tv Patent Models CSPAN April 23, 2016 5:05pm-6:01pm EDT
require that anyone applying for a patent must submit a model of their invention. were200,000 models requirementfore the was abolished. alan rough child and his wife had collected over 4000 patent models, including conventions, such as the breach loading firearm and the 1879 carburetor. next, the smithsonian american art museum hosts a presentation by alan rothschild who shows images of the collection and talks about the book he and his wife co-authored "inventing a better mousetrap." it's about 50 minutes. when betsy and i decided i would put on a neck's edition of patent models in the building a few years ago, we thought this was a no-brainer because we could go to the smithsonian -- museum ofum
national history and borrow its patent models. so sorry, wes, can't lend any. in our desperation, we turned to our friends in the u.s. patent office, and he said, you should contact alan rothchild who owns the largest private collection of american patent models in the world. we did just that. i went up to casanova effort today's, and alan and anne couldn't be more gracious and hospitable. they had built this wing on their house to display the patent models, and alan said, borrow anything you like. i spent two days selecting. it was a hard choice narrowing it down, and as you know, the exhibition was a great success here for two years. that's my personal contact with the rothchilds --
rothschilds. alan received a degree in pharmacy and went into the family business. threether established pharmacies in the syracuse, new york area, so allen was going to do that for a career, but while he was in college, he was -- interested in a pot the kerry shops. displayed objects would go into an apothecary shop, and he decided to create an historic apothecary shop museum, which he did, and it was open for 25 years in syracuse. it is now housed in downtown syracuse, but he got bored with pharmacy, which he described as counting pills from one big bottle into a little bottle. he went out on his own, and he
founded and middle equipment and supply company. he established a home health care center and a company to build and manage medical buildings. he holds to see u.s. patents for devices -- two u.s. patents for timing devices and is a collector of patent models on a massive scale. i'm sure he will tell you about that. his wife anne holds a masters degree in instructional technology and was the director of senior citizens programs in the city of syracuse. she also has run the family business, the syracuse glove factory, and has assisted alan with his research on patent models. she is the co-author of the book on their patent model collection
titled "inventing a better mousetrap." with that, let's welcome alan rothschild. [applause] mr. rothschild: thank you, charles, for your kind words. to give a very special thank you to betsy bruen , the director of the smithsonian american art museum, for inviting us to do this presentation and book signing. betsy has always been a staunch advocate of the patent models, and her support is appreciated. thank you to nona martin from the museum who has overseen the arrangements for the event. a special thank you to elizabeth director of inventor education for the u.s. patent and trademark office and
for their collaboration to make this event happen. also, a well deserved thank you to garrett grand win, editor of our book who also wrote the introduction for the book. i believe garrett is here this evening, along with gretchen guiles from california, representing the publishers of our book. thank you both. also, i want to thank all of you who have come tonight to hear our program. the patent system added the fuel of interest to genius. this quote was by abraham lincoln. president lincoln had a patent. its purpose was to lift boats and obstructions in a river. lincoln is the only american president to ever obtain a u.s. patent. it's april 10, 1790.
president washington has signed the unitedreate states patent office. for the first time in american history, the right of an inventor to his or her invention is recognized by law. the constitution, article one, section eight, clause eight tells congress to promote and offer arts inventors the respective right to their writings and discoveries. the subject matter of a united states patent is defined as any useful art, manufacturer, or device, or any improvement thereon not before used. to apply for a patent, a specification and drying and model are to be cemented. state thomas jefferson, henry knox, and attorney general edmund randolph are chosen to head a three-member patent commission.
commission members are given the power to issue a patent if they deem the invention or discovery sufficiently useful and important. the board's authority to grant patents is absolute, with no appeals process. the department of state is given the responsibility for administering patent laws. the fee for a patent is between four dollars and five dollars. this is an example of a patent model. all the images of models in this presentation are patent models better in the book and part of the rothschild patent model collection. 1790s were required from until 1880. many were still being submitted until the late 1890's. and model was not to be more than 12 inches square and needed to have the inventors name of fixed to it. the united states was the only country in the world that ever
required a model to be submitted for a patent. era, thee patent model patent office of fixed a patent and receiving tag to each model granted a patent. the patent was attached to the model by a short length of red fabric tape. had the patent number on it, along with the inventors name, what the patent was for, and the date on which it received a patent. the receiving tag had the inventors name on it, what the patent was, and the date the model was received by the patent office. approximately 10,000 models were 1836. from 1790 to the patent papers that were issued to the inventors were signed by the united states
president, secretary of and the attorney general. the image displayed is an original patent paper signed by george washington on january 6, 1797 for the invention of john the zero for process related to pearlking of compound ashes. in 1810, the patent office moves from the department of state to blodgett's hotel, also known as the great hotel and union pacific hotel. it was built in 1793 by samuel blodgett on e street between seventh and 8th avenue. for the first time, patent models are put on public display, and it becomes a local custom to stroll through the rooms on sundays to see what models are on view. on december 15, 1836, there is a fire at the patent office, and building burns to the
ground. all the records and models are destroyed. congress appropriates $100,000 for the restoration of 3000 of the most important ones. luckily, i enough records are held outside the office to allow almost all of the 10,000 models to be reconstructed. they are given their original date and an x after their number. in 1830 six, congress authorizes construction of a new building for the patent office. the design is a greek revival structure modeled after the parthenon. as many of you know, we are now sitting in this building that was built to house the patent office. congress had certain requirements for the new building. it must be fireproof, meet the requirements of the patent office for the next 50 years, and include galleries for displaying models to the public. 1840's, asof the
many as 10,000 visitors per month came to view the models. of july 4, 1836 reestablishes the examination system of 1790. the submission of models are once again required by the commissioner. the application fee is $30 for u.s. citizens, $500 for british subjects, and $300 for all others. numbering system is instituted, replacing the previous practice of using names. patent number one is issued to senator john ruggles of maine for traction wheels on locomotive steam engines. it wasn't supposed to happen, but it certainly did.
a majormber 24, 1877, fire breaks out on the first floor of the west wing of the patent office building, of the supposedly fireproof building. .7,000 models are destroyed 27,000 models are retrieved from the debris, and congress appropriates $45,000 for their restoration. in the summer of 1994, i stumbled upon a group of patent models for sale at an upstate new york antique show. captivated by them, i purchased a few models, a few more, and then a lot more. this was the beginning of the rothschild patent model collection. models were added to the collection from auctions, private sales, and several other collections. the collection consisted of over 4000 patent models.
years, the collection has been featured in hundreds of .rticles and magazines some of the more interesting stories were in "the new york times," "the christian science monitor," and the in-flight magazine of emirates airways. the collection was featured on television programs, cbs sunday morning, the history channel, and home and garden television. 24ave curated more than patent model exhibits that have traveled throughout this country. some of the exhibits have been at the united states patent and trademark office, the federal reserve bank of boston. texas a&m university, the louisiana art and science museum , and without a doubt, the most significant of all the exhibits was "inventing a better mousetrap" that was in the
smithsonian american art museum from november of 2011 until november 2013. one of my favorite exhibits, which is still ongoing, is at the discovery arcade in disney paris. question i have been asked many times over the past years is, how did i and up with these models if they were in the possession of the united states patent office? the answer is, in 1883, the models were moved out of the patent office and placed in storage. it was estimated that from 1884 $200,000 was spent in moving and storing the patent models. $10,000 topropriated do away with historic models. in 1925, the models were sold at public auction in new york city to philanthropists.
in 1936, his dreams of establishing a patent model withm never materialized the 1929 stock market crash. the estate sold the models to a broadway producer who in turn sold the collection to a group of businessmen who founded a american patent models. in 1940, american patent models declared bankruptcy, and the models were acquired by overrun dog gilbert. over the years, gilbert had many auctions, and thousands of models were sold. peterson, ack designer-inventor purchased gilberts remaining collection of models. peterson printed and eight-volume set of catalogs showing models for sale and sold many models in private sales and auctions. i begin purchasing models from
peterson in 1994 and eventually ended up with his personal collection. you an like to give overview of the book "inventing a better mousetrap, written by myself and my wife. there are 25 chapters in the book broken down by subject .atter each chapter features a dozen or more patent models with short descriptions of how they work, along with stories about their inventors. our book has had over three dozen reviews and comments, all of which have been extremely complementary and informative. i would like to share one of the comments with you from somebody's name you all
recognize. steve wozniak, cofounder of apple computer's. like to talk now about a few of the inventors featured in the book, along with images of their models. george corliss was known worldwide for his contributions to the design and construction of the steam engine. established the corliss nightingale company in rhode island. of all the thousands of steam engines built at the factory, the most famous was one at the 1876 centennial exhibition in philadelphia. the steam engine was the largest in the world and supply power to
14 acres of machinery. this patent model is the corliss cure cutting machine patented in 1877. the machine was adapted to koch -- to cut gears with any required degree of bevel. this was the machine on display at the centennial exhibition. eli whitney, the inventor of the con gin, was born in westborough, massachusetts in 1765. his father was a farmer. whitney revolutionized the cotton industry with invention for removing seeds from con fiber. eli whitney's son also named eli
was born in 1820 and was five years old at the time of his father's death. when his father passed away, he became known as eli whitney, not junior. in 1841, his son eli took over the operation of the musket manufacturing from his cousins, public brothers whom we will talk about next -- the blake brothers whom we will talk about next. whitney's patent model was for a breach loading firearm. he received many patents over a and was one of the first manufacturers of percussion gun caps. in 1894 at the age of 74. the first lock company in new haven, connecticut was the blake brothers company, started in 1833 by three brothers. eli whitney blake, silas blake, and john blake, nephews of eli
whitney, the inventor of the cop engine. after his death in 1825. the blake brothers took over operation of the factory, and whitney's son eli took over the operation from his cousins in 1841. eli whitney blake invented the first stone crushing machine, which provided the material to create the nations first paved roadways. the blake brothers patent in the first mortar locking latch that was inserted into the body of the door. their invention replace the box lock and latch that was affixed to the outside surface of the .oor sir henry stevens maxim was born
in maine in 1840. while born in america, he later became a british citizen. maxim received his greatest recognition preventing the world's first automatic portable machine gun. his gun could fire 500 rounds per minute, equal to the firepower of 100 rifles. the gun revolutionized warfare. he offers his weapon to the united states war and navy departments, both of which declined it on the grounds that it was impractical. the following year, maxim sold his gun to most of the major powers in europe. in 1900, he was knighted by queen victoria, becoming sir henry maxim in recognition of his gun hadtion made in the success of the british army. maxim was a prolific inventor, from creating the first automated sprinkler system to
flying a plane before the wright brothers. it was in brooklyn, new york machinesim generated for utilizing gas. ,is invention of the carburetor and automated machine for from gasoliner under heat and pressure. neville bushel and his wife anna were partners in a factory store . the china products arrived in crates packed with sawdust. the packing material frequently would spill onto the floor and needed to be constantly cleaned up. bissell was frustrated with the sweeper he was using and patented a bissell carpet sweeper. ofdied in 1889 at the age 45. upon his death, his wife anna became the head of the company,
becoming the first female ceo in america. the carpet sweeper was patented in 1886. the wheels that turned the rotary brush were located outside the walls of the sweeper casing. by ansing was surrounded encircling elastic band for preventing the wheels and casing from coming in contact and marring furniture or wall surfaces. the company is still in existence today in grand rapids, michigan and is still family-owned. of 19, aat the age young quaker named stephen whitman set up a confectionery close to the waterfront in ,hiladelphia, pennsylvania trying to compete with the european chocolates of the time. he drew customers from all walks of life, but it was the sailors from the wharf who provided whitman with the important
fruits, nuts, cocoa, and flavorings from their travels. he incorporated these delicacies into his chocolate. whitman began his company selling individual chocolates, but in 1854, he introduced his first box of candies, whitman's choice next sugar plumes from stephen f whitman, packaged in a frilly container. it became the first packaged in a printed and trademarked package. sugarplum's referred to any candy, not just one type. whitman patented his machine forecasting confectionery in 1875. the machine used a steam pillbox around in the body to heat the pre-molded batch, which was to be poured into multiple vessels located on the top. a lever controlled a sliding gate underneath to control several streams of material
simultaneously. as a testament to stephen whitman, 160 years later, the name is still synonymous with .hocolate richard ho was an american press maker who in 1843 invented the rotary press, which revolutionized printing. the press printed both sides of a sheet of paper at the same time. the first rotary press could print up to 8000 pages in our. larger presses made printing larger newspapers possible. ho received over 30 patents for his inventions. his inventions were responsible for the company becoming one of the most successful manufacturers of printing equipment in north america. ho's patent model for printing railad tickets is one of the rarest models in the collection.
atmodels by richard ho are the national museum of american history. i believe this is the only other existing model that is not in the collection. this press, using a revolving cylinder, numbered the tickets to successive numbers by a registering apparatus and then cut them from the role and deposited them in a receptacle in numerical order. henrietta vasser tart of richmond, england is known as england's first woman engineer, and her improvement in propeller designs is probably the most important nautical invention of the 19th century. james hader father patented his idea of a submerged stem-mounted propeller. the propeller was fitted on many british warships. following her feathers --
father's death, she continued his work on the propeller for steamships. her propeller was used in many warships and liners, including the scandinavian and the lusitania. received a869, she united states patent for her method of construction for screw propellers. her propeller allowed ships to go faster with less fuel, less .ibration, and better steering the civil war changed the fields of military surgery and orthopedics. the powerful, destructive, and more accurate weapons of this conflict did more damage to the human body than ever before, resulting in not only more injuries but injuries of a more critical nature. beginning in 1862, the federal government provided money to union amputees with which to purchase artificial limbs.
amputees were given $50 for an .rm and $75 for a leg in the state of north carolina, resolution was passed in 1866 to begin a program similar to a federal one to supply legs to .onfederate veterans the state of north carolina contracted to supply artificial legs to its amputees. the leg that was supplied was an artificial leg, pat number 35,686. this is the actual patent model for the artificial leg that ended up being given to artificial soldiers -- of northte soldiers carolina. the steinway piano company was started in new york city in 1853. it was a family business run by henry steinway, along with his
eight children. the eldest of the five sons christian was a brilliant, meticulous engineer and scientist. he accelerated the pace of invention, research, and development within the company and was responsible for 45 of the firm's 101 patents. this patent model of the cap at ianoo frame for the pno -- p was one of steinway's most important contributions. a wire was attached to each key that went over the bar and then under and back over again and was then attached to a tuning peg. this was the first invention that helped to keep each note in tune. copied byntually every pnm manufacturer in the world. throughpoint, i've gone an abbreviated synopsis of some of the first 23 chapters in the book.
it's time now for some fun, so chapter 24 is a visual quiz of 25 models to see if you can guess what the invention is. let's try one and see how you do. please raise your hand if you think this is a circumference a healy onevice, cradle or acking coin sorter. it looks like coin sorter got the most votes, and .nfortunately, you are wrong it is a heliometer. a heliometer is a type of sundial.
now you know at least one correct answer on the quiz. [laughter] another unusual and innovative part of the book is chapter 25, six pet models you can make. the models are an electromagnetic motor, a reversible lounge, a mousetrap -- of course -- pigeon starter, rowboat, and a washing machine. complete instructions are included to allow the reader to build thereon replica of the model using 3-d printing, conventional techniques, and other methods and materials. one of the models you can replicate is the pigeon starter. thinking,robably be what the heck is a pigeon starter? at the time this patent was issued, live pigeons were used for target practice and placed .n traps dug into the ground however, opening the trap was often not enough to make the
pigeons fly up or leave the trap . yelling and throwing stones at pigeons were common methods of starting the pigeons but affected the shooters concentration. this pigeon starter made a large noise and included a catlike figure that moved from a crouching position into an upright stance to startle the birds into flight. was after the patent issued, the shooting of live pigeons for sport was banned. the live pigeons were replaced disk thatted clay were then named clay pigeons. the sport took on the name of trapshooting, resulting from the fact that the pigeons were originally kept in the ground in traps. the replica model that you can build looks like this.
at this time, i would like to cole,uce dr. david executive director of the ackley which isd library, located in wilmington, delaware. he has written and afterward in t's next?""what [applause] cole: can you hear me? very good. you just heard quite a story. you have actually heard two stories. is thest story you told story of american innovation, how the u.s. patent system developed, and how the models became the signal artifacts in
the evolution of innovation in the 19th century. it's an exciting story full of fantastic artifacts, ideas, brilliant inventions, and inventories, but it's also a checkered history, punctuated by events, to sad terrible fires, and then a rather dismal history for the models beginning in the late 19th century and into the early 20th century when sadly they were neglected and therefore value as visual records of american innovation in what some consider the golden age of innovation in this country was sadly ignored and even lost. then you heard another story, and it's a better story, and it's a story about a how -- about how a handful of people throughout the 20th century kept the flame alive, culminating in and annelous work alan
have done to create enthusiasm gatheredy p or they together over 4000 of these models and created as charles mentioned the greatest private collection of these models anywhere in the world, really preserving through these a legacy in innovation that otherwise would have been lost. we owed them a great deal for having done this. now they are passing the baton. i'm the director of the hagley museum and library in wilmington, delaware where we specialize in interpreting the history of business and technology and innovation. we have been doing that over 60 years, but now we have wonderful tools to play with. delighted to say that allen and dan have chosen to bestow upon our museum both a great honor and responsibility.
over 4000 of the models have come to the hagley museum and library. it will be our job and pleasure in the years to come to .nterpret them bringing to the public's attention what a wonderful legacy of innovation this is and what marvelous stories there are to tell through these models about the history of american innovation. it's going to be our job in the years to comment at hagley through exhibitions and educational programs and traveling shows and documentaries and all kinds of media to bring these models and life associated stories to
with two goals. one, to further an appreciation for and understanding of innovation in america, particularly in the 19th century. lifealso, we hope something ele happens. we hope people of all ages, when exposed to these models and the stories they have to tell, will become inspired to innovate in their own lives. that's the ultimate goal. i think it was alan who said to me the first time we met what his dream was, what their dream was, and that is you hope someone looks at one of the models and is inspired to create to inventwn right, something, and if they get lucky and the stars align, to build a business around that invention, and maybe if they get lucky, to build a community around that business. that's the vision we had with the models. that is what we are going to hope to do in wilmington, delaware and beyond. we feel so privileged that the rothschilds would give us this
opportunity, and we hope we don't let you down. enjoy the book, all of you. i recommend it highly. [applause] rothschild: at this time, i would like to ask if anybody has any questions. i would be glad to try to answer them. toe been asked to tell you go to the microphone on either side of the auditorium to ask your question. >> if they raise their hand, one of our students -- thschild: raise your hand. >> i'm curious if when you were looking to build your collection, if you came across any models that for whatever
reason you are interested in adding to the collection, and if so, why. rothschild: my models were made up of different collections, private collections, and models at auctions, from just individuals who may be had one or two models . there really wasn't any one i would havedel wanted except probably for an edison model, and there were very few edison models and patent models. most of his inventions were after the model requirement. >> i'm a little confused about the dispersion of the models. some went to the smithsonian. some went out at auction. some went out to inventors.
how did all that play out? the models >> were offered first of the smithsonian and then other industrialists. >> in what year? ld: prior to 1925, bulk of in 1925, the the models were put up for auction in new york city. that is when sir henry wellcome bought the entire group of models, which were a couple hundred thousand, probably. are the models on display at the hagley museum, or are you in the process of adding an exhibit. we have about 100 on display right now.
mr. rothschild: there's actually 25 models on display here at the smithsonian. being involved in the patent office and searching and all of do,, one of the jobs that i disclosures are coming in in .ideo formats and 3-d formats of course, there is all this 3-d printing going on at the moment. do you think models could make a comeback? mr. rothschild: our book was published by the company that sponsors the makers fair throughout the world. i think there a very strong making, and i think there's a lot of young
individuals who are very involved. fares,en to three makers and if you have an interest, it's really an unbelievable event to attend. i don't think there will ever be a requirement for patent models in the patent office. i would defer to elizabeth .ougherty there is a strong interest in the present time, especially with 3-d printing. i remember that you spent quite a bit of money restoring the patent models, and many, many were not restored. i'm just wondering if there's a program at the hagley for restoring those models. mr. rothschild: i will have to
defer to dr. cole. >> we have an object conservator, a couple of them on staff, and some models may be subject to -- [no audio] in the tread lightly interest of not over restoring and not attempting to remove some of the original qualities of the models. as we continue to unpack them and work our way through, you will discover candidates for restoration. thank you. with the end of the requirement for pat models, is there any history that indicates that that caused any type of problem with the approval or issuance or understanding of the concepts by the patent examiners.
was there any material effect with the end of the model requirement? mr. rothschild: i've never seen anything written about that. i think it basically probably became overwhelming. the numbers of patents became geometric each year, almost from the very beginning. it was mentioned, 1870, the patent office had no more models. they were still turned in in great numbers until 1880. the office said, we really don't want any more models, and model making was a profession at the time. the inventors were used to submitting models, and the model makers obviously loved making the models. froms were still turned in 1880 1900, but in very small
numbers. to answer your question, i think the patent office was glad to have the models not being submitted anymore and the patent examiners were probably just as happy, also. it was overwhelming, as you can imagine. some of you have seen the models upstairs, 25 models, how much room they took up. imagine having a couple hundred thousand models in this building. that is where they were. >> thank you for the talk. i have only seen models behind the glass, and i wondered how functional the models are when you actually get to touch them. a lot of them have gears, and obviously,, they are models of actual inventions that have these moving parts, but do a lot of
the models also have -- are they functional, or are most of them visual representations? mr. rothschild: when these models were made by the model makers, they were actually functioning models that showed what the claims were for the invention. they were functioning at one time. they were miniature, but there weren't moving parts on the models. the answer is, yes. they can be up to over a couple hundred years old. >> my thanks to you and anne both for your beautiful collection and your generous gift to the public and the
nation to choose to share this beautiful gift of your collection and then to share it in this beautiful book that is now available, so more people can learn and benefit from this beautiful piece of our history. i do have one question, and that is, having been bit by the bug, are you still buying models? [laughter] mr. rothschild: elizabeth, that's a very good question. people have asked me that. as i said to david when we were talking about the collection, i probably should have said, i want to keep out a handful of models, but i knew if i said that, we would get into some kind of disagreement on which models i would keep. i decided i would just go cold turkey and give up the whole collection. -- theyead recently say, once a collector, always a
collector. i have to say i have started a , and it model collection have a total of five models in my collection. many are youow planning on collecting? i said, i'm going to try for 4010. i will probably end up with 15 or 25 models. i want to pass them on to our grandchildren so they have an idea of how crazy their grandfather was. thank you, elizabeth. >> you mentioned earlier claims. i'm not sure what the right word . is there any particular way in these models of highlighting what the claims of the patent were? mr. rothschild: i'm not sure what you are -- >> most of the models upstairs showed particular devices, and quite often, the devices are generic.
claims, which the model embodies in some way. the model quite often may include particular claims in the patent. is there any way of highlighting a particular claim in a model? the patent papers explain in detail, but to the models provide a way of understanding what the patents claimed? mr. rothschild: if you read the patent papers carefully, you can match the claims to the model. there's no question about it. >> there's no way of going from the model to see with the claims are? you would have to read the patent papers to understand the claims and look at the models. earlier,ioned upstairs people say, why were there pat
models to begin with? the thought was, it made it easier for the patent examiners to see what the inventor was trying to claim, and then when a newventors submitted application for a patent, along with the model, the examiner could take that new model and physically take it to where the models were exhibited and compare the two together. we have time for one more question. sense of thee any kinds of patents that people were applying for changed as a result of the elimination of the patent model requirement? mr. rothschild: i think as time went on, number one, most all of
the patents that were patented were improvements. there weren't really a tremendous amount of new patents issued during this time. we copied england's patent system, and england had an ongoing system. most everything that was patented in the u.s. during this period had already been patented in england. most of all the inventions were foris time previous patents but were improvements upon them. i think as the years went on, was gone,requirement i think the patents became more complex, and of course today, they are extremely complex. >> thank you, very much, alan. [applause]
our museum shop is open, and if you would like to purchase the book, feel free to go upstairs and get one, and then you can come down and join us for a brief reception and talk more with alan. mr. rothschild: thank you all for coming. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] the church committee, 40 years later, beginning next weekend on american history tv. we will show extended segments of the 1975 hearings that irs, andted cia, fbi, nsa intelligence committee -- activity. the church committee, 40 years later, next weekend on saturday and sunday, only on american history tv on c-span3.
>> tonight at 10:00 p.m. eastern, we will take a look at some of the speeches by president obama during his two terms at the white house correspondents dinner. this year will mark his final attendance at the dinner. >> it turns out jeb bush identified himself as hispanic in 2009. you know what? i understand. it's an innocent mistake. it reminds me of when i misidentified myself as american in 1961. [laughter] >> join us tonight at 10:00 p.m. and be sure to tune in for our live coverage of this year's white house correspondents dinner on saturday, april 30 beginning at 6:00 p.m. eastern. this sunday night on "q&a," historian ron sure no talks about the hit broadway musical "hamilton," based on his biography of alexander hamilton. >> he said, ron, i was reading
your book on vacation, and as i was reading it, hip-hop lyrics came rising up off the page. he said, hamilton's life was a classic and pop narrative. i was thinking, what on earth is this guy talking about? i could have been picking up on the fact that he had a world-class ignoramus about hip-hop on his hands. my first question to him was, can hip hop be the vehicle for telling this kind of large and complex story? ron, i'm going to educate you about hip-hop. he started pointing out that in hip-hop, you can pack more information into lyrics than any other form because it's very dense and rapid. he started talking about the fact that hip hop not only has rhymed endings. he started educating me in all of these different devices that are important to the success of the show. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern
> a historian edward bone temper discusses his book, "the myths of the lost cause: why the south fought the civil war and why the ." it examines postwar argument made by former confederate seeking to justify their split from the union and their defeat. he argues that slavery and not ts was the primary reason for secession. he also disputes other reasons for the lost cause myth. defeated lee only because of superior troop numbers and resources. the smithsonian associates hosted this two our event. hour event. >> good evening everyone. can everyone hear me well?