tv American History TV in Tuscaloosa AL CSPAN April 17, 2016 2:00pm-3:27pm EDT
boxes? what hasr in terms of been delivered over the cable network is no. it's a component of the network. that's the most efficient way to design and deliver cable television service. is the cheapest way to do it, the most efficient way to do it. the companies would prefer to do it that way. >> watch the communicators monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span2. [crowd noise] >> welcome to tuscaloosa, alabama. located on the western side of the state on the black warrior river, the city served as the state capital from 1826 to 1846. is the home of the university of alabama. with the help of our comcast cable partners, over the next 90 minutes here have the civil war changed tuscaloosa. is such ause
fascinating microcosm of what is going on in the deep south. you have the planter class hurtling forward. someone like senator james and cannot -- jameson cannot fathom the world what he -- where he will not own another person. >> the national defense education act was a comprehensive act. the heart of it was scholarships and loans for college students americans0 million receiving college education through a loan or a grant. to -- if youaid take the college men of the students, it may be the most significant piece of legislation ever passed by congress. moundsville, ait thriving needed community dating back to 1080 ad.000
♪ >> welcome the mound the archaeological park. in its heyday it was the largest city north of mexico. it contains the remains of about 30 flattopped mounds. b, one ofing on mount the larger mounds on the site. it would have had the house of one of the clan chiefs on top of it. when people first started to build the city there were valleys and ridges that dotted all around the area. initially hills would have been topped and the dirt poured into level out the central plaza along the mound.
then they were corrected. -- erected. these are built in a little bit less than 100 years. is the second-largest mississippi mound center in north america. the largest mountain center is in east st. louis. moundsvilleclining, was on the rise. it's a great spot to have a site that is sort of the center of the capital of the culture because it falls in between two zones. usthe north of a less -- of it starts in tuscaloosa and the south we get to the coastal plain. as the region's changed there are a lot of different resources that occur in each of these zones. zones theyng the two had access both north and south to these different resources. additionally moundsville is
built on the black warrior river at a very sharp bend in the river. it would've been built for defensive purposes because you can see people coming in all directions up and down the river. it is also high enough to be above the 100 year flood mark. moundsville was involved in what we call full scale corn agriculture. thousands and thousands of acres of corn for grown from the first terraces and river bottoms along the black warrior river. there were probably between 3000 and 5000 people that occupied the site while it was being built. it was probably another 50,000 people that lived up and down the black warrior river valley and small farming hamlets. a portion of the corn the group would come to the moundville site as taxes or tribute payment. they were about 300 acres and moundville archaeological park.
the remains of about 30 mounds raised in a rectangle around a large central plaza. the corners are aligned to the cardinal directions, with the exception of mount a which has been turned cap a corner -- caddiecorner. they represent the relative ranking of the clans in the political system. the highest ranking in this system would have occupy the top of mount v. it would've been almost like a welcoming place as people came up from the river, traveled through the ravines and arrived at the city of moundville. they would've paid their tribute payment, usually in the form of corn or other foodstuffs. perhaps raw materials they came from as far away as the gulf of mexico or the michigan area.
mounds represent the ranks of the clans that occupied this site. the highest-ranking ruler, as you go east and west, would've been your second-highest ranking rulers. the southern and what event -- end would've been the lowest ranking clans. we based this on the amount of dirt in the mounds. we also base it on a drawing done by frank speck, an anthropologist in the early 1800s. there was a chickasaw hunting camp laid out in this fashion. the third thing we based this on his the way that the site was abandoned. it was abandoned from the southern end and then flanks along the east and west. the final occupation was mound b. late in the history there was a council house on the back of mount v. we think that might even my the last structures that was mounded at mountville --
ville. we are standing it mound b. 100 12,000 cubic yards of dirt cubic yards of dirt. scientists thought they were completely built by one basket load of dirt at a time. recent research indicates the base of the mound and possibly the sides were initially built with solid blocks -- sod blocks then filled in with clay. this would've been giving it more stability. periodically it would have been capped over with different colors of clay. it delivers a layer cake. -- it would resemble a layer cake. moundv, the long platform behind mound b.
the remains of an earth logic excavated in 1999. this was a semi-subterranean structure with tunnels along the east-west axis. -- very large timbers were placed on the four corners and then sod was placed on top so it was completely covered over with dirt at one point in time. this might have served as a council house. one really interesting thing is that when this structure was built, as the large posts were and urban pot was placed at the bottom of one of the structures. it had acorns in the pot. it was ceremonially broken before the large timber was put in place. of the site has been excavated. mainly where easy roadways or structures that have been built.
the remaining portion of the site, one of the primary ways that archaeologists do research initially is to do what we call remote-sensing. there are several different ways of doing this. ground penetrating radar. magnetometer readings. various forms of aerial photography. there is even some recalled lidar, it shows micro topography which can be changes in the elevation of soil as much as a couple of millimeters. all these things can be put together to give us a better idea of what is underneath the ground before we start to excavate. we can have come inside the jones archaeological museum. we have made this portion of the exhibit to resemble what the interior and exterior of a chief's house might have looked like that sat on top of one of the mounds. the different things easy retreated in this scene, the actual artifacts are on display behind us.
we called him the crown jewels because they are so incredible. some of these pieces of work. what we wanted visitors to be able to see was how incredible these things looked when they were new. the artifacts displayed or at old and0 to 1000 years a little bit corroded. when they were first made and -- -- kept for serial mobile for ceremonial use you can see how magnificent they are. beingts being held -- axe held by the chief or the stone palette which has the hand and eye and it. we believe it was used like a portable altar. what are the most workable artifacts that people talk about is the duck bowl taken out in the early 1900s. it was made out of a single piece of stone. shaped with other
stones and finished with sand tot grades of grind it down and finally being polished. another artifact we find very interesting is this limestone pipe of a supernatural cat. the story talks about the underwater panther who lives below the water. his tail whips around and causes whirlpools. if you get in the water where an underwater panther is, it will pull yield -- you down to the underworld. the limestone comes from the vicksburg area. the clips were the limestone came from, one section is this catf a mural with monster or underwater have their. it's interesting -- underwater panther.
on the mississippi river below are these were painted on the cliff there are whirlpools. museumere designing the we wanted to come up with a how these explained artifacts from different regional areas would have ended up in moundville. although there was a large trade network, there are also alliances that were made through different chiefs. we think of major alliance was made with a chiefdom around the memphis area, perhaps and arkansas. archaeologists designate this the middle south. this scene we have behind us is of a bride coming from around the memphis area. she is about to meet and marry the next ruler for the moundville chiefdom. she does not speak the language and has never met the people. it's very likely she brought an entourage of people with her. she would have had servants,
perhaps musicians in different artists. one of the links we found a proof that people came here and lived here for an extended amount of time is a type of pottery that is generally made that ise arkansas area made here at moundville but with local calais and mentor -- clays and minerals. she would've brought a potter with her to work in that style. at its height it was the largest city north of mexico. after it was built it was used -- they use for the site changed dramatically. it turned from a city with letting people, bustling populations, to more of a city of the dead were people returned year after year to bury their beloved ones.
moundbille -- moundville is a portal to the past. in the 1700s not much remains of the mississippian culture. they were artists, warriors and great tradesmen. the amount of effort it took to build the mounds at this site show how powerful the rulers of this prehistoric community were. all weekend american history tv is featuring tuscaloosa, alabama. c-span cities tour staff recently visited many sites showcasing the city's rich history. is home to the university of alabama. founded in 1831. learn more about tuscaloosa all weekend on american history tv.
>> welcome to historic tuscaloosa and the van de graaff mansion. andas built between 1859 1862 by senator robert gemison junior. what we are looking at is a way to showcase his wealth but also the wealth of the region. he wanted to showcase that alabama was not a primitive backwater. he was trying to move the state forward as a senator would. there are 14 different kinds of wood. the home was designed by a philadelphia architect who built the state insane asylum. he was a major proponent for mental health to form -- reform and a proponent of the asylum in tuscaloosa. we are at the crosswalk of the mansion.
you can see wide-open spaces. the house is built for entertaining. it is built to impress. we have a large arch. it's marrying the roman styles with the greek revival style. all this looks like wood but it is a popular decorative technique in the 19th century. we have an example of the original feaxgraining. that is plaster painted to look like wood. painted by william carol saunders. interesting to note we do have the actual necklace she is wearing in her portrait on display. jamison.rokee dog.is is cherokee and her
people said portraiture was not very good, but you look at some of the details. they are not trying to showcase the person so much as the wealth of the family and showing the flowers and the tassels. there was more detail in the lace of her pants that in her face. it's more about with the family had. we can pass through into the family library. the house was meticulously restored back to its 1862 of parents. this is the original color on the walls. we are very pleased to have an original family peas, this sofa on display. as well of these two bookcases built for the house. books and education are luxury items in the 19th century. to have leather bound volumes, the greek classics, is very important to showcase for the wealthy planter class. he can make it on farming but he
is wealthy from business interests. he has a male in mississippi -- mill in mississippi. he is churning out decorative no work to go onto houses. he is working for the state, doing different projects. enslaves people that works on these structures and makes money off of them. he makes money off the building of the toll roads and bridges. he is in partnership with anyone who makes money. he always has the money and always has the farms to barto -- borrow against. every now and then he keeps in a and a littledigs too deep. but it always pans out. we are thinking of tuscaloosa and the deep south as the heavy greek revival. big square houses with square plans. the same plan downstairs as upstairs.
the classical columns on every thing. jamison takes a major step away by accepting the italian villa style. if your going to design a house oriented where the sun rises and sets, its built over an english basement that pulls in air and naturally ruled it. there was a large belvidere at the top that acts as like an air vent. in the hottest days of the summer you can over the lower then -- vents and the upper vents and it gives you a sense of air conditioning. here is the dining room. we are pleased to showcase the dining table. this is about 1900. it is still a family peace. we think about the dining room. this is the height of grandeur. silver and porcelain services. we offer member all this wealth and decadence is built on oppression of one form or another. in the deep south it is slavery.
this is a room for we can showcase any other the role of the people who are serving. today we go to restaurants and talk to the waiter. back in the 19th century slaves would have been coming in to serve, cook and serve the food. we see the plantar class at its most decadent. the long table, the silver. there are people who provided for all of this. which arens, , is where the house the slaves are working, cooking, cleaning. one person's job is to go around all day long opening and closing and adjusting windows and shutters to provide for the sun moving around the house. they were 17 people living on the property. and slaves to maintain this. you put that into perspective, all the work and everything it takes to keep this up and how much of that is not done by modern systems.
we don't even think about the amount of work it would take and to maintain this. you can see interesting would work, inlaid walnut and china usedused -- chinaberry throughout the house. we have a pair of doors. one is a false door for symmetry but here we have a service passage. and here the state of alabama's first built in bathtub. copper on tin with a wooden surround. its incredible to imagine hot and cold running water during the period. this house was ahead of its time technologically. the roof collected rainwater --o two massive behind sit beehive cisterns.
mansionervatory of the appears to be an addition because of the interior windows. but it was all built at once together. the interior windows are for air ventilation and like to go into rooms in the core of the house. this is a statement for the 19th century. if you are pulling weeds in the garden, that is work. if you are clicking -- clipping iv tendrils, that is a hobby. if you have a hobby, you are so people -- you own enough for them to be doing all that works a can have ever find hobby like rearing exotic plants and flowers. this room with have the steam heating plant used to heat the house. it was never installed dd wartime embargoes. --do to wartime embargoes. he is beginning his
representatives -- his work in the house of representatives. when the capital moves down in montgomery he continues to live in tuscaloosa and run his business and political empire from here while traveling down a montgomery to serve as a senator. is that theson secession convention. we have so many of his letters. he writes to his daughter. it is addressed from the senate floor in montgomery. -- itwriting back saying is sort of lighthearted but there is an undertone of severe woe. he voted against secession. about how weg on are going to secede and what is going to happen to those who don't agree. jamison is frustrated with this and asks how are you going to do this?
how are you going to round of the people they don't agree with the sensors? by voting district? by county line, city line, family life? are you going to round up and kill people that oppose you? is the birth of this new nation going to be built on spilled blood of our own countrymen? is a fascinating foreshadowing of what will happen by the end of the five years in conflict. the convention continues to roll on. j votes against it several timesamison. it's going toar happen he votes for it. we have a copy of the ordinance of secession. there was a long list of names. they are right at the top like john hancock, big signature. the second to last name at the bottom scribbled is r. jamison. and the civil war is such a fascinating microcosm of
what is going on in the deep south. you have a planter class hurtling forward. they really cannot -- particularly some elect the senator, cannot fathom a world where he will not own other people. 's wealth is build on this -- his wealth is built on this. he had some northern workman who had been performance over the house -- formen over the house. he said i'm sure we will take back up shortly. his working here finish the actual house. there are some missing details. there would've been elaborate plasterwork and a steam heating plant never fully installed. all in all it was completed by 1862. the civil war was very difficult on the family, particularly in jamison's hesitance to understand the grasp of what is really happening. nobody did in the early times.
because the montgomery and richmond to serve as a confederate senator. he is watching all this take place and sending letters to tell his wife, daughter how to run the house and what to keep doing. they start sending him letters about the shortages. they can't get this and that. he says i'm sure you will make do and it will get better shortly. it doesn't. what i found so fascinating is her daybook. you have a woman who by today's standards is a plantation elite heiress. you imagine her wandering around the house and the ball down. that's not what day-to-day life was. her work manual starts in the 1850's. it has different recipes. recipes for for the war have sugar and cream and eggs. they are treats. they are wonderful things. you see the recipes literally
evolve over her diary throughout the war. he starts to create other ways to make these foods with less sugar, more flour, a few less eggs. it's basically a ritz cracker. everything has been taken away. nuts and rootse being added to different ingredients. you have this big fine house filled with fine things. they had a grand pno for their for their- piano daughter. but they are running out of things. here we have a bedroom set up much as it might have been in the 19th century. we have a bad similar to the style we know that charity j -- cherokee jamison had. we have several parlor pieces because of bedroom was also your own apartment within the house.
one of the things you have to remember is if you lived in the mansion, you came downstairs in the morning and had to be dressed and ready for the day. the senator might have colleagues or business associates already in the house. it's not a private world the way we think of you wondering around your own house in your pajamas. jefferson davis' older brother came here with his children and lives as a refugee during the war. we found that during his amnesty agreement. after he left his house in jackson he can hear. we found out through some of the letters that one half of the house was not furnished because by the time the furniture was going to be shipped the embargoes had started and mobile had fallen. they could not get things. it starts to lose some of the grantor of our idea of what the old south was versus the reality. union forces were encamped on the other side of the river. we did not take on the bridge.
if they wanted to cross, they could have. one evening there was one century on the bridge. he is knocked out. they crossed over the bridge and arrived in downtown tuscaloosa. the sun is setting, the lights are low. there was one structure completely lit up. with talk about the importance of lighting. the house is lit up. they say theyds went to the opera house, a large structure on the main street of town. it was actually this house. this was such a large and opulent home some of the foot soldiers believed this to have been a public building. they came in and jamison and the city leaders were there to attempt to surrender the city peacefully. if he won't turn down the structures and the warehouses, this as peacefully as we can. the university was used for
military purposes. they said we will destroy all military complexes in the city. the confederate forces did destroy the arsenal in downtown tuscaloosa. there was a fire in downtown but that was not caused by a battle or from strife. in this house and several other leading citizens'homes had a federal marshal guarding them. union forces guarding the houses. the unionh from forces coming in, but neighbors getting upset that it had gone down peacefully. saying, we will not go out without a fight here the city leaders saying, and no, we actually are. jeminson is worth a lot of money on paper, but is liquid asset were in confederate stocks and bonds which were worthless. his highest value before the war was in owning people, and he no longer owned people. he delivered a speech at one of his plantations.
he wrote it down so we have a fascinating document. the founding era of what would become sharecropping. you are free, i'm not denying that. here is what we can do. there is still work to be done. there's really go back to him being a businessman. you may be free, and i have accepted this, but there is work to be done and if you want to be a part of it there is a place for you. this is very interesting, he says right now everybody needs to make that decision. if you are back to leave i would like for you to go now. you cannot come back. it are and going, the system won't work. he is asking people to make tough choices.
if you stay, this is what we are going to do. you can farm this percentage for yourself and this percentage for me. i will buy all of the provisions and we will split the profits. you have the beginnings of sharecropping. it does not work. when people ask is why we preserve things, take care of this, isn't this a temple to slave ownership or anything like that -- i disagree. this is a house of craftsmanship that showcases slave skills and the work done. it encompasses a time period. some good, some bad. the only way to and capture this is with our three-dimensional history. there is no slide or textbook that can give you the grandeur and sense of place as being in the home where senator jeminson surrender the city to union forces. it is fascinating to be here.
>> all weekend, american history tv is featuring alabama. tuscaloosa served as alabama's capital through 1846. c-span's city tour staff recently visited many sites showcasing the history. to learn more, watch all weekend on american history tv. [bells ringing] >> we are standing right in the central heart of the original canvas at the university of alabama. -- original campus at the university of alabama. in 1831 , when the store is opened, it would have been and i doesn't rotunda. -- a magnificent rotunda. the north end is taken up by what is now the library.
we are standing in the quad, as it is known today. interestingly enough, the quad has been the central part of campus from its earliest how things. the rotunda was right behind me. you can imagine alongside either edge, east and west, where the university dormitories were. directly behind it was the lyceum. that was another classically inspired building where all the classrooms took place. on either side of the lyceum were the faculty houses. this was like an educational village right and the middle of what, at the time was considered
by outsiders as the wilderness, the western country. so land was granted for the university in 1827. the university opened its doors in 1831. the campus was designed by the state architect william nichols, who also designed the state capitol building in downtown tuscaloosa. it was designed as an academic village, speak, on the model of the university of virginia. even going so far as to design a rotunda based on both jefferson's rotunda at uva and also on the pantheon. our rotunda was actually a half scale version of the ancient pantheon in rome. >> i think the whole idea was bound up with putting tuscaloosa on the map more than anything. we had been designated as the capital of the state, moving it west. there was a lot of energy in settling the western part of the state of alabama. and so alongside with that
political center comes an educational center. so the land is granted 1.5 miles west of the government. initiated here with huge resources. so we've got the state architect brought in. he has designed the most magnificent space in the south, it could be argued. and he has laid out a plan along the lines of jefferson's village, it makes quite a statement. between the time of its founding in 1831 to the epic of the civil war, the university -- to the outbreak of the civil war, the university grew in prestige. many that started as faculty rose through administration. some becoming president of the university. many moving on into local state, and even national politics. with the impending doom of the civil war seeming inevitable, the university changed its focus from a center of classical education to a military institute in 1860. with that came in on exchange to the university. of what had always been a university built in the classical style changed to a neo-gothic orientation. will be have today isa
university that mostly looks classical with it and develop past, but has interspersed these neo-gothic inspirations from that military government. we are looking at the president's mention. -- president's mansion. originally it was not part of the campus. there was no planned mansion. the president actually lived in faculty housing. shortly before the university, williams michael -- william nichols was commissioned to design the president's mansion. it was opened in 1841. it was considered at the time to be a grand palace.
[laughter] it was beyond anything else that existed in tuscaloosa the time. quite ostentatious. it was in the greek revival style. the classicism suits the rest of the university. one interesting thing that surprises a lot of people is the presence of two of the original four slave quarters. they are still behind us. there is one originally used as a living space for the enslaved people. the university of alabama actually did own a handful of slaves at any given time. they would have 2-3 of them. of course, presidents could bring as many as several dozen with them. basil mainly owned 38 slaves on campus. faculty and students also brought enslaved people with them to assist them in their daily lives on campus as well. this is an especially significant structure because it's one of the earliest remaining on campus. the campus was burnt to the ground april 4, 1865. there are various urban legends about why the president's mansion wasn't spared. -- was spared.
perhaps the president's wife begged the union soldiers not to burn it to the ground, that it was of no assistance to the confederate army. whether or not that is true, it survived the war. is one of a handful of many buildings from the antebellum campus. is a cornerstone for the university today. we are standing in the sight of what was originally the end -- stnading int he site of what was originally the southern end. at the time it was a military
institution, the rotunda went up in flames in 18 city five. there was nothing the townspeople could do but watch it burn. it really cut the campus to the court to have this -- the core to have this space, which was really the pride of the region, to be destroyed during the war. it was considered one of the most magnificent spaces in the south. it burned to the ground and was lost.
park hall and garland and manly, which are just behind the library here actually became the new central heart of campus after the devastating loss. robert malone and others in the late 1980's did archaeological excavation. they found the foundations of the rotunda, the 19th century rotunda. they marketed with flagstone. the portico, the: facade -- the column line facade, this concentric circle. this outer one was a ring of columns. a series of corinthian columns lined the interior of the domed structure. and those are marked with flagstone in the pavement as well. right behind me is the spot that is known today as the mound. this is the site of one of the original university dormitories, franklin hall.
this was one of four the original dormitories on campus that surrounded either side of the central quad, surrounding the central rotunda in the middle. all four of those were destroyed in the civil war. but the remains of franklin hall were left for the longest amount of time. there was so much archaeological evidence there, eventually it just grew up over time. and we have the remains in the form of demand h -- of the mound here today. just beyond the mound you see the roundhouse, kind of like a castle. that was the first military inspired structure on campus. that was built in 1862. it was established specifically as a site where the students living in these dorms could be alerted if the federal troops were advancing. the university rented three enslaved young men whose job it was disregard. on the morning -- job it was to serve guard. on the morning of april, when the troops were advancing, they were told to alert the long call, which meant beat the drum
to alert the soldiers living on campus that they were being advanced upon by the federal troops. the university students and collected military that were here at the time were far outnumbered by the united states army that had arrived. they essentially departed, but the federal troops sacked the university. they burned essentially the entire campus. the roundhouse is one of the few remnants that remains. the university president's mansion is another. this house behind us here is another 1830's structure, part of the original campus plan. essentially the rest of the campus was destroyed. after the devastation of the war, it took a couple years. a new university plan was put in place based on -- actually it's modeled after virginia military institute. this medieval style architecture began being built in the quad just behind the original campus. it's actually back there, in 1867. woods hall was the first building constructed between 1867-1869. enrollment at the school struggled until the mid-1870's. with the devastation of the south, growth was slow. but by the 1880's, several buildings were in place. the university began gaining back prewar steam.
i think it is something that people here in tuscaloosa are very much aware of, and proud of how far we've come. >> showcasing the history of tuscaloosa, alabama. we continue with our look at the history of tuscaloosa. >> turning the tide at the -- >> the of alabama name of my book is "turning the tide: the university of alabama in the 1960's." i was a student at the university of alabama in the 1960's and i missed a lot of it because i was studying. i wanted to take the story of beyond the desegregation that occurred in 1963. i want to take it through the rest of the 1960's. while we desegregated in 19 623, -- 1963, we did not integrate. that took a long time, going even beyond 1970. once all that energy that had gone through trying to maintain an illegal and certainly immoral
way of doing things, after all that energy could be sent in another direction, the university of alabama begin to turn itself away from a regional party school toward becoming a major national academic institution. that is what it has become, but it was a long journey in the 1960's that sent us that direction. there were a lot of changes going on at the beginning of the 1960's. from 1956. the first effort of desegregation failed horribly. desegregation is desegregation. we were under the same court order in 1963, but officially we had been desegregated that the university expelled her to calm the mob that had been raging on this campus. the mob and the presidency of oliver carmichael. they were looking for a new president. they approached frank rose, who was a minister in the church of christ and president of pennsylvania college.
he was not anxious to come here because the university had this bad reputation. they finally said, dr. rose, we need you because we are facing desegregation and we need a southerner who can lead it. he came in 1958. his first challenge was, how do we do this peacefully? he went to the governor of alabama and big jim surprisingly said i agree, it is time we desegregated the university of alabama. he called his friend rockefeller and said don't be surprised, i have a friend down there, we serve on the tuskegee institute board. he is progressive and very liberal. you need to talk to judge wallace. he called judge wallace and he said, yeah, it's about time we desegregated the university of alabama. then came the election of 1958
and wallace was against john patterson. patterson became governor and wallace swore that he would never let the race issue keep them out of politics again. patterson was not about to desegregate the university of alabama. he spent that time building buildings, building infrastructure, building the alumni association. he put an alumni association in every county in the state and established to be new ones across the nation. -- 15 new ones across the nation. he got us moving that direction and then george wallace became
governor of the state. he says the ku klux klan yesterday, the ku klux klan today and the ku klux klan forever. wallace was using the race issue through his own end. he knew what was going to be desegregated, it was just a matter of time. he went to the students, he went to every student leader and he did not say please help me, he said this is how you are going to help me and he got them on board. then, he went to the faculty in the faculty in november of 1962 -- they were afraid of what happened to all miss -- ole
miss in 19 622. -- 1962. he got the town leaders behind peaceful desegregation. they worked very hard, knowing it was coming through the winter of 1963 into the spring, they did things like make sure there were no loose objects on campus that can be used as weapons. they moved all the bricks out of here.
wallace wanted a peaceful desegregation. he plans to bring in every member of law enforcement across the state that he could. but tuscaloosa police department could muster maybe 35 officers, the university, maybe a dozen. he brought in hundreds of state troopers, prison guards, forest rangers two make sure we had 800 people around this campus when desegregation happened on june 11, 1963. if you look at the student groups and look at the culture of the university of alabama in the early 1960's, this was a football party school. most students were interested in football, parties, dating and making at least a "c" and
getting by. the student government association was a bastion of the greek system. the top returnees and sororities and the other greeks, but mostly the top four or five return these best fraternities run the student government association. it was filled with young men who wanted to become lawyers or businessmen. they would shape the future of the university. many of them in the 1960's were liberal, progressive. john blackburn, the dean immediately recognize that. he formed an alliance with them and show them how to do this
within the system. they formed an alliance with a small contra of student radicals -- cadre of student radicals who were extremely intelligent and wanted change. together, they began to send the student body in a new direction in terms of the kinds of issues they would bring before them. for instance, having a forum to discuss civil rights, coming down on the right side of civil rights issues. endorsing the establishment of an african-american student association. and then, academic freedom was a big issue on campus and in the state.
when george wallace realized what was going on here, they decided they needed to take control of the university. at them powell came here to speak in 19 624. -- adam powell came here to speak in 1964. some of the more radical student decided they did not when he kind of us want any kind of impediments in bringing speakers. you bring in people to discuss issues from various sites. in 1967, it was called revolution. there was a magazine that accompanied this that had
articles in it, one from a black student from berkeley. her father was a member of the american communist party. general wheeler wrote an article defending american policy in vietnam. this magazine came out and caused a real stir in the legislature. it was being used to say we have this communist -- they made an
issue out of it and they wrote the speaker ban bill. the legislature would affect fico power over any -- would have had veto power over any speaker coming to the institution. judge frank m johnson had finally gotten tired of the wallace administration and said desegregate schools now, 1967, now. 1% of our public schools had been desegregated at that point. maureen wallace wanted to put all schools under one man who was a staunch segregationist. she called in the presidents of all the historically white colleges and universities and ask them to sign a document endorsing that point of view and they all did, except frank rose. his refusal meant more than all the others because he was so powerful politically. that really got the legislature after rose. he sent his vice president to montgomery to stop this speaker ban bill. we had enough alumni in the state legislature to stop it,
but they passed a resolution requiring that at all football games, the confederate battle flag be raced along with the american flag in the state flag and in addition to paying the national anthem -- playing the national anthem in the states on, they would play "dixie." they said we are not going to play "dixie" after the national anthem and state song. he knew that battle was not worth fighting at that point. at all football games, they would march out the confederate flag and the band would play "dixie." the black students would sit down and many other students would not. that stopped after one year. we had our own confederate battle flag issues here in 19 six to seven and 1968. that's 1967 in 19 68. yet understand the role of football. -- you have to understand the role of football at the university of alabama.
even before frank rose was on the payroll here, he called coach bryant and offered him a job at his on the monitor. coach bryant was reluctant to accept it at first. when frank rose told him he would go and talk to but wilkinson, he accepted immediately. it took him two years to turn around the football program.
in the 1960's, football kept the intention -- the attention of that mass of alabama football fans who knew nothing about the university and frank rose could turn the university and most of the people did not care what we did. what frank rose west frank to do, above all, was get the university of alabama away from this party school focus and get us headed a new direction to become a viable academic institution, first in the south and then nationally. first thing he had to do was hire faculty. only a third of the faculty here
had their degrees. by 1965, two thirds had them. that made us competitive. today, we have our share of the finest faculty in the country. we have students here today who could have gone to harvard, yale. we lead the country in the number of national merit scholars that come here. that was where rose wanted to get us. he had to grow the student population, but he also wanted to raise the intellectual level of the student population. my books are about institutions under stress and how they handle change.
during the vietnam war, our military services did not do that well. they fought the last war. at the university of alabama, tradition is important here, history is important here, but we learn from that history. we learn from the history of a region that has had a sad history. we are the only part of the country that knows total defeat in the warfare, occupation, racial strife. we have learned from that and we have appreciated what capacity -- what the past can teach us. the university of alabama can stand as a symbol of how you can change amid turmoil and become something greater than even you anticipated you could be. it's great to do that in a place that is beautiful, a place that is genteel and traditional and
maintains that while moving in a new direction. with that, roll tide. >> our staff recently traveled to tuscaloosa, alabama to learn about its rich history. it translates to "black warrior or learn more about tuscaloosa -- warrior. when more about tuscaloosa on c-span tv. ms. melton: we are at the murphy-collins house, which houses the murphy african-american museum. it gets its name from the two owners. the murphy built the house, and ms. collins bought the house from the murphy's. the two-story bungalow was built by will murphy and his wife
around 1923. as you know, the capital of alabama was located here in tuscaloosa, from 1826 until 1846, -- 1946. around 1923, the capital burned, and that is where will murphy got the material to build this house. this area was the area where most of your professional and american lives. beautiful houses. it was, sort of, a district where professionals who had houses had white linked curtains to the window, and you will recall the latest community. they are all gone laced curtains.
he was the first licensee african-american optician. he was also a businessman. he had four different. businesses. his wife also had a career. she was the principle of the old 20th street school here in tuscaloosa. so, back then, even though things were segregated, it was a very good living for them. the murphy's the house around 1923, and when he passed in 1943, his wife tried to hold on to the house. the house was wheeled to his -- willed to his nephew, who lived
in mobile, and later he sold the house ms. collins. ms. collins on the house up until the city bought it in 1986. i fell in love with the house, reading the material that was here, bringing in groups to two or the building, getting excited by the -- tour the building, getting excited by the artifacts, the items -- i did not know we had all the information. one of the things we talked
about is bloody tuesday, which was one of the main things that happened during the civil rights movement in tuscaloosa. the church -- the first african baptist church -- at the time, the pastor, who was the ringleader of the civil rights movement here in tuscaloosa, and the first african have just church -- baptist church is across the street from the murphy-collins house, so we can look out the window and see the first african baptist church from here.
on monday and tuesday, what had happened -- on bloody tuesday, what had happened is they had met, and they were going to march to the courthouse to integrate the facilities there. the police had heard they were going to march, and told them not to, but they told them they were still going to march. when the leader left to lead the group out of the church, they were confronted at the front of the church with the policeman, billy clubs, tear gas, and other weapons to make sure they did not march. they were driven back into the search, and teargas was thrown into the church to make sure they stay there in the church they did not let them out. the leaders -- they took them on to jail. then, when they saw that the ones inside the church were not going to try to march anyway because the leaders were put in jail, they let them go home. some had to go and get medical attention because they were injured during the confrontation with the police. some state to -- they --stayed to clean up the mess made from teargas and other debris, and those beautiful stained windows were broken and had to be replaced. when they had bloody tuesday in 1964, i was a member of the first african baptist church, and i had just started teaching in 1961, so i was a way that in summer school -- a way that summer in summer school. it was all over the news, the
radio, tv, and where i was in summer school, a lot of wanted to know what is going on in alabama, what were they doing, and do we have relatives there -- did they get hurt, so on, and so on, about bloody tuesday. i attended many rallies at first african baptist church. i attended the meetings they had when dr. king came to first african baptist church. during that time -- the 1960's was a period of unrest. people want to bring about changes. as a result, some changes were made. that is one of the things the young people need to know -- the sacrifices made by the people before the in order for these changes to take place.
weekend, american history tv is featuring tuscaloosa, alabama. is recently visited many site show is -- many sites. julian butler: if there was ever a man that deserved the recognition, and so often the men and women who deserve the recognition do not receive it. to see him receive it was a wonderful thing. we are standing in the lobby of the main library in the center of campus at the university of alabama. this is the first profile in courage award ever awarded by the john f. kennedy library foundation.
in 1990, former alabama congressman carl elliott. he was many things. student body president in the university. but he was a congressman for alabama from 1948 until 1964. carl elliott was born very poor in northwest alabama. in the depth of the depression, he came to the university with $2.50 in his pocket and a $200 check he had been given. he presented himself to the president and said you said anybody can come to the university. the president examined his findings and said you were not -- he slept under a truck on campus.
they found on the next day and hauled him back to the president. the president said if you want it that badly, we will find a way for you to get an education. he ended up as president of the student body and with a law degree, the first of his family to receive a college degree. he actually ran for a county judgeship and lost. in 1948, he ran against the four-time incumbent congressman and defeated the incumbent congressman and began his congressional career.
there are few members of the house of representatives who ever author a major bill that becomes law. mr. elliott, during the time he was in congress, authored two. the library services and construction act of 1956 and the national defense education act of 1958. the library services and construction act was aimed at constructing libraries in rural areas. it was the father of the book-mobiles, that takes libraries into remote areas today. the national defensive education act was very comprehensive. but the heart of it was scholarships and loans for college students, graduate students. first, legislation in regard to education that over $1 billion was spent over the years. and some 20 million americans received a college education through a loan or grant. it has been said, if you take those 20 million students, it may be the most significant legislation ever passed by congress. following the 1960 census, alabama lost a congressman.
the state legislature refused to redistrict to cut to eight districts and came up with a suicidal plan, called the 9-8 plan. this was at a time when the democratic primary was paramount to election in alabama. you ran for your congressional district in the first primary. if you received the nomination, then all nine names went on the ballot one month later. each voter had eight votes and they could drop one. mr. elliott survived in 1962. but in 1964, george wallace had become governor, and carl elliott was targeted because of his progressive stance. a ballot was circulated all over the state. we know it as the infamous "blue ballot," and it had a list of eight candidates, but not mr.
elliott. the message was to drop carl elliott. so he was unseated in that crazy 9-8 primary. he began practicing law after he was defeated. in 1966, he ran for governor in the democratic primary against governor wallace's wife. it was a campaign fraught with race, as you may imagine. one of his lines that he would give over and over was they will tell you that i am u.s. government approved, but they are wrong. it is not stamped on my back. what is stamped is on my heart. and that is my country, right or wrong. what you had was mrs. wallace appealing to all of the segregation votes.
the alabama attorney general ran as a direct appeal to african-american voters. and mr. elliott was the moderate, the man in the middle, which was the most difficult position to take. i think one of the things that characterized was that he went to selma. the place in selma where the civil rights demonstrators met was at the church. and of course the edmund pettus bridge, where the marchers were
so badly beaten. mr. elliott said i have not, to selma to sing "we shall overcome," nor have i come here to stand on the bridge and yell "never." surely, the people of alabama, there is room in the middle for all of us. he came in third. and it was essentially the two races that bankrupted him. he withdrew his congressional pension. all of the money he had contributed. he was left to begin learning to practice law at a very late age. he was diagnosed with diabetes. and it began to take a real toll
on him, ultimately confining him to a wheelchair. in 1989 -- there was a cover story with john f. kennedy junior and caroline's picture. they urged america to nominate people for a profile in courage award. the name coming from president kennedy's pulitzer prize-winning book from americans who display great courage in public office. they encouraged nomination for the first award, which would be given in 1990.
when the magazine article came out, a longtime aide to mr. elliott, who remained throughout his life one of the closest people to him, called me and said julian, we ought to nominate mr. elliott. i said if you will put together these stuff, i will write the nomination. we were told there were 5000 nominations for the profile in courage award. interestingly, erica stern, who headed the committee, said when they read mr. elliott's nomination, they immediately said this is it. the award -- it is a sterling silver lantern. that is to be a beacon. the sculptor or designer was, ed schlossberg, caroline kennedy's husband. it is modeled after a lantern that would have been used on a 19th century sailing ship. the lantern is universally regarded as a symbol of truth and hope. which is the characteristic the library looks for. at the time of the presentation of the award, mr. elliott was on the stage at the kennedy library. he made remarks -- expressed his gratitude to the kennedy family. he talked about his relationship, followed president kennedy in congress by two years, they served together in the house of representatives. he ended with a statement that summed up his life. as long as we have overcrowded classrooms, underpaid teachers, schools with inadequate libraries, and young men and women who are denied an education because they do not have the resources, our work is not finished.
john f. kennedy's vision for america will not be fully accomplished until all of our young people have the opportunity to obtain the quality of education which is their birthright. such educated young people, engaged in public service, are essential to meet the challenges of each new frontier. there are those who said that i was ahead of my time. but they were wrong. i always believed that i was behind the times that ought to be. >> our cities tour staff recently traveled to tuscaloosa, alabama to learn about its rich history. learn more about tuscaloosa and other stops at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend, on
c-span3. our live coverage of the presidential race continues tuesday night for the new york electionn us for results, speeches, and viewer reactions, taking you on the road to the white house on c-span, c-span radio, and c-span.org. >> work who -- pulitzer prize winners whose focused on civil rights. a preview. >> good evening, everyone. my name is charlie daley. i live next door to mr. roy clark. [laughter] who is the best neighbor in the whole world. [laughter] he told me to say that. [laughter]
but at least for tonight, you can call me scout. you all know me as a 10-year-old girl if you read the novel, "to kill a mockingbird." author, ms. lee, won the pulitzer prize for fiction. [applause] we were all sad to hear about her passing. something strange happened last year. another book about me was published. it was about me as the young woman. atticus. atticus finch. of people really loved my daddy in mockingbird. he was kind, fair, and loving. himt know what happened to
when we get to watch man. [laughter] let's for a minute forget about that old atticus and remember the young one. the one who inspired us all. patrick mcguinness is here to bring us -- him back to life for us. remember, you are the jury, ladies and gentlemen. he will give you a statement. >> i shall be brief and i would like to use my remaining time with you to remind you this case is not a difficult one. it requires no minor shifted of complicated facts, but it does require you to be certain beyond all reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. shouldn with, this case never have gone to trial. it is as simple as black and white.
so, a humble, quiet, felt sorry negro who for a white woman, and had to put his words against two white people. they wanted you to go along with them with confidence that you go along with their evil lie,mptions that all negros that all negros are immoral men arethat all negro not to be entrusted with our women. quit,re thing, before i thomas jefferson once said that all men are created equal. is one way in which all men are created equal. there is one human institution that makes this -- the stupid man, and equal of an einstein.
it makes the grand man just the ignorant man and equal of any college president. that institution is the court. it can be the supreme court or the humblest justices of the land. or this court. courts have their faults, as does any human institution. but in this country, our courts are the great levelers. in this country, all men are created equal. i do not firmly hold onto the ideal that our courts are all they are supposed to be. that is no ideal for me. but they are representative of our people. heard all of the evidence given. you have heard the testimony. to release theu
defendant to his family. in the name of god, do your duty. the entirewatch event sunday at 6:30 p.m. and 10:30 p.m. eastern. this is american history tv only on c-span3. >> he had a couple of meals and a steam shovel. it is one of the ironies to be and oh anti-government your entire fortune to the government. >> tonight, sally talks about the book the profiteers, which takes a critical look at the bechtel corporation, one of the largest engineering and construction companies in the entire world?
>> projects throughout the world, i think it is fine for it to be, but it is the american taxpayers who pay for it and it would seem the american taxpayers should have some about to information money,ts, the amount of .olitical relationships >> next, a look at the history .f the movement this is about 25 minutes. >> i will conclude this with my own recent publion