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tv   Poynter Institute Pulitzer Centennial Celebration  CSPAN  May 4, 2016 5:58am-8:31am EDT

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middle school to honor seven ninth graders for their video in this year's competition. thanks to comcast and armstrong cable for their help in coordinating the visits. view the documentaries at student cam.org. this year marks the 100th anniversary of the pulitzer prizes. next, the poynter institute in st. pittsburetersburgpetersburgl rights and social justice. the congressman john lewis of georgia delivered the key note address. this is about two and a half hours. >> i am canica jokes tomalin. deposit mayor of the city of st. petersburg. a former journalist and a proud graduate of the institute. the catalyst for my journey of service through the power of words. i will serve as one of your hosts for this evening.
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you can't have a pulitzer prize celebration without some pulitzer prize winners. and we are so fortunate tonightf winners among us. to honor them, here is paul tash, ceo of the tampa times and the former chair of the pulitzer prize board. [ applause ] >> thank you very much. it is my pleasure to introduce a number of great winners of the pulitzer prizes tonight. let me take one moment of personal privilege to recognize one of my predecessors, both as the chair of the tampa bay times company and the pulitzer prizes, andy barnes, who is with us this evening. [ applause ] >> well, our purpose here this evening is to say happy birthday to the pulitzer prizes.
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they turn 100 years old this year, which is older than anybody in this room, i believe. and this is a great tribute to a robust and resilient american institution. so, let's also say thank you to joseph pulitzer who created these prizes. it is a hard thing to win a pulitzer. it is hard even to become one of the three finalists. hundreds and hundreds of entries arrive in new york each year for prizes given in journalist and literature and the arts. volunteer juries of experts spend days winnowing the stack of entries down to a final three. these are submitted to the pulitzer prize board and the board members read every finalist in every category and vote on the winner. it is with great pleasure, then,
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that present to you these pulitzer prize winners whose work has inspired us and who join us here this evening. i will present them in chronological order of the year they won their prize. please hold your applause until all of them have been introduced. winner of the 1982 prize, for public service, sydney freeberg. winner of the 1988 prize for feature writing for the st. paul pioneer press, jackie bena zinski. winner of the 1992 prize for feature writing for the new york times, hall rings. winner of the 1993 prize for commentary for the miami herald and a graduate of the poynter institute, liz palma saido. winner of the 1998 prize for
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feature photography for the los angeles times, clarence williams iii. winner of the 2003 prize for the beat reporting for the baltimore sun and another poynter graduate, diana sipe. winner of the 2003 prize for commentary for the washington post, colbert king. winner of the 2004 pulitzer prize for commentary for the miami herald, leonard pits. winner of the 2007 pulitzer for commentary for the atlanta journal constitution, cynthia tucker. winner of the 2007 prize for history, with his co-author gene roberts, hank ribbonoff. winner of the 2009 prize for commentary for the washington post, un eej robinson.
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winner of the 2014 pulitzer prize for commentary for the detroit free press, steven henderson. and now from your own newspaper, the tampa bay times, winner of the 1985 prize for investigative reporting lucy morgan -- winner -- please hold your applause. [ laughter ] >> you have been doing so well, too. winner of the 1998 prize for feature writing, thomas french. winner of the 2009 pulitzer prize for feature writing, ryan degregory. and winner of the 2013 prize for editorial writing tim nickens and dan ruth. >> we have a consistent offender here. [ laughter ] >> and winner of the 2014
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pulitzer prize for local reporting, michael laforgin. now join me for a round of applause. [ applause ] >> thank you very much and enjoy the evening. >> and now, in this evening of special moments, if any one of them may reign supreme, friends,
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think this may be it. our keynote speaker for the special evening is one of america's great champs of civil rights, and social justice and equality. a legend. his legacy has uplifted us all. congressman john lewis. [ applause ] >> two introduce him, is the winner of the 2007 pulitzer prize for commentary in the atlanta journal constitution, please welcome cynthia tucker haines. [ applause ] >> good evening. >> good evening. >> it is fitting on this evening devoted to the history of civil rights and social justice in america that we hear from my
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dear friend john lewis. what kind of prize, i wonder, does he deserve? let's put it this way. his life is a prize. if we melted down the precious metals of a pulitzer prize and a nobel peace prize and an oscar and a medal of honor and forged them to meant a prize of prizes, it would not do him justice. he was born the son of share croppers on february 21st, 1940, outside of troy, alabama. he grew up on his family's farm and attended segregated public schools in pike county, alabama. as a young boy, he was inspired by the activism surrounding the montgomery busboy cot and the words of the reverend martin luther king jr. when he heard on radio broadcast. he even read comic books where
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civil rights leaders were the heroes. in those pivotal moments, he made a decision to become a part of the civil rights movement. while still a young man, john lewis became a nationally recognized leader. by 1963, he was dubbed one of the big six leaders of the civil rights movement. at the age of 23, he was an architect of and a keynote speaker at the historic march on washington in august, 1963. in 1965, john helped spearhead one of the most seminole events of the civil rights movement. along with josa williams, john lewis led over 600 peaceful protesters across the edmund
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pettus build in selma, alabama, on march 7. they intended to march from selma to montgomery to demonstrate the need for voting rights in the state. the marchers were attacked by alabama state troopers in a brutal confrontation that became known as bloody sunday. news broadcasts and photographs revealing the senseless cruelty of the segregated south helped hate hasten the package of the 1965. despite physical attacks an serious injuries, congressman lewis remained a devoted advocate of the philosophy of nonviolence. in the half century since those momentous events he's compiled an aspiring list of honors too numerous to mention here. there is one accomplishment that fills him with particular pride.
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he is the co-author of a best-selling graphic novel trilogy called "march." in vivid imagery and memorable language it captures one of the most astonishing life experiences ever lived by any american of any color. it offers to a new century and a new generation of americans a story of a people, of the american people that should never be forgotten. in the years ahead, as we create pulitzer prize-winning stories about the next battles for civil rights, social justice and equality, there will be voices echoing from the past and into our future to inspire us. one of the most powerful will be the voice of john lewis. join me now in welcoming him to the stage. [ applause ]
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good evening. >> good evening. >> thank you mrs. tucker, my good friend, for that warm and kind introduction. it is good to see you. it is good to be here. i'm delighted to see each and every one of you. i want to thank the president of the poynter institute, tim franklin, nancy early and the pulitzer prize committee who invited me to celebrate this 100 anniversary with you this
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evening. cynthia told you that i didn't grow up in a big city. like st. petersburg. i didn't grow up in a big city like atlanta or washington, d.c. or new york, or miami, tal a-- tallahassee, sarasota. it is true that i grew up in rural alabama. 50 miles from montgomery. from a little place called troy. she told you that my father was a share cropper, a farmer. she didn't tell you that my grandfather worked on another person's land. she didn't tell you that my great grandmother was a slave.
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she didn't tell you, that on the farm, it was my responsibility to care for the chickens. and i fell in love with raising chickens. she didn't tell you that every little boy that became so fond of raising chickens and i wanted to be a minister, that would i get all of the chickens together in the chicken yard and as you are gathered here in this wonderful the wonderful the ator and we would have church. and i would preach to the chickens and when i looked back on it, some of the chickens would bow their heads and some of the chickens would shake their heads and they never quite said amen. but i'm convinced that some of those chickens that i preached to in the 40s and 50s tended to listen to me much better than my
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colleagues listen to me today in congress. [ applause ] >> and some of those chickens were just a little more productive. at least, they produced eggs. but you who live in this congressional district, are more than lucky. you are truly blessed. to have a wonderful congress person in kathy caster. [ applause ] >> from there, we visited a little town of troy. visited montgomery and visit tuskegee. i saw the signs that said, white men, colored men, white women, and other men to come downtown on a saturday afternoon to the theater, all of of us little bl
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had to go upstairs to the balcony. all the little white children went downstairs to the first floor. i cape home and asked my mother, my father, my grandparents. my uncles and aunts, my teachees why. they said that's the way it is. don't get in the way. don't get in trouble. 1955. 15 years old. in the tenth grade. i heard about what happened to emmett till. august 28th, 1955. december 1st, 1955. i heard about rosa parks. heard the words of martin luther king jr. on our radio. the action of rosa parks, the words of dr. king inspired me to
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find a way to get in the way. i got in trouble. good trouble, necessary trouble. we were too poor. to have a subscription to the local newspaper. but my grandfather had one. each day when he would finish reading the montgomery advertise ers, cynthia, we got that paper and we read it. one of my teachers was from montgomery. who came to troy, outside of troy. place that dr. king called four corners alabama. he called me the boy from troy. told me what was happening ere. in 1957, when i finished high school, i wanted to attention a little school called troy state
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college. now known as troy university. submitted application. my high school transcript. i never heard a word from the school. so i wrote a letter to martin luther king jr. told him i knee e needed his he. he wrote me back and sent me a round trip bus ticket to come to montgomery and meet with him. in the meantime, had been accepted at a college. now known as american baptist college. to study for the ministry. dr. king heard i was there. he got back in touch and suggested when i was home for spring break to come and see him. so in march of 1958, age of 18, i boarded a bus. traveled from troy to montgomery. a young later by the name of fred gray, the lawyer for rosa parks, for martin luther king
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jr., the lawyer for the montgomery movement who became our rider during the freedom rides and during the ride from selma to montgomery met me and drove me to the first baptist church pasted by the reverend and ushered in. dr. king said, are you the boy from troy, are you john lewis. and i said, dr. king, i am john robert lewis. and we had a discussion with my mother and my father. they were a frafraid. they thought we would lose our land and our home would be bombed and burned and suggested i continue to study in nashville. that's what i did. it was in nashville that hundreds and thousands of students, black students all across the south, started studying the way of peace, the way of love, the way of nonviolence, and we started sitting in. by sitting down, we were
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standing up for the best in america. the media. reporters, photographers helped move the city movemovement, the sit-in movement around the south and around the nation. spread it like wildfire. we were beaten. we were arrested. we were jailed. sitting in orderly, peaceful fashion. waiting to be served. someone would come out and spit on us. put a light out on our hair. we were arrested and jailed. we weren't trespassing. we were orderly. we were peaceful. the first time i got arrested,
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nashville tennessean put the picture of me along with the others on the front page. i heard that i may get arrested and i wanted to look what some young people used to call fresh. i had very little money. so i went downtown nashville and bought a used suit at a used men's store. i paid $5 for this suit. i saw a picture a few days ago. i looked clean. i looked sharp. if i still had that suit today, i probably could sell it on ebay for a lot of money. so i'll come here tonight to thank members of this great institution. for finding a way to get in the way. finding a way to get in trouble,
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good trouble, necessary trouble. now more than ever before. we need the press to be a headlight and not a tail light. to get out there and push and pull and be courageous. we're not there yet. we have not yet created the beloved community. we have not yet laid down the burden of race. the scars and stains of racism are still embedded, deeply embedded in our society. you can have a member of congress, sent to the president of the united states, you lie. when you can have a governor in
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a state put her finger in the face of the president of the united states, that's not right. that's not fair. would someone do that to a white president? we must not sweep the issue of race under the rug or in some dark corner. we must confront it head on. if you fail to do what is right and fair and justice, you consume all of us. you have an obligation. you have a mission and a mandate. a mandate. you have it. you have a moral obligation. to pick up your pens, your pencils. use the cameras. to tell the story. to make it plain. to make it real.
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it doesn't matter whether we're black or white. hispanic. asian-american ornative american. we're one people. we're one family. we all live in the same house, the american house. has said to us back in 1963 when we were planning the march on washington, said it over and over again, maybe our foremothers and our forefathers all came to this great land in different ships, but we all live in the same boat now. we, you, all of us must said to america, we can do better. we must do better. if we get it right here in america, maybe just maybe we can serve as a model for the rest of the world.
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[ applause ] i want to tell you a little story and i'll be finished. because this is your night, not mine. i'm just a poor country boy who happened to be elected to congress. but i was growing up outside of troy, alabama, 50 miles from montgomery, on a farm that my father bought for $300, 110 acres of land that my family still own today. i have an aunt by the name of savina. and my aunt live in what we call a shotgun house. she didn't have a green manicured lawn. had a simple plain dirt yard. i know here in this great city
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you don't know what i'm talking about. you never seen a shotgun house. a shotgun house, old house, one way in, one way out. in a nonviolence sense, a house where you can bounce a basketball through the front door and it goes straight out the back door. well, from time to time, my aunt would go out to the woods and cut branches from a dogwood tree and tie the branches together and make a broom. and she called this broom the press broom. she would sweep this dirt yard very clean. sometimes two and three times a week. but especially on a friday and saturday. because she wanted this shotgun house yard to look good during the weekend. but one saturday afternoon, a group of my brothers and sisters and a few of my first cousins, i was only about 4 or 5 years old
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but i remember it like it was yesterday. an unbelievable storm came up. the wind start blowing. the thunderstorm start rolling. lightning start flashing. the rain start beating on the tin roof of this old shotgun house. my aunt became terrified. she started crying. she thought this old house was going to blow away. so she got all of us little children together and told us to hold hands and we did as we were told. the wind continued to blow. the thunder continues to roll. the lightning continued to flash. and the rain continued to beat on the roof of this little house and we cried and we cried. one corner of this little house appeared to be lifting my aunt up to this side. the other corner appeared to be lifting. she had us to walk to that side. we were little children walking with the wind. but we never, ever, ever left
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the house. the wind may blow. the thunder may roll. and the lightning may flash and shake our house. but you must stay with the house. you must not give up. you must not give up. you must hold on. tell the truth. report the truth. disturb the order of things. find a way to get in the way and make a little noise with your pens, your pencils and with your cameras. thank you very much. [ applause ] [ applause ]
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>> thank you, congressman lewis, for your words tonight. and for your example and your service every day. all of us within the sound of my voice, all of us would were enveloped with the sound of his words, how fortunate we are tonight. this is a very special night in st. petersburg, feel your soul stirred, that's what that feeling is, and know that we are blessed. thank you, congressman lewis. [ applause ] now, please help me welcome dr. roy peter clark. teacher to many. mentor to more. vice president and senior scholar at the pointer institute.
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[ applause ] good evening. you may not realize it, but every person in this room has been influenced by work that has been honored by a pulitzer surprise. if you've read the grapes wrath or watched the movie to kill a mockingbird or danced to duke ellington's take the a train, you have experienced the work of a pulitzer surprise winner. the journalism and arts that earn the prizes have lighted the way for communities countries and the world. the prizes have gone to thousands of newspaper journalists working in many different categories of journalism, from reporting to editorial writing to criticism to cartooning to photography. and the fine arts and literature, prizes have gone to poets, biographers, composers. special citations have gone to artists whose body of work has helped shape america. this evening, we celebrate those
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winners whose work illuminated the themes of civil rights, social justice and equality. in 2008, the great american troubadour bob dylan won a special citation for his profound impact on popular music and american culture marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power. to remind us of that power, marking dramatic social change, we present florida troubadour bill shistic. ♪ wherever you roam ♪ and admit that the waters around you have grown ♪ ♪ accepted that soon you'll be drenched to the bone ♪ ♪ if your time to you is worth saving ♪ ♪ so you better start swimming ♪ or you'll sink like a stone
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♪ for the times ♪ they are a changing ♪ come fathers and mothers throughout the land ♪ ♪ and don't deny what you can't understand ♪ ♪ for your sons and you were daughters ♪ ♪ are beyond your command ♪ and your old road is rapidly aging ♪ ♪ so please get out of the way if you can ♪ ♪ lend a hand ♪ for the times ♪ they are a changing ♪ come senators and congressmen ♪ ♪ please heed the call ♪ you don't stand in the doorway ♪ ♪ you don't block up the hall ♪ for he that is lost ♪ is he who has stalled ♪ there's a battle outside
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♪ and it's raging ♪ it will soon shake your windows and rattle your walls ♪ ♪ for the times ♪ the times they are a changing ♪ [ applause ] >> over the next hour, we will experience in words and song times of change in america. an america that today is still struggling towards social justice, civil rights and equality. and our historical retrospective, we will highlight the work of more than 2 dozen winners of the pulitzer prize. those whose work inspired both small communities and the nation. we will honor a dozen editorial
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writers from 146 to 1972. the classic period of the civil rights movement. these southern editorialists, 11 white men and one white woman, would risk life, limb and livelihood to write what they believed, that the south may change, that legal barriers to equality must be torn down, that violence and hatred must give way to peace, tolerance and justice. >> these writers combined three virtues that helped them win the day. they had the moral courage to stand for what is right. they had the physical courage that helped them resicht threst of violence. they had a devotion to craft. an understanding that in the end not only was the pen or typewriter or camera mightier than the sword, it was also
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mightier than the flaming cross. >> most of these writers also signified in one way or another a form of humility that understood the plain truth. that the greatest expressions of physical and moral courage were not those exercised by white men and women sitting in offices, they were expressed by young black men and women who put their bodies on the line and buses and lunch counters and churches and voting lines and marches and protests across the south. they won no pulitzer prizes but their names are part of history. king. lewis. young. nash. and so many more. >> the first pulitzer prizes were presented in 1917. it would take 33 years of prizes before the first african-american, the poet brooks, would be declared a winner.
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it would take 52 years before the first african-american journalist would win as an individual. didn't have to be that way. the likes of w.e.b. dueboys, hughes, wright, were producing work equal or superior to their privileged white counterparts. reporters, editors and columnists from black influential black newspapers were doing a better job of covering the race beat in america than papers like the "washington post" and "the new york times." but the color line would not be crossed for most american institutions, including the pulitzer prizes for most of the first half century of their existence. >> please accept this as a trigger warning. many of the accomplishments we will celebrate tonight include work created in response to horrific violence, unmitigated terror perpetrated upon the bodies and souls of black citizens in america. some of that violence, including the horror of lynching, will be
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revisited here tonight. you will hear race descriptors from history such as colored and negro and yes you will hear the "n" word but only as history. >> the pulitzer prizes are not about progressive white people rescuing black people from racial violence. they are instead about white editorialists willing to be carbed along upon a sea of change that was hard for them to imagine, a sea cresting with the courage and endurance and hard patriotism of african-americans. ladies and gentlemen, it is 1919. we begin not in the south yet but in the nation's heartland, omaha, nebraska. please greet the great southern historian ray arsano and one of st. pete's arts heroes bob devin
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jones. [ applause ] >> good evening. when we scan american history for those signature moments and events that mark progress and civil rights, social justice and equality, certain dates pop in to view. 1863. perhaps. or 1963. we are likely to skip over 1919. which would be a terrible mistake. black soldiers returned to european after the great war with the notion that their sacrifice for their country would be honored and that racial equality would rule the day. instead, the summer of 1919 became known as the red summer. a bloody season of resistance, rioting, oppression, terrorism, mob rule, lynching and torture.
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w.e.b. due dubois. wrote this in 1919. >> this is the country to which we soldiers of democracy return. wrote this in 1919. >> this is the country to which we soldiers of democracy return. wrote this in 1919. >> this is the country to which we soldiers of democracy return. wrote this in 1919. >> this is the country to which we soldiers of democracy return. this is the fatherland for which we fought. but it is our fatherland. it was right for us to fight. the faults of our country are our faults. under similar circumstances, we would fight again, but by the god of heaven, we are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, longer, more unending battle against the forces of hell in
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our own land. we return, we return from fighting. we return fighting. make way for democracy. we saved it in france. and by the great jehovah, we will save it in the united states of america or know the reason why. >> 1920. because of political corruption, labor unrest and racial scapegoating, the city of omaha, nebraska, would experience one of the darkest moments in american history. a mob of as many as 12,000 people would attack and burn the courthouse. their target was a 40-year-old black man, william brown. falsely accused of raping a white woman. when the mayor intervened, they strung up the mayor.
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the mob made up of many young people, including women and children, captured william brown. he was beaten and hanged. his body was riddled with bullets. it was dragged through the streets. it was burned. people played with his remains. army troops established marshal law but it was too late. the next morning, the editor of the omaha evening world herald, harvey "e" newbranch, wrote an editorial with the title "law and the jungle." to read from it is teacher butch ward. >> there is the rule of the jungle in this world. and there is the rule of law. under jungle rule, no man's life is safe. no man's wife, no man's mother, sister, children, home, liberty,
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rights, property. let reverence of the law be breathed by every mother to the listing babe that prattles on her lap. let it be caught in schools, seminaries and colleges. let it be written in primers, spelling books and almanacs. let it be preached from pulpits. and enforced in courts of justice. let it become the political religion of the nation. for his editorial integrity and passionate defense of the rule of law, harvey e. newbranch was awarded the pulitzer prize for editorial writing. [ applause ]
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here is poynter's vice president, kelly mcbride. >> the 1920s saw a resurgence of terrorism by the ku klux klan and not just in the south. the pulitzer board awarded prizes to newspapers that investigated the clan and editorialized against it. in 1928, the pulitzer prize for editorial writers would go to grover cleland hall sr. editor of the montgomery advertiser. the klan included countless public officials, politicians, law enforcement officers and both united states senator from the state of alabama. too often, there was silence from the pulpit and from the press. the exception was grover hall sr. in july of 1927, hall became outraged at the flogging of a young black man at a rural church. he led his newspapers on a crusade designed to bring the
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klansman to justice. he exposed klan members. supported a law to make it illegal to wear the mask in public. here is another great southern editor, hank klibanoff. titled "unmasked." >> mask wearing in public places is undefensible and must be outlawed. all good citizens, we believe, must now realize that the mask in alabama is the source of unmitigated evil. it is a menace to life and limb. and a reproach to civilized society. concealed under hood and robe, men have stalked about in the night in alabama and cruelly assaulted helpless people. and other instances intimidated and wronged citizens of this
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state. grover c. hall sr. died in 1941 at the age of 53. a passing that was noted and mourned by many journalists and progressive citizens of alabama and the south, for standing almost alone against the forces of corruption and oppression in his state, grover cleveland hall sr. was awarded the 1928 pulitzer prize for editorial writing. [ applause ] our vision of what life was like in small southern towns during the depression has been shaped in powerful ways by a novel that won the pulitzer prize for fiction in 1961 to kill a
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mockingbird by harper lee. to help us relive that work, we present a young lady -- well, i think she should just present herself. >> good evening, everyone. my name is jean louis finch. actually, my name is charlie daily. i live next door to mr. roy peter clark. who is the best neighbor in the whole world. he told me to say that. [ laughter ] but at least for tonight you can call me scout. ya'll know me as a 10-year-old girl if you read the novel "to kill a mockingbird." oh, by the way, 1961, the author miss harper lee won the pulitzer
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prize for fiction. go ahead, you can clap. [ applause ] we were all sad to hear about her passing. something stranged happened last year. another book about me was published. it was called "go set a watch man." it's about me as a young woman. but it's also about my father a b dicas. you know, adicas finch played in the movie by gregory peck. he was kind, fair, and loving. don't know what happened to him when we get to watch man. feels like someone put some grumpy sauce in his grits. let's for a minute forget about that old adicus and remember the young one. the one who inspired us all. here to bring him back to life for us is patrick mcginnis.
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it's 1935 remember. you are the jury, ladies and gentlemen. and he's about to give you his closing statement. >> gentlemen, i shall be brief. i'd like to use my remaining time with you to remind you this case is not a difficult one. it requires no minute sifting of complicated facts. but it does require you to be certain beyond all reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. to begin with, this case should have never come to trial. this case is as simple as black and white. and so a humble quiet respectable negro who had the unmitigated temerity to feel sorry for a white woman has had to put his word against two white people. and they want you to go along
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with them with the cynical confidence that you'd go along with their assumptions, the evil assumptions, that all negroes lie, that all negroes are basically immoral beings, that all negro men are not to be trusted with our women, an assumption one associates with minds of their caliber. one more thing, gentlemen, before i -- thomas jefferson once said that all men are created equal. there is one way in which all men are created equal. there is one human institution that makes the pauper the equal of the rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of an einstein. it makes the ignorant man the equal of any college president. that institution, gentlemen, is the court. now, it can be the supreme court or the humblest justice of the peace court in the land or this
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court which you honorably served. all courts have their faults. but in this country, our courts are the great levellers. and in this country, all men are created equal. now, i don't firmly hold on to the ideal that all courts are all they're supposed to be. that is no ideal to me. but they are representative of our people. now, gentlemen, you have heard all the evidence given. you have heard the testimony. and i would like you to release the defendant to his family. in the name of god, do your duty. [ applause
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[ applause ] >> 1946. after the depression and world war ii, america would soon be forced to see racial justice in a new way. american soldiers would go to war and see firsthand where oppression, intolerance and racial hatred would lead the concentration camps. one of those soldiers. he returned home to start a newspaper in greenville, mississippi. which would become the delta democrat times. he wrote about racial injustice and the need for social change in the south. a stance that earned him and his family scorn and economic boycott. in 1946, his editorials won him a pulitzer prize.
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his most famous and one of the most reprinted in pulitzer history was titled go for broke. the slogan of japanese-american soldiers. in it, he offered a righteous plea. challenging america to abandon its prejudice against japanese citizens. especially those who fought bravely for the american cause. on august 27th, 1945, he wrote. >> it is so easy for a dominant race to explain good or evil. patriotism or treachery. courage or cowardice in terms of skin color. so easy and so tragically wrong. too many has committed the wrong against the loyal nice. even while others of us by our actions against them have shown
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ourselves to be bad americans. it seems to us the nice slogan of go for broke could be adopted by all americans of good will and the days ahead. we've got to shoot the works in a fight for tolerance. >> carter's message found a national and international stage. in 1955, he wrote passionately in "look" magazine against the white citizens council that had established themselves in the south as the main street version of the clku klux klan. the enmity of the mississippi state legislature. which took a vote and condemned his article as a lie by a niggar-loving editorial. carter responded. >> by a vote of 89-19, the mississippi house of
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representatives has evolved the editor of this newspaper into a liar because of an article i wrote. if this charge were true, it would make me well qualified to serve in that body. it is not true. so to even things up, i hereby resolve by a vote of one to nothing that there are 89 liars in the state legislature. i am hopeful that this fever-like klu kluxism that arose will run its course before too long a time. meanwhile, those 89 character robbers can go to hell. collectively or singularly. and wait there until i back
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down. they needn't plan on returning. [ applause ] >> carter was by many measures a man of his time. but he stood out in his time as a beacon in his support for tolerance and his opposition to bigry and hatred. he recognized the award of 1946 pulitzer prize gave his work a stature that helped sustain him in the difficult years to come. [ applause ] >> it is the 1950s. and the classic period we know as the civil rights movement is just up ahead. it is the decade in which young john lewis will come of age.
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he will learn. he will listen. and he will lead. john lewis would not be turned around on his march to social justice and equality. no freedom song from that era signified that feeling more than this one. ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ don't let nobody ♪ turn me around ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on talking ♪ marching down freedom land ♪ to lead around ♪ to lead around ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on talking ♪ marching down freedom land ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around
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♪ don't let nothing ♪ turn me around ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on talking ♪ marching down to freedom land ♪ ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on talking ♪ walking down freedom land ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on talking ♪ freedom land ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ turn me around ♪ turn me around ♪ don't let nobody turn me around ♪ ♪ keep on walking ♪ keep on walking [ applause ]
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>> it is 1952. ladies and gentlemen, for the first time on stage together, it is our pleasure to introduce two of america's great journalists welcome father and son. colbert i. king of "the washington post" and rob king of espn. [ cheers and applause ] >> good evening, father. >> good evening, number one son. >> it is amazing to be here together. i'm proud of you son for all the great journalism you helped create at espn.
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i understand you're also on the poynter institute board of trustees. you're kind of a big shot. did you clean your room? >> some things never change. i'm very proud of you, dad, for winning the 2003 pulitzer prize for commentary. yes, please. [ applause ] against the grain columns that speak to people in power with voracity and wisdom. >>er ferocious and wise, that would be me. >> i got a question.
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>> what's that, son? >> why is there no pulitzer prize for sports journalism? >> wonderful commentary. >> but that's only four in 100 years. so let's ask the audience. how many of you think there should be a pulitzer prize for sports journalism? [ applause ] >> well, i've got an idea that might support your proposal. >> okay, let's hear it. >> why don't you tell them the story about johnny bright? >> good idea. so the year's now 1951. one of the nation's greatest athletes played football for drake university in iowa. he bears the storybook name of johnny bright. among his accomplishments, bright would lead the nation in offense and contend for the heisman trophy. bright would have a legendary career in the canadian football
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league. he one inducted into its hall of fame and contribute much. his life story was dominated by something that happened on a football field. in a game between drake and the school that is now oklahoma state. >> in the parlance of the day, johnny bright was a negro athlete. his very presence on the field, not to say his dominance, was offensive to some in the days of jim crow. october 20, 1951, what is still referred to as the johnny bright incident, a player for oklahoma state named wilbank smith viciously struck bright with an elbow, breaking his jaw. the violence was not typical of the play at the times, especially because equipment was inadequate. but there was common speculation that the blow to johnny bright
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was racially motivated. something that will banksmith denied all his life. he claimed he was nasty to everybody. >> the incident might have passed quickly except for the spot work of two photographers from the des moines register. it was an important game in the missouri valley conference and the two photogs planned to shoot during the first quarter and get back to des moines. in a six-shot sequence that would be republished in life magazine and in "the new york times." botang and robinson captured the brutality and illegality of the cheap shot. >> years later, bright would testify that the broken jaw was worth it. it led to a change in the rules of the game to make it safer for players and led to better protective equipment such as mouth pieces and safeguards.
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i played without face guards in football in the 1950s. you see the evidence of it. >> but people are telling me i look just like you. >> also, not only in life but in the playing field. the journey toward racial justice. >> the two photographers would win the pulitzer prize for photography. a prize that would magnify the controversy surrounding the johnny bright incident. drake would withdraw from the conference. oklahoma state would eventually, 54 years later, apologize for the incident, an apology that came 22 years after the death of johnny bright. >> great job. >> thank you, dad. >> can i get a hug?
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>> call your mother. [ applause ] >> special moments all night long. makes me want to hug my dad. joining me now, 1953, across the century, the pulitzer prize board would every now and then award a prize to an unlikely recipie recipient. in 1953, the award for public service would not go to a big city daily newspapers but to two tiny weekly newspapers in north carolina. one was the city tribune. and the other was the whitefield news reporter published by willard cole. they were awarded the prize for the successful campaign against the ku klux klan waged on their own doorstep at the risk of economic loss and personal
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danger. culminating in conviction of more than 100 klans men and an end to terrorism in their communities. the young horace carter wrote more than 100 editorials and news pieces condemning the klan over a three-year period. [ applause ] please now welcome two great journalists. she is a veteran local news anchor. he is the vice president for diversity at public radio and poynter's former dean. please welcome the husband and wife team of denise white and keith woods. >> thank you. created in the aftermath of supreme court decisions such as brown versus the board of
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education that held that separate was not equal and that public schools and universities should be desegregated with all deliberate speed. well, that final oxymoron with all deliberate speed became the excuse for many to delay the inevitable. consider the story of miss autherine lucy. the daughter of a share cropper. she attended public schools in shiloh, alabama. and the al blal black miles col. she and a friend were accepted into the university of alabama. until it was learned that they were black. with the naacp, they sued the university for racial discrimination. a case that took three years to solve. on february 3rd, 1956, lucy
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enrolled in the masters program in library science. and attended her first class. well, three days later, a mob of more than 1,000 men pelted the car in which the dean of women drove lucy between classes. even threatening to lynch her. and there were also attacked on the house of the president of the university. she was expelled. supposedly for her own safety. and driven off campus on the floor of a highway patrol car. well, the day after the riots, the editor of the tuscaloosa news, buford boon, wrote the editorial entitled "what price for peace." >> when mobs started posing their frenzied well universities, we have a bad situation. that is what happened at the
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university of alabama. it is a development over which the university of alabama, the people of this it's ststate, th community of tuscaloosa and t should be ashamed. everybody who witnessed the events speaks of the tragic nearness with which our great university came to be associated with murder. yes, we said "murder." the target was autherine lucy. her crimes? she was born black. she was moving against southern custom and tradition. but with the law right on up to the united states supreme court, on her side. what does it mean today at the university of alabama and here at tuscaloosa to have the law on your side? the answer has to be nothing. that is if a mob disagrees with
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you and the courts, yes, there's peace on the university campus this morning. but what a price has been paid for it. in response to his work, buford boone and his family were threatened. his phone would ring every 20 minutes. keeping his family awake in the middle of the night. his windows would be broken. if boone was away, his wife would be called to tell her that her husband was in grave trouble. for facing up to all of this, buford boone was awarded the pulitzer prize for editorial writing. [ applause ] >> and as for autherine lucy, well in april of 1988, her expulsion was annulled by the university of alabama. she enrolled in the graduate
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program of education the following year and received an m.a. degree in may of 1992. in a complete reversal of spirit from when she was first admitted there, the university named an endowed scholarship in her honor and unveiled a portrait of her in the student union overlooking the most trafficked spot on campus. and the inscription reads, her initiative and courage won the right for students of all races to attend the university. [ applause ] >> good evening. for its unprecedented coverage of desegregation of central high school in little rock. it was a time when one of the south's now infamous
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segregationist governors would take action not seen in the south in a century. against a supreme court order to see s desegregate the schools in little rock. and prevent 15 black students from registering. a famous photograph shows a young elizabeth ekford walking unprotected, surrounded by white students yelling at her. this would inspire president eisenhower to move federal troops in to restore order and protect the students who have become part of civil rights history known as the little rock nine. the thorough coverage of the events by the newspaper also helped to restore order and the rule of law. coverage which was punctuated by a front page editorial by harry ashmore. no integrationist, he, like many of the southern editorialists who would follow him, based his
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argument on the idea that peace and justice could be preserved only by following the law, not by defying it. on september 9th, 1957, he wrote, reflections in a hurricane's eye. >> somehow, some time, every arkansas is going to have to be counted. will have to decide what kind people we are. will we obey the law only when we approve of it, or whether we obey it no matter how distasteful we may find it. there are those of course who admire his courage. in the calculated confusion of the hour, have even come to believe that he may yet stand against the government of the united states. there are also those we suppose who admired king kinut when he
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ordered the sea to turn back. but the sea did not turn back. and there is no indication the federal government can or will abandon the authority of the united states supreme court. for this, harry ash more, one of the south's leading progressive voices on matters of race, was awarded the 1958 pulitzer prize for editorial writing. [ applause ] we should not leave little rock in 1957 without reference to the courage and dignity of a reporter l. alex wilson. covering these events for the memphis tristate defender, a black newspapers of the day. over the chances of his winning a pulitzer prize. the white mob on the outskirts
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of central high school took out their anger on the reporters and photographers, black and white, who were covering the event. hank kibinof who with jean roberts won a putly the zer prize for the book the race beat described the scene and who better to narrate it than hank klibanoff. >> as the assault continued on the journalists, the station wagon with the nine black students eased up to the south entrance of the school and the students and two adults emerged. as they entered central high, they examined the crowd with curiosity. but little interest. meanwhi meanwhile, l. alex wilson, taunted, pushed, slapped, as he kept walking, was suddenly
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rushed from behind by a man who planted one foot, swung the other as hard as he could, in the manner of a field goal kicker, and slammed his shoe into the base of wilson's spine. another man kicked wilson so hard that the reporter's lanky frame looked as if it would fold. still, he lurched forward. seeing that his hat had been knocked to the ground, wilson stopped, slowly, almost casually, as if to give them no credit for altering his course, he bent down to pick it up. in that moment, he had a chance to run. and he might well have been able to get away. but he had made that vow long ago in florida. i decided not to run, he wrote later, if i were i would take
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it walking if i could. not running. as the mob darted in and out, throwing punches and kicks, wilson picked up his hat, stood ere erect, took some time to run his hand along the crease. his refusal to show fearen fur yates the mob, run, damn you, run, one man yelled. more punches came. wilson, though surrounded, moved to im4. a more vicious attack followed, including a hard kick to the center of wilson's chest. wilson's still holding his hat, even as he fell to the ground, raised himself up, recreased his hat and kept walking. he looked straight ahead, then took one last powerful blow to the head, some witnesses said it was a brick this time. before being pushed away by the
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crowd, the nine negro students had quietly slipped into the high school. as the mob went wild with the realization that the school had been integrated, wilson walked to his car. he still had not unfastened the middle button of his suit coat. wilson died on october 11th, 1960, at age 51, no doubt from the long-term effects of the beating he took in little rock. the tri-state defender ran a photograph atop the top of its front page showing wilson lying in state. above it was a headline "editor wilson, back home to stay." there's no category of pulitzer prize for a journalist who becomes a martyr to the causes of civil rights, social justice, and equality. if there were, l. alex wilson,
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the reporter who would not run, would hit the list. [ applause ] missing from all of this the story of everyday african-american families working, playing, struggling with the deck stacked against them. to get there, we celebrate the work of a great playwright, african-american whose body of work stands with like office eugene o'neill, tennessee williams, and arthur miller. he is, of course, our beloved august wilson. he won a first pulitzer for drama in 1987 for fences and another in 1990 for the piano lessonen on three other occasions his plays were finalists. that is one of the singular accomplishments in pulitzer history. few directors know wilson's plays better than st.
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petersburgs own bob devon jones, the creator 0 of studio at 620. he's been a visionary leader in the development of the cultural life of st. peterburg. and this evening, with the assistance of young actor tie reese pope, he performs a famous scene from the play "fences." it is 1957. troy maxim has led a hard life. in his youth he was a great ballplayer but came to see the limitations afforded a young, black man. the only salvation was a form of manhood, attached to hard work. he's tough on his son corey, who also want toosz be a ballplayer. troy wants him to et. >> a job at local a&p. his son requests him a provocative question. >> how come you ain't never liked me. >> like you?
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who the hell say i got to like you? what law is there that say i got to like you? stand up in my face and ask a damn fool-ass question about that, talking about liking somebody. come over here, boy, when i talk to you. straighten up, goddamit. i asked you a question what law say i got to like you? >> none. >> oh well, all right then. don't you eat every day? answer me when i talk to you, boy. don't you eat every day? >> yeah. >> as long as you live in my house you put a sir on that when you talk to me. you eat every day. >> yes, sir. >> eat every day. >> yes, sir. >> clothes on your back. >> yes, sir. >> why is it. >> because you of you. >> why do you think that is?
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>> because you like me. [ laughter ] >> like you? i go out there every morning, bust my butt, put up with them crackers every day because i like you? you're the biggest fool i ever saw. it's my job. it's my responsibility. you understand that? a man got to take care of his family. you live in my house. sleep your behind in my bed clothes, fill your belly with my food. because i like you? because you're my flesh and blood. i ain't got to like you. let's get this straight before we go along any further. i ain't got to like you. i don't got to like you. mr. rand don't give me my money come payday because he like me. he give me because he owe me. i give you everything i have to
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give you. i gave you life, me and your mother worked that out between us. [ laughter ] and liking your black ass wasn't part of the bargain. don't you try to go through life worrying about whether somebody like you or not. you best be trying to make sure they do right by you. you understand what i'm saying to you, boy? >> yes, sir. >> now get hell out of my face and get on down to the a&p. >> yes, sir. [ applause ] >> so are you having any fun yet? inspired? [ applause ] one of dr. martin luther king's favorite gospel springers was the great mahalia jackson, performed at historic 1963 march
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on washington, john lewis spoke that day to remind him and all of us of that great moment. we are pleased to present the community choir featuring the great sharon scott performing "how i got over." ♪ >> well. ♪ well, how i got over how i got over ♪ ♪ you know my soul looks back ♪
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♪ and wonders how i got over ♪ ♪ how i got over rising and falling and falling and rising ♪ ♪ all these years ♪ you know my soul looks back and wonders ♪ ♪ how did i make it over ♪ ♪ well, it's true the man who bled hung on calvary ♪
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♪ i want to thank what he taught me ♪ ♪ thank him ♪ i want to thank him hallelujah ♪ ♪ hallelujah oh, hallelujah ♪ ♪ oh hallelujah ♪ my soul i want to see jesus ♪ ♪ the man who died for me whoa, the man who suffered ♪ ♪ as he hung on calvary ♪ ♪ i want to thank god ♪ because he brought me ♪ ♪ i thank him because he taught
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me ♪ ♪ i thank him because he never left me ♪ ♪ i thank god because he so kept me ♪ ♪ hal lilelujah ♪ ♪ hallelujah giohallelujah ♪ ♪ whoa, whoa ♪ thank you i thank the lord ♪ ♪ i thank you you ain't never left me, lord ♪ ♪ i thank ya for how you brought me i thank you for how ♪ ♪ you taught me ♪ you been my mother you been my father ♪ ♪ you been my doctor you been my lawyer ♪ ♪ you been my teacher you been my friend and never left me no, no, no lord ♪
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♪ oh, lord my soul looks back ♪ ♪ and wonders ♪ how i got ♪ how i got over yeah, yeah, yeah♪ [ cheers and applause ] >> just watch. a true turning point in the
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history of civil rights journalism can be found in the work of ralph mcgill, editor of the atlanta constitution. by the time he won his pulitzer prize for editorial writing in 1959, he was widely recognized as the dean of progressive white newspaper editors in the south. when in 1960 he hired jean patterson as editor. with mcgill taking title of publisher, it was as if babe ruth had hired lou gehrig to hit behind him. in their signed columns, written every single day they led the white south towards tolerance and december senty, best they could, in the face of economic reprisals, personal intimidation and threats. it was helpful that admiration
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for mcgill came from across couldn't fridntry and around th. he accepted plaudits knowing it would strengthen his position in the south and atlanta. the place that became known as the city too busy to hate. mcgill realized small gestures of courtesy and respect can mean a lot. 1938, he became executive editor of the constitution and insisted that the word "negro" be spelled with a capital "n." unheard of practice in the south. 20 years later he returned home from a speaking tour to be informed by his wife that the temple, atlanta's largest gutierrez jewish synagogue, had been bombed. with passionate outrage he drove to the office and banged out an editorial that would become famous and earn him a pulitzer prize. it was titled "a church, a
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school" and here to read from it, howard raines. >> dynamite in great quantity sunday ripped a beautiful temple of worship in atlanta. it followed hard on the heels of a light destruction of a handsome high school in clinton, tennessee. the same rabid plaid dog minds were without question behind both. they also are the source of previous bombings in florida, alabama, and south carolina. the schoolhouse and the church are the targets of disease, hate-filled minds. let us face the facts. this is a harvest. it is the crop of things sewn. it is not possible to preach lawlessness and restrict it. to be sure, none said go bomb a jewish temple or a school but
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let it be understood that when leadership and high places in any degree fails to support constituted authority, it opens the gates to all of those who wish to take the law into their hands. this, too, is a harvest of those so-called christian ministers who have chosen to preach hate instead of compassion. let them now find pious words and raise their hands in deploring the bombing of a synagogue. you do not preach and encourage hatred for the negro and hope to restrict it to that field. it is an old, old story. it is one repeated over and over again in history. when the wolves of hate are loose the on one people, then no one is safe. >>. [ applause ]
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>> for these words and ideals the culmination of a career devoted to social justice the pulitzer board awarded 1959 pulitzer prize for editorial writing to ralph mcgill of the atlanta constitution. >> the next decade, from 1960 to 1971, saw succession of southern editors when pulitzers for editorials advancing civil rights. it was the pulitzer board's way of shining a bright light on the champions and the enemies of civil rights, of honoring some of the most courageous editorialist of all time. most of them were from small newspapers. here they are, in chronological order -- >> 1963, two ira b. harkey jr., writing for the pascagoula, mississippi chronicle. >> in 1962, james meredith
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entered the university of mississippi, leading to mob violence against people and property. federal troops were called in to protect meredith who, in 1966, would be shot during his march against fear. there were proposals to close down the university rather than integrate it. here's what ira harkey wrote -- anywhere else in the united states suggestion that a state university be closed down for any reason at all would not rise to the level of public discussion. such a suggestion could not originate outside a lunatic academy. but in our state where the leaders for eight years led us to believe we would not be required to obey the same laws that others must obey whose leaders called out the mobs to
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let blood and senseless opposition to the willing of the nation where american g.i.s and marshalls are referred to in terms of hate, formerly used only for huns ravished belgium in the world war. if this state, we better discuss the possibility now. if we now let them convince us that it is proper to close ole miss and destroy a century of cultural advancement, maybe we did not deserve any better than to be led by owners of grammar school intellects of attitudes that most humans left behind somewhere in history. it took physical courage and moral courage for ira b. harkey to take such a stand. the segregationists boycotted his newspaper. someone fired a bullet through his door. he had to sell his paper and move out of the state, but his
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words lived on. [ applause ] >> 1964, to hazel brandon smith for editorials in the lexington mississippi advertiser. in his great collection, pull litter prize editorials historian william david sloane describes the nature of hazel brannon smith's courage, tenacity and cease enty. when hazel brannon smith received her pulitzer prize, judges commended her for, quote, steadfast adherence to her editorial duty in the face of great pressure and opposition. the statement was inadequate to describe her real dedication. mrs. smith's problems began in 1954, when she criticized a sheriff who shot a young black man. a local court awarded the sheriff $10,000 libel verdict. although an appeals court overturned the decision,
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pressure on mississiprs. smith mount. they drew from their savings to support the newspaper, they mortgaged their home, built up a debt of $80,000. still, mrs. smith continued her attacks against racist, corrupt politicians and racketeers. in one of her honored editorials she shown a light on a terrible injustice. sheer is diana sugg. >> holmes county depp pi sheriff andrew p. smith's action in arresting a 58-year-old negro farmer for firebombing his own home has come as a numbing shock to the people of holmes county. it is a grave disservice to our county and to all people in these days of increasing racial tension and strife. white and negro citizens of holmes county alike simply could
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not believe that something like this could happen in our country. that a man and his wife and 16-year-old daughter could be routed from sleep in the small hours of the morning and be forced to flee their home, literally in terror, only to be shot at by intruders outside. then, to have the head of the family jailed the same day for doing the dastardly deed by an officer sworn to uphold the law and protect all citizens. when mrs. smith was given the 1964 pulitzer, she described what she saw as her role as an editor. she said, all we have done here is try to meet honestly the issues as they arose.
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we did not ask for, nor run from this fight with the white citizens councils. but we have given it all we have, nearly ten years of our lives, loss of financial security and a big mortgage. we would do the same thing over if necessary. i could not call myself an editor if i had gone along with the citizens councils, feeling about them the way i do. my interest has been to print the truth and protect and defend the freedom of all mississippians. it will continue. >> the point yens of this pulitzer jurnny and impact on civil rights and our time is
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worth every minute we give it tonight. join me now in 1965. it's about time this tradition of great editorial writing and support of social justice made it to the sunshine state. the games bill sun would post two pull litter prize winners. the first, john r. hairson. for a decade civic leaders tried unsuccessfully to get a building code passed in gainesville. harrison weighed in with a devastating editorial, framed as a memo to mayor mckinney. to read it, rory harris jr., author of the book "pulitzer gold." >> the road was dusty, and the small negro boy strained under the weight of the bucket he was carrying. he had brought it more than two blocks from a fountain that was provide the as a courtesy, the sign told us. three to five times a week, the child makes the trip.
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the child lives in a house 18 feet x 24 feet along with three other people. on several over the open windows there are no screens. there's no front door at all. sunlight comes through the roof in two places. the child and his family share with another family the outhouse and the backyard. not only is there no lavatory in the house, there is no tub, shower, or hot water supply. the water lapped over the side of the bucket as the child stepped up a concrete block into the house. now, mayor mckinney, that's a third to a fifth of the family's weekly supply of water to drink. and that family lives in the northeast section within the city limits of gainesville, florida, and they pay $5 a week
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rent. that's florida's university city, center of science, education, and medicine. now, tell it's again, mayor mckinney, as you have since last august, that a minimum housing cold for gainsville is unnecessary. tell the child that carries the drinking water down that dusty road that the minimum housing code is unnecessary. as happens in the best moments when social justice journalism creates a spur to action, the city responded to harrison's crusade by passing a housing code. for his editorials, harrison would receive the 1965 pulitzer prize for editorial writing. [ applause ]
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>> if there were a pull lititze prize give tonight people who were in their own minds rock 'n' roll legends, i would have won more pulitzers than robert frost and eugene o'neill combined. i still remember my excitement as a young man listening to my rock 'n' roll heroes, the music was fun, energetic, sexy. but it also had spirit and soul. at a time went racial segregation was still being enforced across the land, it was interesting to see black artists writing and singing in a thinly veiled code of support of civil rights and social justice. when chuck berry sang a brown eyed handsome man, it wasn't so hard to understand the hero he was celebrating was not just brown-eyed but brown-skinned. foreotis redding, it was
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respect, a song about domestic desire which became a plea for what any person deserves from the country and institutions. aretha franklin took that song a step farther, transforming it into a feminist hymn. as a piano player, my hero was little richard pennyman. thank you. the first record i ever asked my mom to buy for me was a 78 -- anybody here besides me ever owned ai 78 record? tell the youngster was we're talking about. and he sang, it was keep a knockin'. it was the crazy, wild song. you know, if i recite the lyrics i feel like pat boone, keep a
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knockin' but you can't come in. ♪ keep a knockin' but you can't come in ♪ ♪ keep a knockin' but you can come in ♪ ♪ keep a knockin' but cyou can come in ♪ ♪ come back tomorrow night try it it against♪ a rock 'n' roll hymn to close doors but continuing aspiration. the music changed me. i know it inchanged you. i'm ready for more change. you ready for change? you ready for change, everybody? you ready for change? [ applause ] get ready to be changed! i'm a word man but i don't have the words to describe our next performer. he is incandescent, luminescent, 180 pounds of twisted steel and sex appeal, tower of power too sweet to be sour a man with a tan and a plan and i'm a big
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fan. put your hands together to the amazing alex harris! [ cheers and applause ] >> are you feeling all right? ready for change here? ♪ i was born by the river oh just like the river ♪ ♪ i've been running i've been running ever since ♪ ♪ it's been a long a long time coming ♪ ♪ but i know, i know
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i know ♪ ♪ a change will come ♪ oh, yes, it will ♪ look at him it's been too hard living now ♪ ♪ but i ain't afraid to die ♪ oh, oh i don't know about you but i know i know ♪ ♪ what's beyond the sky it's been a long summer♪ wave your hand if you know what i'm talking about ♪ ♪ a long time coming but i know a know a change will come ♪ ♪ yeah, yeah oh, yes it will ♪ ♪ listen i said, i gone to movies but downtown
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somebody tell me ♪ ♪ i don't want you to hang around it's been long♪ somebody over here wave your hand. i want to take my time sing this, all right? ♪ i know, i know, a change is going to come, yeah, yeah ♪ ♪ yeah, yeah, yeah yeah looky here. wait a minute. ♪ ♪ i go, i go to my brother ♪ looky here i say, brother, come on now ♪ ♪ won't you help me please my, my, my, my, my, my ♪ ♪ my own brother oh, say you won't mind ♪
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♪ you won't mind backing me oh the time -- somebody say yeah ♪ ♪ i couldn't last but i think i'm able♪ wait a minute. ♪ ♪ i think aim able to carry on ♪ ♪ it's been a long somebody rock, you feel it ♪ ♪ a long time coming but i know, know, know ♪ ♪ i say it's going to come ♪ ♪ i want to say one more time. it's already for you to hear me sing it? ♪ ♪ i said i i said i go, i go ♪ ♪ to my brother, yes, sir oh, i say brother, oh come on ♪
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♪ help me, please i feel all right ♪ ♪ i feel, my, my, my, my, my my, my, my, my own brother ♪ ♪ yeah, yeah, say you, you aren't knock, knock, knocking e me ♪ ♪ somebody say yeah i couldn't last for long ♪ ♪ for long but i think i'm able ♪ ♪ it's been long, it's been a long♪ i wish i could come out with you ♪ ♪ i know, i know ♪ ♪ i want you to help me sing, now, now, now.
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wait a minute. ♪ i said change change, change ♪ ♪ change, change >> let me hear you say change. ♪ change, change change, change♪ wait a minute. ♪ change, change ♪ oh, yeah i know change ♪ ♪ somebody wave your hand i said change, yeah ♪ ♪ change change change change ♪ ♪ in my community said right here in st. pe petersburg let me say chain chain ♪
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♪ chain change ♪ change, change change ♪ ♪ >> i want to sing. is it all right? ♪ i said change i said change ♪ ♪ wait a minute, wait a minute, wait a minute, wait a minute. break it down. break it down. wait a minute here. if you don't mind. you've been sitting down for a long time, stand up wit us, stand up with us. i want you to reach your hand across the aisle and look at somebody in the eyes and say, i need change. so you need change. said i need change. change, i need change.
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you need change. i said change. ♪ i said change chan change♪ [ cheers and applause ] [ cheers and applause ] >> you like that, jean? gwendolyn brooks won the pulitzer prize for poetry in 1950.
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she was born in 19117, same year as pulitzer prizes so her centennial is before us. brooks was african-american, the first black person in any category to win the prize. it would be naive to ask why it took 33 years for this so happen. we all know why. maybe we can think of brooks april generous and influential author who would write more than 15 vo volumes of poetry as jackie robinson of pulitzer prizes. we know the color line prevented black players in major leagues. it took many years until the baseball hall of fame would induct worthy stars of the negro leagues there were literary and journalistic equivalents of those heroes. w.e.b. deboys, james well done johnsoning langston hughes, richard wright, ralph ellison, james baldwin, to mention the
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brightest stars in the heavens. do we accept such exclusion as a dark expression of our history or is there something we can do about it? maybe there's a way for the pulitzer prizes invented by other institutions that share its mission to help redress the injustices of hoeistory. maybe there's a way to reinvent special citations to create a category of historical prizes to honor the works of groups of people. consider this gentlest of nudges, inspired by the first gwendolyn brooks who also wrote for the black newspaper the chicago defender. to honor her, to honor the moment, here is the wonderful september penn. [ applause ] >> gwendolyn brooks most famous poem is a short one titled "we
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real cool." with a judgist eye for detail it describes seven young pool player at the a bar called the golden shovel. why don't we recite it together here in her honor? it's here on the screen. repeat after me. we real cool. we real cool. >> we left school. >> we left school. >> we lurk late. >> we lurk late. >> we strike straight. >> we strike straight. >> we sing sin. >> we sing sin. >> we thin gin. >> we thin gin. >> we jazz june. >> we jazz june. >> we die soon. >> we die soon. st. peterburg home of the tampa
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bay times florida's best newspaper for media studies. did you know tonight you'd be changed by alex otis and made r real cool by september miss brooks, special moments all night long. the story of the pulitzer pries when it comes to social justice and equality would not be complete without reference to 1964 special citation. given to the gannett newspapers for a project called "the road to integration" the project generated 100 stories. one story that endures came from african-american reporter named shirley scott. she was 31 year old, worked for the hartford times. her essay of about 1,000 words was titled "what's it like to be black?" what is it like? if you are a man, regardless of your efforts, promotion will
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come slowly, if at all. fellow workers are polite, perhaps friendly, but always at arm's length. association ends at 5:00. you are stuck at the bottom of the ladder, not because of what you do, but because you're a negro. if you are a woman, doors open to you that remain closed to your husband or your brother. your children present a special problem. in addition to washing, mending, cooking and healing little hurts, sometimes early in their lives, you must explain the taunts of johnny whiteboy. could you explain that there's nothing wrong with being black? will they believe you instead of johnny? you fight back tears and maybe anger because you know there's no way to protect them.
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you pray somehow your strength will be transmitted to them. after a few years of reporting, shirley scott moved to new haven, where she worked for an anti-poverty agency. she ran for mayor in 1975, and lost. she died in 1977. we do not know to what extent she took pride in being, we think, the first african-american journalist to contribute to a project that won a pulitzer prize. let it be known that at least for tonight she is well remembered. [ applause ] >> the tradition of powerful african-american women authors and journalists winning pulitzer prizes grew stronger as the 20th century came to an end. highlighted by the achievement
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of two novelists, alice walker, who won for "the color purple" in 1983 and tony morrison, nobel laureate who won in 1988 for "beloved". while race and gender drew attention in american culture as conditions of difference, these authors identified those places in america where race and gender converged as expressions of power and respect, rather than alienation and despair. here is jackie bonnishinsky articulating "a womanist prose." when you will ask, did my overworked mother have time to know or care about feeding the creative spirit? the answer is so simple that many of us have spent years discovering it. we have constantly looked high when we should have looked high and low. for example, in the smithsonian
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institution in washington, d.c., there hangs a quilt, unlike any other in the world. in fanciful, inspired and simple and identifiable features it portrays the story of the crucifixion. it is considered rare, beyond price, though it follows no known pattern of quilt making and though it is made of bits and pieces of worthless rags, it is obviously the work of a person of powerful imagination and deep spiritual feeling. below this quilt i saw a note that says it was made by an anonymous black woman in alabama, 100 years ago. if we could locate this anonymous black woman from alabama, she would turn out to be one of our grandmothers, an artist who left her mark in the only material she could afford and the only medium her position
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in society allowed her to use. applause an. >> writing in that same tradition, tony more is areson evokes the history of "the run away slave" in beloved. a mother contemplates the horrific circumstances which led her to take the life of her own child. to read it, we are delighted to introduce pointer's former president, dr. karen dunla. [ applausep. [ applause ] >> beloved, she, my daughter. she mine, see? she come back to me on her own free will and i don't have to
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explain a thing. i didn't have time to explain before because it had to be done quick, quick. she had to be safe. and i put her where she would be. but my love was tough, and she back now. i knew she would be. i'll explain to her, even though i don't have to. why i did it, how if i hadn't killed her she would have died, and taehat's something i could t bear to have happen to her. when i explain it, she'll understand because she understands everything already. i'll tend her as no mother ever tended a child, a daughter. nobody will ever get my milk no more except my own children. i never had to give to nobody else and the one time i did, it was took from me.
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they held me down and took. milk that belonged to my baby. nan had to nurse white babies and me, too, because mammal was in the rice. the little white babies got it first, and i got what was left, or none. there was no nursing milk to call my own. i know what it is to be without the milk that belongs to you, to have to fight and holler, to holler for it, and to have so little left. i'll tell beloved about that. she'll understand. she's my daughter. [ applause ] >> good evening. my name is tom french. this pulitzer parade of african-american women became
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manifest in journalism as well. authors such as isabel wilkerson who won 1994 pulitzer prize for feature writing. working out of the chicago bureau, "the new york times," wilkerson wrote an astonishing profile of a 10-year-old boy, nicholas whitaker, growing up with challenges that no child should have to face. here's a passage from that story, a passage that has haunted me as a father since i first read it 23 years ago. the pass age is called "the rules." diana? >> it is a gray winter's morning, zero degrees outside, and school starts for everybody in less than half an hour. the children line up, all scarves and coats and legs, the boys bow their heads so their mother, late for class herself, can brush their hair one last time. there is a mad scramble for a
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lost mitten. then, she sprays them. she shakes an aerosol can and sprays their head coats, heads, tiny outstretched hands. she sprays them back and front to protect them as they go off to school, facing bullets and gang recruiters and a crazy, dangerous world. it is a special religious oil that smells like drugstore perfume and the children shut their eyes tight, as she sprays them, long and furious, so they will come back to her alive and safe at day's end. these are the rules for angela whitaker's children, recounted at formica top dining room
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table. don't stop off playing, willie said. when you hear shooting, don't stand around, run, nicholas said. why do i say run? their mother asked. because a bullet doesn't have no eyes, the two boys shouted. she pray for us every day, willie said. [ applause ] >> please welcome to great pulitzer winners, eugene robinson of "the washington post" and fogt tophotojournalis williams iii. [ applause ] >> well, before there was me. >> and before there was me. >> and before pulitzer prizes
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were won by men, like leonard pitts colby king and steven henderson, before us there was a truly great photojournalist named moneta sleet jr. the first african-american journalist to win a pulitzer as an individual. here's a photograph of him celebrating the prize with his family. he died in 1996, at the age of 70. upon his passing, "the new york times" recalled his wife and times in this obituary. >> moneta sleet jurisdiction, brought his camera to a resolution and captured many images that define the equality in africa died on monday at columbian presbyterian medical center. he was 70, best known for his pulitzer-prize winning photograph of the funeral of the rev end dr. martin luther king jr. from the time sent to montgomery, alabama, in 1955, to cover unlikely boycott organized
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by a young minister named martin luther king jr. until long after he captured what became the signature moment of dr. king's f funeral in atlanta, a fixture of independent ceremonies and celebrations in africa. >> in a profession whose practitioners are expected to where i a certain detachment to their work, mr. sleet saw no reason to apologize for his commitment to the cause he covered, or for his emotional involvement with those he photographed. i wasn't there as an objective reporter, he once said. i had something to say. and was trying to show off -- show one side of it. we didn't have any problems finding the other side. in the era of civil rights marches, mr. sleet tended to march double time, once estimating that he had walked 100 miles during the 50-mile march from selma to montgomery
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in 1965, because he kept walking back and forth along the line march to take photographs. based in new york, mr. sleet spent eiga good deal of his car on the road, photographing every black head in the state of africa. chrrisscrossing the south with dr. king and other civil rights leaders. known for his ever present smile and his knack for making others smile when they didn't feel like it, he had a gentle, engaging personal he captivated celebrity his covered. it was not unusual for those he covered to request or insist that mr. sleet be assigned the next time they agreed to be interviewed by "ebony ". >> in 1968 when mrs. coretta scott king learned a small pool of photographers did not include
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a black photographer she sent out word if mr. sleet were not allowed in the church and given a choice vantage point, there would nobody photographers. his photograph showing dr. king's 5-year-old daughter bernice lying across her mother's lap and looking hauntingly toward the camera, it was transmitted nationwide by the associated press and won mr. sleet a pulitzer prize for journalism, the first received by a black journalist. celebrating his achievements with our applause. [ applause ] >> so, it's 1967, and we have saved our most sentimental recollection until last. in 1970s and '80s, gene patterson helped turn the saint pete ursburg timed into one of
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america's most admired newspapers. and when nelson pointer died suddenly in 1978, gene turned mr. pointer's vision into action helping create the school which now bears his name. he also spent a term as chair of the pulitzer prize board. but reputation as a great editor and influential editorialist was shaped in atlanta. from 1956 to 1968, almost the exact boundaries of the classic period of the civil rights movement. let's think for a moment of gene patterson as being in the middle of things, the hub of a great wheel. he won his pulitzer for editorial writing for the columns he wrote in 1966. this year, 2016, is the 100th anniversary of the pulitzer prize. the year 1966 would have been the 50th anniversary of the prizes, so smack dab in the
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middle. >> as editor of the atlantic constitution from 1960 to 1968, gene patterson's image and words angered the editorial page during the most tumultuous year of the civil rights movement in the south. with his mentor and best friend ralph mcgill, gene used his platform to persuade his fellow white southerners that on matters of race they were wrong, and that if they changed, the sky would not fall. i see what you're trying to do, one reader accused. you're trying to make us think we are better than we are. [ laughter ] in an era of political assassinations and church bot botchings southern editorial writer who challenged segregation needed courage.
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advising patterson not to worry with cowards. it ones you don't hear from that you have to worry about, he said. patterson's equalizer was not a pistol, but a ball ping hammer hidden in a desk drawer. he never had to wield it but admitted having on two occasions nudged open the drawer. his daughter, mary faush, remembered how she once phoned her father in a panic because the dog, lizzie, had been shot by strangers. i know who did this, daddy, mary told her father. it the people who are angry about the tinhings you are writing. the indomitable pup lived to age 16 with a bullet lodged in her heart. he wrote a column every day, more than 3,200 in all. he wrote on saturdays and on sundays, sometimes by hand, in a
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fishing boat because he worried if he wrote two columns on thursday or friday, the second would lack the energy of the first. to me, writing was like shaving, patterson explained. if a man wants to look good he gets up in the morning and shaves. that's what i did every day, shave, and write a column. on the morning of september 15, 1963, gene was mowing the grass in his yard when he learned the news that four young girls had been murdered in birmingham, alabama, when a dynamite bomb went off in their church. on that day, he wrote his most famous column, "a flower for the graves." when word of this editorial reached walter cronkite, he invited patterson to read it, in full, on the cbs evening news. praise for his words came from all over the world.
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in calligraphy the column hangs near the library of the pointer institute, a space named for gene. next to it hang four prints and four glass cubeser artistic tributes to the four girls murdered in birmingham. their names ring into history,ed ay may collins, carol robertson, cynthia wesley, denise mcnair. as a conclusion to tonight's reflexions, we bring forward again one of gene's favorite people, howell raines, to read that famous column. >> a negro mother in the
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street sunday morning in front of a baptist church in birmingham. in her hands she held a shoe, one shoe, from the foot of her dead child. we hold that shoe with her. every one of us in the white south holds that small shoe in his hand. it is too late to blame the sick criminals who handled the dynamite. the fbi and the police can deal with that kind. the charge against them is simple -- they killed four children. only we can trace the truth, southerner, you and i. we broke those children's bodies. we watched the stage set without staying it. we listened to the prologue unbestirred. we saw the kicurtain opening wi disinterest. we have heard the play.
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we who go on elected politicians who heat the kettles of hate. we who raise no hand to silence the mean and little men who have their nigger jokes. we who stand aside and imagine rectitude and let the mad dogs that run in every society slide their leashes from our hand and spring. we, the heirs of a proud south who protest its worth and demand its recognition, we are the ones who have ducked the difficult, skirted the uncomfortable, quibbled at the challenge, resented the necessary, rationalize it had unacceptable, and created the day surely when these children would die. this is no time to load our
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anguish on to the murderous scapegoat who set the cap and dynamite of our own manufacturer. he didn't know any better. somewhere in the dim and fevered recess of an evil mind, he feels right now that he has been a hero. he is only guilty of murder. he thinks he has pleased us. we of the white south who know better the ones who mistake a harsher judgment. we who know better created a climate for child killing by those who don't. we hold that shoe in our hand, southerner, let us see it straight and look at the blood on it. let us compare it with the unworthy speech of southern public men who have reduced the negro, match it with the spectacle of shrilling children whose parents and teachers turn them free to spit epitaphs at small huddles of negro school children for a week before this
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sunday in birmingham, hold up the shoe and look beyond it to the statehouse in montgomery where the official attitudes of alabama have been spoken in heat and anger. let us not lay the blame on some brutal fool who didn't know any better. we know better, we created the day, we bear the judgment. may god have mercy on the poor south that has been so led. may what has happened hasten the day when the good south which does live and has great being will rise to this challenge of racial understanding and common humanity and in the full power of its unasserted courage, assert itself. the sunday school play at birmingham has ended and with the weeping negro mother we
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stand in the bitter smoke and hold a shoe. if our south is ever to be what we wish it to be we will plant a flower of nobler resolve for the south now upon those four small graves that we dug. " [ applause ] ♪ ♪
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♪ heal the sick, sick soul >> we're going to close with the singing of the most recognizable anthem from the civil rights era i'm going to invite bill to come out and lead us. i'd like to thank all the presenters. [ applause ] i would like to thank all of the pulitzer prize winners. [ applause ] i would like to thank all our friends from the pulitzer prizes who've come down here from new york
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[ applause ] i'd like to thank people from the tampa bay times and all my colleagues from the poynter institute. i believe congressman lewis, if you'll join us. [ cheers and applause ] if anybody else would like to come up on stage and join us, feel freeze. ♪ we shall overcome, we shall overcome ♪ we shall overcome someday, oh, deep in my heart ♪ i do believe, we shall
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overcome someday ♪ ♪ hand in hand together, hand in hand together ♪ hand in hand together someday, oh deep in my heart ♪ i do believe, we shall ov overcome someday ♪
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♪ we shall all be free, we shall all be free ♪ we shall all be free someday, oh deep in in my heart ♪ i do believe we shall overcome someday ♪ ♪ we shall overcome, we shall
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overcome ♪ we shall overcome someday, oh deep in my heart ♪ i do believe, we shall overcome someday ♪ ♪ we are not afraid, we are not afraid ♪ we are not afraid today, oh
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deep in my heart i do believe ♪ we are shall overcome, we shall overcome, we shall ♪ overcome ♪ we shall overcome, we shall overcome ♪ we shall overcome, we shall overcome ♪ we shall overcome someday
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[ cheers and applause ] >> good night, everybody. good night, everybody. good night. >> good night, everybody. [ cheers and applause ] >> thank you. thank you. >> one final bit of business before we go, could peter clark please come back. roy peter clark? roy has been working on this for the past year doing the research and the writing for this program and has done a phenomenal job. roy, we love you, we appreciate what you did, thank you so much. [ cheers and applause ]
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♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine
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♪ this little light of mine i'm gonna let it shine ♪ let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ in my home i'm gonna let it shine, in my home ♪ i'm gonna let it shine, everywhere i go ♪ i'm gonna let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ this little light of mine, i'm
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gonna let it shine ♪ in little light of mine, i'm gonna let it shine ♪ let it shine, let it shine, let it shine ♪ [ applause ] wednesday, american history tv in prime time features programs on president richard nixon and the watergate scandal. at 8:00 p.m., lectures in history on watergate and the white house tapes. at 9:10 p.m., journalist bob woodward and alexander butterfield on president nixon and watergate. at 10:30 p.m., richard nixon's 1974 resignation from office and at 10:55 p.m. richard nixon's farewell to his white house staff. the watergate scandal on american history tv in prime time. it's starts at 8:00 p.m. eastern
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here on c-span 3. in both iraq and afghanistan i helped both countries with their constitutions, being sort of a facilitator of agreement on key issues among iraqis or afghans. your influence is considerable, the heads of state or government are very anxious to meet with you when you ask for a meeting. >> sunday night on "q&a" former ambassador to afghanistan, iraq and the united nations zalmay khalilzad discusses his memoir "the envoy, my journey through a turbulent world." >> we saw the extremists such as zarqawi exploited though we then corrected it towards the end of the period i was there by reaching out to the sunnis, building up iraqi forces, by establishing a unity government,
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killing zarqawi to bring about security, violence was way down but unfortunately when we left and the vacuum was filled by rival regional powers pulling iraq apart, violence escalated and we have isis now. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q&a. wednesday, a look at the obama administration's response to the zika virus. the brooksings institution hears from the centers from disease control and prevention appropriations office. that's live, 9:00 a.m. eastern here on c-span 3. the impact of low energy prices on oil and gas revenue-dependent nations is the topic of discussion wednesday at the center for strategic and international studies. energy market experts will discuss the needed reforms for countries facing fiscal difficulties, including nigeria,

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