80 times 30 something thousand feet which is roughly six miles.
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centurye 17th, 18th measuring device to measure these things out. out. this is how we get these. map isu look -- this actually one of these squares. these aresquare and sections. this section is really important. rulralody here from a farmland? do you talk about sections? sections are the little building blocks that were determined and each section was supposed to be 640 acres.
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theseea was you can take sections over time and you can subdivide them into basically literal squares. uses,tion was different different people, different groups of people investing in land would get different by sections. you might get a full section, a have section or a quarter section were some other substance depending on where you were. these sections can be easily seen here. very easily divided into tiny and tiny pieces. this is important because what is the advantage? what does it allow you to do?
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you guys are silent today. the cameras make you nervous. like city, they look blocks. varied beautiful. there are beautiful. you can see the streets. i just use it as an example. thecan see in sandusky, infinity of this grid. the point is you can go from is this tois s to to this very easily. ability, you can survey a town. any stroke of genius
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that anybody came up with. somebody surveyed this town down a lot. move from a kind of grand, like, continental scale to a city block. basic buy and sell -- the piece of real estate in the market. it is critical. most of you at someone will buy and sell real estate. not all of you. this little piece becomes important. this is how the whole process happens. it is not random. that is my point. century,in the 18th they were envisioning how this unfolded. time thisit and over process happen.
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it happened and happened. they wrote this up, past these ordinances, and low and behold, over time, this process happened. this is another map of ohio. you can see, closely, how this grid starts to look when it is imposed over a relatively large amount of space. you don't have to pay attention to topography when you do this. you just have to think, this is a grid. i don't care if there's a mountain or river, you can put a grid down. there are are a few spots where we make special arrangements for topography, but for the most part, we ignored it. look at san francisco. this is a hilled by the ocean, so people put a grid on it and made streets the go up at 25 degrees angles.
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pittsburgh is no different. you superimpose this on something as big as ohio, and it ends up on the whole country. this is a cartoon, basically, but it ends up on a whole country. so here's a gridiron pattern, which sounds a good football sounds like a football field. went all the way to the west. texas, i mean really, and a little bit into new mexico and the california coast, there are places where it does not exist, but not many. we kind of used this and said, we will wipe this clean. this is one piece of the national planning effort. people asked, how will we do this? and this is what they did.
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world andthere in the the grid was conceived at this moment. you've heard of the homestead act, the whole homes that thing. you might have great or grandparents that homesteaded. this uses the same concept laid out in the 1780's for allocating land. when americans started to homestead in places like iowa and nebraska and oklahoma and those places, they did it along the same survey lines that they were doing it a generation earlier. this is one piece of what i was talking about. the national grid. the second piece, and this is the piece fishman talks specifically about, is gallatin. he is the secretary of the treasury under jefferson. jefferson coming up. he is under jefferson when jefferson is president. jefferson starts, he is a delegate from virginia, he works
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on the drafting of the constitution. he becomes president. a little later. he appoints gallatin as secretary of treasury. back then, the secretary did less stuff than they are responsible for now. i doubt that he had a staff of thousands. gallatin comes up with a strategy, as part of his duties. fishman identifies this as a national planning strategy. the idea is that it is an infrastructure plan. this is his athinking. gallatin, remember, this is happening in the early 1800s. this was written in 1808. the country is very new. the whole great thing is just being passed, implemented a little bit. we stillon't have these western states. there is an undefined nature to what becomes the u.s. west of the mountains.
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one of the concerns jefferson has, in terms of how are we going to turn this into states, how we will turn into townships, it -- isw we will sell how can we connect these? the appalachian mountains were formidable. you can walk it now. back then, not so much. it was not clear how you would move goods. this was a big concern. so he writes this report to jefferson, and this is very dry, remarkably dry. but, it is critical. it lays out, in its dryness, a strategy. much like the ordinance, which says we will make these key investments, and we are going to bring the country together. we will find a way to unite the east and west through a set of federal expenditures.
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that was his original idea. they will build canals and roads. his article also has a map. this is another version of it. it shows what he's envisioning. basically, he is talking about both north-south and east west connections. so he is imagining, how do we connect georgia to massachusetts, which is a problem. there's a thousand miles between them. and how are we going to connect into the ohio valley and these other places weekly data we have a data grid for? there's the idea of roads, they will build roads that will allow people to move south on wagons. they will build canals going east and west, which will allow us to get across the mountains. why canals? why would they be so important?
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boats. yes, that's the way you move stuff. is more efficient to put it on than it is to put on your back and walk. they are the transportation of the day. it is like jet planes now. people are, you know, he is envisioning the canals will really be the way to go. this is the way we bring the country together. so, he proposes this plan, and remember i said that the u.s. is poor, and it cash goes almost nowhere initially. the government says we can't afford this. because in his plan, he has off estimates of what everything will cost to build, so they look and say no way. this is too expensive. it flounders for a while. but, interestingly enough, the state of new york, as a state,
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not as its own power, it takes this plan, a piece of it, up. and they identify one of the projects that he had identified, a key canal, he had shown. they decide to raise the money, publicly and privately, to build it. does anyone know what this is? >> erie canal. mr. basmajian: exactly. what does it connect? well, the great lakes and the hudson river valley. new york city into the great lakes system. by the effort of new york, we get the canal. we get the erie canal, which is built over a short time rapidly.
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it connects, suddenly, via water, the east coast, northeast in new york specifically, and the interior lakes. this is important for a lot of reasons. important, ands this is a beautiful image, by the way. i don't know if you've noticed, but not only do you have a map, like a fairly detailed map of the route of the canal, you actually have a map of elevation change from new york up to buffalo. these points lineup with the elevation changes. the canal had locks on it, because the terrain is not even. but what is important is a couple of things that stand out. obviously, it brings -- it bridges the allegheny gap. it allows people to travel by boat into the interior of the great lakes system. this provides an outlet, not just to go into the interior, but to get stuff out of the
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interior to new york, to import , to go across the atlantic ocean or down the coast to serve the markets out there. right? the raw material that the u.s. is starting to produce. this is really important, because the only other way to get stuff out of the interior is by boat. and to the south. where is south? new orleans. no one wants to go to new orleans. it is a mess, and no one wants to use new orleans as the major port. it is still a mess. part of the reason was because of slavery. right? new orleans was a major slave market. it was the largest city in the south. it was a place politically unpalatable to a lot of people
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in the federal government. not everybody, but a lot of people. at the time, they saw new orleans as problematic and plus, to manage --nch, too spanish, and to everything else. it had all sorts of issues. that was a key one. so this allowed americans who were settling this land, building farms, cultivating timber, whatever, it allows them to send stuff back and avoid new orleans and having to go south. plus, it is shorter. it is downstream and is shorter to go this way, and it gives new york centrality. it makes new york the eastern port, the big one. one that everybody cares about. not that new york was not going to become the global city it has become, but this helps kickstart the process. it cements new york's status and importance in the national consciousness as a trading port, as a big city on the east coast.
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and so this map is from 1840 and is supposed to show railroads and canals. it is hard from the distance to see. some of the dark lines, you can't see them, but they are representations of canals. there are few railroads by 1840. the railroads are still a new technology. it is not the primary way goods and people are moved. it is still canals. so, building the canal and the plan they started a boom in ways. canals everywhere, a canal that connected chicago, across maryland and other leases. -- places.
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this is the beginning. and with other technologies, when the can now -- canal opened up, it gets cheaper to move goods back in -- and forth. which is valuable. when you are paying a lot to ship, you are losing profit. so this is extremely viable technology that is land -- plan kick started the whole process. i blame this out, gallatin -- gallatin shows, the power that structure has. if you think about modern things, the railroads come later. not too much later, but later. and a century after the railroad, the interstate highway system.
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a national kind of infrastructure, predicated on the same idea of connecting he's west. connecting east and so this use of transportation technology is a way of creating a unified country. this is a planning process am a big --process, a big planning process that is related to the grid. this is the way that he was a loveland -- sell off land. the infrastructure shows ways that you can split the land and get things to the market somewhere. these are two pieces of the same process, if a structure and transportation, and infrastructure for political arenas nations and selling land. and of course, this leads to ofces like, the growth places like this.
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detroit, one of the original plans for the city. you can make it out as a d ontiful plan, the -- base a set of like stars, very reminiscent of washington dc . this map is from 1820 or so. the opening of the erie canal leads to chicago and detroit and later these industrial cities. third piece. the natural planning effort, the late 18th and early 19th century. the louisiana purchase, the third piece. so thomas jefferson, he is everywhere. executed by jefferson. he is kind of our patron saint of planning, if you think about
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it. open a --s fault, we owe them a great deal. he actually thought about this stuff. the louisiana purchase is a massive purchase of land that is orchestrated by jefferson. it from someone who had negotiated away from the spanish. this is west of the mississippi river, the first big piece of western land that the u.s. is able to capture. is thousands of miles. per acre cost was maybe a penny, almost free. the french were hurting and needed the money. oop.hey give it up -- sc
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he size ofble t the u.s. maybe more than double. beyond that, it intensified the issue of surveying, explanation, and infrastructure --exploration and infrastructure. that,ange in the right, not just the orange -- these were places identified as state by the time the map was produced. this is the illinois territory, mississippi, alabama, georgia claimed this. and the river. and a huge cap of yellow land, not yellow on the map, to the
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west of the river. you can see, if you look at the map, you can see boundaries that are squiggly. part of the problem was there was a basic outline for how big this was, but not precise line. s. it was not, you will get this exact longitude and latitude. it was,, you have state and french, it wass spanish, and you have mexico out here. in the north, you have canada, too. remember, 1812, they come back and try to retake the territory. it did not work. so they get this land and there are a lot of people in it.
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and jefferson claims it for the u.s., by the land -- buys the landed when you enter this space -- buys the land. when you enter this phase, gallatin is looking at it and thinking about infrastructure. he is thinking about the bigger territory out there. part of the problem was, this of in the trees -- fuzziness boundaries. happening isds up jefferson basically starts a pattern of exploration and mapping of this western land that he has negotiated for the u.s. really within his
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rights to do it, but he ignores or at least -- he just walks a fine line. how far west it was was disputed. the spanish were not interested in giving ground. and they were huge numbers of native americans, as well. so jefferson does this process of exploration, everybody needs to know what is out there and what is going on. and we end up with the six and the process of -- extended process of planning that goes on for several years, several decades. another rendition of the louisiana purchase. and it shows the route from st. ands, the route of lewis clarke, the first party that
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went out to the countryside and explored, looked at it, document today, collected samples. just one, there is piece of this massive undertaking that goes on from really the beginning of the louisiana purchase, to really the 1860's and 1870's. it goes on for years. it is an exercise in foreign affairs, dealing with the british, the french, the spanish, and the native americans, who they are trying to take as much land from as they can. and in an effort to control the interior, to identify resources that are out there, where they are, and how they might be useful. they do not want this land for the sake of having land, they want it for utility.
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and in effort to define the boundaries of the u.s., the western front is still very undefined. right? so these parties like lewis and clarke go out and they are asking -- mapping more precisely man we were able to do before. they are looking at elevation, water sources, waterways, remember this is the era of the can now -- canal. they are establishing trade routes. it is a multipronged approach to the whole process of planning. gallatin'sd infrastructure, this is the third piece that will go all the way to the pacific ocean. this is where they are heading.
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and if so, there are many of them. this is another version of these mass, showing -- maps, showing areas that the u.s. has claimed and then made little lines, these are all throughout the western u.s., and they represent the pathways that these parties took, beyond lewis and art. -- clarke. they went in all different directions, all after the same kind of issues. exploring territory, mapping and document the. -- documenting. gathering, almost being a combination of archaeologists and cultural anthropologists, a ics they were tact using and what they were after.
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the records they kept were impressive. these were not fly-by-night operations, they were well organized. ,hey included military officers lewis and clark were themselves. they were experts in subjects. they could identify what was out there and figure out what to collect. one interesting piece i like to show is, they also took painters with them. if you think about it, we do not have photography. jefferson has negotiated the purchase of this land from the east coast. he spends time in virginia, he does not go t there. most people on these those -- ast had not been there. this is remote territories.
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so these parties that are out there collecting information, they are documenting the way the landscape work and it creates a series of paintings. painters would go a long and they would paint scenery. and send the paintings back to the east coast so people could see the landscape. knowr, jefferson does not what he bought. you get these dramatic images that come out of this time, that really almost more than the maps,tions of soil and give people images of what the west looks like. this is natural scenery. this i believe is from eastern
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montana, of rivers and a very dry landscape. jacobs offered -- alfred miller, you get these images that are revealing the lands cape, but also -- what is the other thing in the picture? >> the size? mr. basmajian: yes and? >> the people. mr. basmajian: the people. who they are and where they are going, right? is a so this was part of the process of documenting the landscape. , you canwhat is there control it. it is one thing to buy land, it
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is another thing to know what it looks like. you can then start the process of negotiating or forcefully taking, depending on who you are and where you are coming from. on start this process and friday, we will be working with the pictures. but you end up with an incredible documentation, a visual documentation of the land -. was not all -- somewhere there because they wanted -- some were there looking for gold, something that would make the wealthy. some of them were criminals who were is taking the law -- escap ing the law. any number of ne'er-do-wells that would show up. a lot of these people were part
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of a western policy and a way of planning and setting up the structure for future governments in the far western part of the u.s. so what we end up with in this time, 1845, the expansion of the u.s. through the louisiana purchase. and further west, the oregon territory. you can see it on the map. you are beginning to see the outlines of modern states. we still do not have iowa at this point. but we have a clear path to the west, to the west coast, the pacific ocean, aside from the southwest where texas and mexico is. chunk thatuthwestern is still not the u.s. yet.
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theeads us to the point of beginning of the continental structure. comel of these pieces together in this process and layout how this will be perceived and what it will look like when it is done. slide, to this place, chicago. this,o becomes in all of a big western metropolis. we do not think of it as western anymore, but it was at the time. purchases, these investments, they are all the ingredients that will lead to chicago's emergence as the great western city, the city of trade, transport, the city that is really, up until los angeles,
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the second city in the united states. and a city that most americans at the time thought would become the biggest city in the world. they thought it would be it. the biggest city of all time. it does not become not, but it is a product of the planning effort. we will look at chicago and how it is intensely planned. it is a place not plan on the micro scale, but on the scale -- big scale. i should ask, anybody with questions? probably not at this point. activitiesin a class on friday. our rim -- room has changed. if you are not there last week, look back in my e-mail which will tell you where we need to
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be on friday. you are watching american history tv, 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend of the and 30 -- on c-span3. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule and keep up with the latest news. ♪ , we proudlyretary give 72 votes to the next tates.ent of the united s [applause]
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>> next, author robert o'connell discusses his book, "fierce patriot: the tangled lives of william tecumseh sherman." he describes general sherman's life as a roller coaster and discusses his name, and his military career before and after the civil war. this talk is part of the great lies lecture -- lives lecture series. [applause] >> good evening and welcome to the great lives lecture, one of the most controversial figures


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