tv Dutch and English Influence on the Constitution CSPAN April 30, 2016 11:00pm-12:02am EDT
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corporate media, which is why we have to take it back. announcer: sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. this weekend on the presidency, ilitary historian jeremy black dates the origins of the cold ar to world war one and challenges various narratives about the conflict and also focuses on dwight d. eisenhower's military role as a man and president. here's a preview. >> eisenhower becomes the very ican candidate in a interesting fashion. eer only only former former general to become president in the 20th century. it had been a common practice prior to that in american history. many american presidents, both well known presidents, like grant, jackson and washington had been generals, and people
known,ybe are not so well like william henry harrison, for are le, you know, there been many presidents who have been generals. four union generals of the civil nt in the lateside 19th century but this practice had gone. had had a velt military background but his military background had been not in of being a general and practical terms, his military experience was rather of a civil servant and politician in the navy, and not, for example, an admiral. he would have liked to have an admiral but was not the admiral. it would be interesting to imagine what he was like as an admiral. a general as ving president did not see that implausible to people at the end of the '40s to the beginning of the '50s. remember america had fought the war with a civilian male opulation, men turned into soldiers. it had been a cohesive national
experience, an experience, and there are always differences, but it had been actually in erms of america's wars singularly benign and singularly inclusive experience, and that ower benefitted from and benefitted from his war record. announcer: you can watch the entire lecture sunday at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern on history tv.merican announcer: monday on the communicators, tim winter, television the council, 20 years of the tv rating content system. according to the report, the intended to protect children from sex, violence profanity and tv has failed. he is joined by david shepherdson, reporter from thompson reuters. >> there is no show on broadcast television, no series on broadcast television today, that for ted appropriate anything other than children. tv 14 is the oldest rating. even most explicit content on prime time tv is rated as
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>> i want to welcome you on ehalf of the u.s. capital and historic society. to host thisleased particular event because it gives us a chance to try else.ent food, if nothing you'll see in the back we have a delicacy -- i don't know it's it's kind of acy, heavy, actually, but it's a it is food, okay. it's a dutch food and some juice back there. please help yourself. i want to introduce the speaker mau van duren. he's an independent scholar. that k we can safely say and actually, what brings him ere today is a wonderful demonstration to what
independent scholars are capable field ofcularly in the early american history and early american constitutional history in particular. bioould say among his other graphical things i found nteresting, he likes to vacation in acamac, virginia, been is a place i've never to but i want to try. he comes from the netherlands. he's not the only valuable import from the netherlands to the united states. his book points out as the title actually there were many heads and many hands involved in writing the u.s. constitution. we always harken back to the locke, rousseau, if you want to show off, you might want to show off from hugh from the british enlightment. but this is mostly a dialogue of republicanism that goes back much farther than that. we can pe that is what and hopefully
we'll have q&a afterwards, and up. free to open it thank you. mau: thank you. this is your copy. i can scribble some more in. all right. do we have a microphone? can everybody hear me? or did nobody hear me? laughter] mau vanduren: all right. in the meantime, i'll just yell, there.en we'll get thank you so much for being here opportunity tohe have another interesting experience outside, and be civil disobedience. this is going to be much more promise you.i
my name is mau vanduren. i olympic -- i like what chuck me but i'm a champion historian. i came to this country from dutch back in 1982 to follow usually le, what men do, to follow their sweetheart came country where they from. the book "many heads and many starts with an episode teime.es way back in the reason i do that is to show hat rules and laws come about for a reason. 163,000d back in a cave years ago. what does that cave show? shows that there are people different eveloped skills and if you have different skills, you trade skills. need some kindou
of enforcement, and that's how it comes about. then the book flies through time. it goes through western europe and all kinds of other places, ut eventually -- and this is what we will talk about now. we come to the shores of the americas, and eventually, the united states. zephyr ee here, there's here somewhere. let's see if that works. there we go. we have our typical american values. we're all familiar with it one, it, other places in the country don't know. but you know what goes in there, right? all right. that was the battle cry of the revolution, basically. of religion, we have a separation of church and free press,e have a and we have an independent
judiciary. these are things that we find more or less in our constitution in different forms. how did that constitution come about? james madison didn't write the bill of rights immediately. it came a little bit later. but he saw a need for a better our country, the us of confederation made somewhat dysfunctional. now, if you look at today's government, you may think, well, we're still dysfunctional. dysfunctionality at the time was really so bad. the states were supposed to work together. they had alliances. they were supposed to trade. working were more against each other than they were working together. so madison thought we needed to do something about that. montpelier, and he locked himself up in the library so that he could study
what other countries had done and maybe learn from it and design a system that would work for us. y, we can look carefull see him sitting in his library there. this was the first color in 1786 and he's reading a newspaper, apparently. from? do these values and they came from people. when people came to this country very early on in the 17th century, they brought with them their families. they brought seas, they brought keple, they brought tools, they brought furniture. they st importantly what brought was what was in their heads. and what was in their heads were they had old values picked up back home, where they came from.
and the various colonies that hey settled, each reflected those values. is that one e colony, plymouth plantation, in 1620, was ded found by separatists. they came from england, but they had lived in the netherlands for 12 years, particularly the city lieden, and what they picked up in liden was democratic religion,, freedom of freedom of the press, freedom of freedoms, and ese the freedom of religion attracted them in the first it also eventually repelled them, because they thought there was too much freedom. they were actually losing youngsters to other goes, ations, is how it right, is the attraction of men and women will make you forget your religion. nd so they decided that they
needed to leave and in 1620, they sailed to massachusetts. there's a whole long story in the book about this. why they ended up in plymouth, because it wasn't really -- it where they were supposed to go. and so they introduced then all those values that i just laws in in their own the colony. another colony was the massachusetts bay company, and they also included their values government ystem of and their laws. but they were puritans, so they were from england. they had not lived in the netherlands. they were not aware of what was going on there. they came to this country with their english values. now, even though they had a church and state, they also made it very difficult for people who were not puritans to have any say in their
government. the new there is netherlands, new amsterdam and new york. hey brought with them the values that they had in the but so all the utch laws apply, but it is a company property of the dutch india dies company, west company, and that meant that the corporate interest trumped -- appropriate -- trumped the civic interest. conflict.ere is a real he director of the dutch west india company is also the governor of the colony. one interesting thing you see at suebottom there, slaves can .heir owners and they did
there are a lot of court records of the day that show these owners re indeed suing for mistreme. quite interesting. mistreatment. quite interesting. let's see here, where are we. all right, so let's go back through a ushing little bit because i've been told i have only half an hour to do this and then we have q&a. keep your questions for that. let's go back to massachusetts and see what the effects are of one person who travels through colonies. there is actually such a person, and there are some interesting records about them. our forest to be gump. his name is francis dowdy. in the colony in around plantation
16:38. bristle son of a supposedly ran inheritance of his wife and two children. he first arrives at plymouth plantation, and it's interesting because plantation has changed so much already. they have these wonderful values them but till have they were under threat, because there was an influx of other into the colony. they were failed colonies to the more rough folks joined them. dowdy doesn't experience any problems in plymouth plantation, and stays and moves ive years to dorchester near boston, which massachusetts bay colony. who has now discovered where he is, followed him from england and is suing
im in court for the inheritance. e takes on a position in cohassis, which is a puritan of regation to the west plymouth plymouth. he doesn't stick to the law very to the native.s his relatives are unrule, frequently in trouble with the law and lastly, there is a baptism dispute at the local church. he is a minister after all, and e says, well, baptism, if you children, the baptized.ould also be let me see if i can find a write-up about that, for which i have to change all kinds here.ols
shortly after his appointment, a master stout arrives from boston. one pastor, the other a teacher. whether they were sent to check know.ancis, we do not however, trouble came quickly when francis asserted that the baptized also should be baptized. apparently, that belief did not with the puritan visitors. they told them that hence orward he had to conform to puritan views. francis refused. ngter all, he had been preachi this way from the beginning. the boston ministers believes hey were in the right and appealed to the local magistrate, a judge, to their ne and rule in favor. the magistrate, who was a secular official, officially, also a the constable, secular official, to arrest the offending minister. dowdy, apparently the constable chose to do this
assembly, and francis was dragged out. e lost the case, and he was expelled from the colony. so francis leaves, and he goes rhode island. rhode island is a very free place. he makes some friends there. free ly because it is a place, and he probably can get but he th folks, and decides he doesn't want to stay here, and so in 1641, he travels to long island, and he talks to governor keith, the ame guy who is also the director of the dutch-west india company, to see if he can get settle there. so they go to long island, and you see here, this is an old map that we have here. actually, i think -- there we go. long island here.
new amsterdam is there, here's going up. river riled is somewhere to the right -- rhode island is somewhere to the right and similarly new england. when he gets to -- eventually there, he meets fellow by the name of adrian vanderdunk. educated in the netherlands who traveled up the hudson river where he got a job to be a police officer in one of the dutch colonies up there, near albany. but instead of policing, he's actually helping the work ers the e's befriending natives, so his employer likes and in 1643, ess he doesn't get his contract extended, and so he travels to new amsterdam. so you see this guy sort of has francis notion as
dowdy, right. if it's wrong, it's wrong. right? and so the two set up a secret partnership after they meet in new amsterdam. they actually each are joining a group of people who are trying get more democracy instituted in the colony. all, doesn't after like democratic structures, from the has to come top down by the colonists who rily with the a company and want to have some influence. so they, together, make a piece of paper that they send to the state's netherlands to influence the stage general to ell this governor here that he needs to institute more democratic form of government. how are we doing on time. everything all right?
they send that document off to wait, what nds, and happens. in the meantime, the governor is lawyer to s vanderdonk help with the natives, after all, he is so familiar with them p north and they sign a peace agreement, and the governor is gives a landhat he van space -- d derdonk. and a couple of years later, he's been taken to court. apparently, this fellow had created a single -- i wish i had fascinating, but i don't. ut it was bad, so he is in donk. and he meets van der
might have been his lawyer. and then meets the older its ter and nature takes course and they get married and know as place we now yonkers. yonkers, for those who are not dutch r with it, is a word. it comes from yonkere, and it means young lord. so it's basically named after don.er in the meantime, this paper as i in the ing about was netherlands and the stage that l more or less agree something needs to be done about a few i'm skipping over things here, because we can have answer.estion and and that the governor needs to e recalled and a new governor is coming in, and that is a fellow by the name of peter
stargersand. you might be familiar with that name. colonists were very hopeful and present a plan. he befriends the governor. they work together on more indian things. dowdy is very , happy that things are moving along nicely and he moves to a flushing, which is a little bit to the east of new northern shore of long island, where he becomes minister. participationited donk vernment, and van der is elected administering governor of the board. so we see a little bit of modern colony.cy in the but just when you think things re going your way, outside influences are throwing a monkey wrench into the thing. so around that time came charles in england, taken prisoner by
'49.iament in cromwell decides to end that whenand for all and that's preccor.s lord vanderdonk meantime, has gone to the netherlands to make his case there. he went there, eventually, in but a fewins his case months later, the english-dutch and the general so the wholeorders democratic project is off the table. vanderdonk is not allowed to return to the colony for a while a book ts to work on about the new netherlands, which is an understanding book, ecause he describes in the description of the new netherlands, he describes all livenimals and people that in that part of the world.
and he has a vision, and the should s that america netherlandslike the was at the time, a haven for efugees from all over europe, and that they would have a free government and, you know, a lot of the things that we have now. so this is pretty revolutionary. published.as in the same year, unfortunately, he dies in an indian attack, and dowdy, by this time is disillusioned. the democracy project is dead, nd so he leaves for maryland and virginia, his daughter mary him, s now a widow follows and his son enoch. elias and francis stay behind and elias we will hear later on.
the next document is in 1667 and signed by english protestants in defense of quakers. quakers were despised in those days. know why. but they were, and they were not allowed to participate, for instance, even in the plymouth colony government, certainly not in massachusetts, there they persecuted. they were persecuted just about verywhere, including somewhat in the dutch colony. so it was quite unique that a who came eople signed a petition on behalf to the governor. flushing i will be in next month to talk about that in the house that was
designed in flushing. it's still the original house. well, let's see here. we flew through this pretty quickly. so now, let's see where we've ended up here. so dowdy goes to virginia. virginia is an interesting place. because just before he gets basically at a is war with england. never heard of this, right? weird. colo colony? navigation d, the act, second navigation act, 1651 was signed in stipulated that the colonies, colonies could only trade with england, not with the dutch. was virginia's largest trading partner. up on not going to give that. and the dutch were actually the argest trading partner all the way until the 1670s.
of est trading partner virginia. so the virginians refuse. they say no, we're not going to do that. we'll continue to trade. fleet, british send a rrives in 1652, and the virginia governor is asking the dutch to help them in the fight that they -- and he and asks for 1200 troops. they eventually sign a treaty. a treaty is something that exists between two independent countries, right? they sign a treaty. and in the treaty they give virginia the right to tax itself and the king is no longer allowed to tax them. very revolutionary. they also grant them a continuation of a democratic government that they had ever the 1620's.
and douty arrives in this particular -- in this place and he again becomes a minister. he then settles in north hampton county and he becomes director of the episcopal church where he is loved by son and hated by others. he leaves. this seems to be his habit. but he gets married to a twice widow of minister of a church. so he stays in that circle and ahena lly moves to rep county in 1662. if you think that virginia is an enlightened place, you may be interested to hear what a -- of virginia had
to say. i thank god there are no free schools nor printing and i hope we shall not have these for 100 years for learning has brought isobedience and sects into the world. and printing has divulged them and liables against the best government. i think he conveniently forgot that he was a protestant himself only by the virtue of the reformation which, of course, was supported by the printing press and new ideas and so on and so on. but that's how it goes often, huh? all right. then we don't know for sure what appens to douty.
it -- it's -- some records say that he went back to maryland. say that he -- let's say here. let me read. one source said that francis douty moved to maryland and he died there. it states that he died in maryland on march 2nd, 1682. in every colony he visited and this is the significance of our forrest gump. and every colony he experienced the birth, the infancy or the growing pains of virtual republics and saw the development of the rule of law and democracy. he suffered of small mindedness in religious intolerance. lived among the free and learned about the politics of the people
of new netherlands and witnessed the government in both virginia and maryland. mostly he followed the foot steps of others but in new netherlands he was briefly a pioneer. he mixed with the movers and shakers and quite literally lived the beginning of what would become the american nation. and so i lifted out this particular episode of the book because it shows a little bit of how these values arrived here and -- and what we did with them. and of course, the story doesn't end here. and the story doesn't end here. we have civil disobedience going on on the steps of the capitol, i believe. we have protests. we have a socialist running for the presidency. we have a demagogue also running for the -- we have everybody.
and that's a good thing. because as somebody said, the american experiment is never finished. e will continue to work on it. and i think that's one of the things that you see the beginning of. not just in this country but in other countries back in history. let's see if i have anymore wisdom to divulge about that. eventually we get a constitution. everyone understood that the document was a compromise. we're still fighting over some of these things, right? the supreme court. the expectation that the convention should provide a more perfect union than under the current articles of confederation proved a powerful argument during the convention. madison repeated the argument in
federalist 38 writing sh it is not necessary that the former should be perfect. it is sufficient that the letter is more imperfect meaning that the old rules were worse than the new ones. they understood that the perfect author was the enmu of the good. many understood that the documents were of future generations. that they would mold it to their needs and there would be groups and individuals to find ways to recruit the constitution's provisions to vaps narrow provisions and corrupt the system and gain power for themselves. jefferson suggested that there ought to be a revolution at least every 20 years. have we had one? any questions?
>> i'd like to start on. i noticed that each chapter that you begin with a quote from madison's writings and you used in resource of mount pe leer the papers. what source does madison himself write in the writings of european philosophers? >> he actually doesn't cite any sources at all. but what we do know is the -- we have his notice -- we have that, ok? and i want you to see that, of ourse. but we have his notes about four or five or six pages that he wrote up of what he studied. the sources are not there. but we do have a list of the books in his library and particularly books that jefferson sent to flim paris
when jefferson was ambassador there or in those days there, they called it minister to paris. and there is also a book list that madison recommended in 1783 for the library of congress because he was rather disgusted with his colleagues, i can tell you that. he thought they were ignorant, small minded and he saw a need to educate them. books. 's a list of 300 french.- clude of the encyclopedia that most people couldn't read but he could as could jefferson. and then there is the library list that was reconstructed afterwards of his own library at mount pelier.--
one of his nieces described that you couldn't move. you had to go through the shelves like. this and eventually he ended up with some 6,000 books. but you can sort of reconstruct from his books what he read. >> tan dutch revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries with part of that study that he did? >> some of the books are about that, yes. yes. >> you talked about the influences of the various countries that the dutch and also the different groups that came, the puritans. can you talk a little bit about how the -- how virginia was nfluenced in terms of social stratification of the families and that sort of thing by the
people who colonized vming. >> stratification in sats, og, is very old. that existed in europe and in the netherlands just as much as it existed in other places. but as far as a more enlightened thinking is concerned virginia is a different place. it was originally founded as a military base to attack spanish ships back in 1607. but when the -- when the company in england increasingly came under the influence of a fellow called edwin sands who eventually began treasurer of the company and in those days treasurer of the company was the head honcho of the company, he saw fit to give virginia what was known as the house of burgesses. and he gave them a constitution
that was almost entirely a republican constitution. and people in the house of burgesses were elected by virginians probably only property owners because that's the way it was. and virginia stayed a fairly democratic place. does that answer it? >> i was thinking that the other colonies like the puritans, the quakers, i think they were a little bit more egolatarian. and i think there was this -- there was more of a -- a sense of there that sort are still remnants of it among the virginians. >> i don't know if this is true or not. but let me throw something out there and see where it goes. i think it may have something to small slavery with a families, white
families obviously were benefiting from two things. first of all, slavery which replaced and ran parallel to the enden chured servitude. servitude? is that the right word? and that created a stratification of an inequality. now, in the northern states, slavery played much less of a role. there were far fewer slaves. there were no vast plantations of -- with tobacco and cotton later on in the south. i don't know. anybody? all right. >> i have a question about how douty's story came to your
attention? how did you first come across him and how did you follow that journey? >> that is just by accident. i read a lot of books. and here i'm reading a book about the history of long island nd there is sir francis douty. and then i read another book about the eastern shore of virginia. both s a francis douty, ministers, same name. few years in between. and you read more and more books and you find more and more references to francis douty. d then i discovered that i believe a lady in new jersey had done some research and had produced a document on the website.
so i stumbled upon him and he had run into difficulty into all hose different places. >> you had a civic interest of -- like that -- what was it, the dutch bay company? >> the dutch west india company. >> and of course, we had a number of those all around. e had puritanism in the rise capitalism. but just talk about that a little bit more about that being an influence. >> let me start at the beginning of the corporation. the very first corporation was dutch west india company. they had a tradeable stock,
right? it was the first time in history that it was done the birth of the amsterdam stock market. a lot of the stockholders of that company and later companies like the dutch west india company also had a seat in the estate general that's where the conflict of interests begins. so you have a lot of corporate interest in the -- in parliament if you want to call it that. the construct of having a company own a particular piece of land in a colony wasn't new actually. it had happened -- no, wait a minute. that may have been the first one. the second -- the second one, it was a little more clear was the massachusetts bay company. the massachusetts bay company owned all the land and all the citizens, all the free men where
all stockholders automatically in the company. but the free men were also electing their -- their house -- their -- their government. again. there's a conflict of interest. as soon as you have a conflict of interest, you have people fight over it. we now complain sometimes that campaign finance is causing all he problems in our -- in our government, in our representation. does that answer it a little bit? anybody? yes. >>, no i was interested in your talking about the idea that from the beginning douty and sullen saw this as a place for
refugees. in terms of other documents, was this sort of moral understanding about what the experiment was going to be? was this fought over during this early -- >> i don't think it was fought over. i will say that it's wonderful to see you. it's been a long time. i don't think it was fought over in that sense. i think vanderdont was an idealist and the netherlands was a recipient of so many refugees. there were yugonovs, there were lutherans, protest at that rticular times from -- protestants and people from everywhere. the refugees moved on and went to america and also south africa, by the way. the yugonovs ended up in south
africa which was dutch at the time. es idealism anderdom was reflected in the book he wrote. the downtroden, we're familiar with that term, they dime america. i did not end up here as a downtroden unfortunately. i can't make that claim. nyone? >> [indiscernible] >> to me, the most interesting botild. clin she was a frankish queen back in the 17th century in paris. she was originally a sex and
slave who was traded from english land, who was traded and brought to paris when she was probably about 10 years old. he gets hired by the wife of the mayor of the palace of the frankish kings and in the palace while she live there is, she ets to know the crown brins. -- prince. the two get married. they become king and queen. the king, the very young king dies. in those days that usually hand either through a major illness or poisoning, take your pick. and she becomes queen at a very young age. no, this is a very primitive
society. this is a society where there are slaves of different level. and there are very rich people who oversee a lot of land. however, the land is officially communal. it was owned by a tribe, if you'd like. but it is -- it is controlled by he head honchos, the nobility. and so the plight is very bad. together with the help of a bishop in paris and a monk, the three of them create a whole new systems of laws and improved the plight of the slaves but most importantly for future generations, they introduced the -- concepts of
private property. it takes away the nobility to an extent but it gives business a place to settle where they can build their business and they can use the private property at collateral or loans or promises and so you see from that time on, there is a slow but -- but very distinct development of private enterprise and that private enterprise through what and instituted travels paris eventually becomes part of burgundy. burgundy conquers the netherlands or inherits. burgundy gets in trouble and all that is left is the netherlands. and with burgundy these trade
things came -- these understandings, the private property dime the netherlands and were instituted there. and so you see that already in the 13th, 14th centuries that there is a wonderful development going on in -- particularly along the rivers in these -- in the netherlands and partially in germany and when i say the netherlands i include present day belgium because it was part of the same thing. and it led to participatory government because what happens if somebody rules a place they need money. how do you get money? well, you can take it but if you take it then people don't like you anymore and they will do anything to avoid gives it to you. so what you really want is to become your country -- your country to become voich you can tax them. but in order to tax them they
want some influence. no taxation without representation. remember that. now, the very first constitution that actually includes the line no taxation without representation was in 1477 in the netherlands. all started with queen botild 700 years earlier. it's fascinating. so all that is in the book. i may have -- i told you that i actually started out 163,000 years ago. i do that to explain how laws and rules come about. 3,000 years ago in a cave in blombos there were some people living there and they had some skills that differed. they each had different skills. what do you make with skills? you trade them. i make is something -- i make
something for you and you make something for me. you can reanything and say i got it now and i'm going. you need to have an enforcement mechanism that means that there has to be the rule of law. then i move forward having quickly to queen botild but that is the introduction of the necessity for these things. anything else? >> if you get your hands on the ook -- if you like dickens you'll like this book. thank you because i'm reminded of the historian when we look for. it becomes like doing a geneology of ideas. you look to see where madison picked up this phrase or that phrase. and one of the nice things i noticed about your book is it broadens the schoop so that we're looking for patterns of thought not necessarily explicit
adaptation of verbiage really. but over generations people have practiced in the has beens of thinking something ways, respect for private property and so on and so on. and that's what it is looking at history through a broader sweep. >> i also made it more interesting. there's a description in there. you can call it fiction but it's fiction based on very concrete facts. but just to make it a little more interesting. so you will particularly enjoy i think botild's journey from england to paris and some others. botild started like the downtown abby chauffeur, lady marianne in reverse. if there are no other questions, can we thank him for joining us? >> you kind of caused this. but you talk about the pattern of thinking. to you -- were you able
identify or discover the pattern of thinking that allowed savory in some places and not other places in the new america? >> economic necessity is a very powerful force, self-interest. i mean, it's easy to be magnanimous if you have no interest in the outcome, right? so i think that play as large role. and don't forget that the slave holders are people that supported slavery found -- well, they found it -- we didn't find it. but they found plenty of ustification in the bible. it's hard. >> all right. >> yeah. thank you. >> thank you very much. [applause]
>> you're watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation like us cpanhistory. >> this weekend on "road to the white house" rewind, a film chronicling the 1968 presidential race titled "a private decision." here's a preview. >> they did not realize as they looked into the president's speech that he's about to tell a nation that he would not run for the presidency again. >> accordingly. i shall not seek and i will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president.
♪ >> vice president of the united states. >> thank you. thank you. >> and vice president humphrey became the last major democratic candidate to enter the race. he acquired a substantial amount of votes before the national convention. thank you. ello, there. he ended most of his campaign speeches with some men see things as they are and ask why. i dream of things that never where and ask why not.
before those things could ever become reality, senator kennedy was killed. shot by an assassin in the itchen of a los angeles hotel. the nation mourned and for a ime politics were forgotten. although the country loved a man that they loved, it could not destroy the democratic process. the nation still had to choose a leader and in time the campaigns began again. >> watch the entire 1968 presidential campaign film on sunday at 10:00 a.m. eastern on our weekly series "road to the white house" rewind." american history tv only on c-span 3. >> monday on the communicators, tim winter parent of to tell
vision council on their resent report on the tv content rating system. according to the report, the system sbebbeded to protect children from sex, and profanity has failed is joined by >> there is no series on broadcast television that is appropriatething for children. we learned that the tv networks themselves rate the shows, and we have learned that advertisers who pay the bills for the network rely on the ratings like parents do. there's a conflict of interest in terms of rating content accurately. a lot of advertisers won't sponsor mature-only content. the system is incapable of doing what it was intended to do. >> watch "communicators monday
night at 8:00 p.m. eastern. washingtonty of professor dan berger examines the prison system of the late 20th century. he traces how mass incarceration grew in response to the unexpected wave of prisoners. he also describes the role of activists prisoners such as george jackson whose prison letters were published and shed light on the problems of the justice system. this talk is about one hour and 10 minutes. >> let's get started. i want to pick up on the conversation we were having last time about civil rights and the black power movement. the second reconstruction. how we think about that in relation to what now is called mass incarceration. we're going to do three big things today. talk about what mass incarceration is