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tv   American History TV in San Bernardino CA  CSPAN  May 8, 2016 2:00pm-2:58pm EDT

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you wind up with the scenario we had today. where there was little interest in bringing my opinion on board and i am going to express my views. >> watch monday night, at 8 p.m. east -- eastern on c-span2. >> welcome to "san bernardino," on american history tv. this city helps to make up what is commonly referred to as the in land empire. a metropolitan area east of los angeles. ath help from our partners time warner and charter, we will explore the history of the city and the surrounding area. visit the railroad museum and learn how the santa fe railroad retained growth. >> they decided to house the headquarters at this location at that time. making it an industrial area.
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because of the railroad there were a number of peripheral businesses that supported the railroad. in its heyday there were close to 2000 people employed here. >> later learn how bird eggs at federalum helped with legislation banning the insecticide ddt. is our third largest collection in the united states. fifth-largest in the world. ddtere looking at a pretty san bernardino county museum as a natural place to study the eggs. just because of the large collection. because of the fact that it stands many years before ddt was introduced into the environment. >> the first few the site in san bernardino close to the regional center, where 14 people were killed and 2015, to hear about plans to build a permanent memorial to honor the victims of the attack.
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>> just behind me here at the intersection, this is a barricaded entry point where the police and sheriff are here. no one can cross this line area this intersection was a natural them to place their tokens of memory and the tragic
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victims. as you can see behind me, some of the things left behind were obviously teddy bears, pictures, mementos, certain objects of affection for these victims. grew quite large. all four corners appeared to have mortars -- mourners. there were members of the clergy in our community on the scene providing consolation and counseling services. a really experienced traumatic event. the community came together. >> i have been of the opinion that it needs to be an established memorial. i would like to certainly rename a portion of this street to the or those whoway lost her life on that day. >> it
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,rovides a sense of remembrance their lives and what they did for the community. it will always be near and dear to us. thinking that a prayer chapel or serenity document is around this area. >> our community is resilient. we have really adopted the san bernardino strong motto. . our feeling is that we have come together, united, irrespective, and rebuilding. >> as we unite behind the memorial we look forward to the future. all weekend american history san bernardino, california. in 1936 hot dog stand was
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opened, later expanding into the first taco bell. posted by our time warner and charter partners, we recently visited many sites so it -- showcasing the rich history of the city. learn more about it all weekend. here on american history tv. >> the first experience that mormons had with the southern california area was there was a call for individuals to help with the mexican-american war occurring between 1846 and 1848. the mormon church raise a group of a few hundred men and sent them to southern california. they reached san diego admission up comingy and ended into the area, purchasing items
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from different ranch owners. one of the owners they purchased was the riverside ranch owner in san bernardino. they first got a glimpse of the area there. what put the individuals apart from those that came here for the war but ended up going back ,o utah, southern california convincing the president of the church, brigham young, to purchase one of the ranches in the area. that is how they came back as a raised a few hundred individuals over 400. it was settled in the area. originally they were going to purchase a different rancho, which file through. but it gave the mormons the opportunity to purchase the other rancho.
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that is how they wound up being the founders. there were a lot of deserts to travel through. did -- many different types of terrain. specifically here there was a path to you through but it's very difficult. we were told the west into the ingeniouslyss and traveling that route. easy, but easier than methods taken in the past. and in 1854 he made to chip here to southern california in the
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wagon behind me. a very perilous journey, taking a wagon seven -- several hundred >> -- several hundred miles. theyrst thing they did was built a few houses in what is now downtown. built out of adobe. first and they was an uprising. san luis obispo to further north. the idea was that because of the european intrusion, the mayors weren't happy. fort.rmons built a a stockade. lived. where they
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for about a year. although there were some skirmishes, there was nothing that serious that never materialized. eventually after a year plans throughout the streets of san bernardino. once they lay out the streets it was probably 1853 when the county was formed. jefferson was one of the most spearheading an important people. fred harris, a young teenager, helped out. in later years he became very instrumental. the one that probably encourage brigham young to have a colony initially in chino. they went back and forth and knew that to come here he was kind of the leader of the mormon family coming out. he spearheaded the effort to go
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for it. he also was instrumental in building a logging road of the mountain to the town of crestline. after about 10 days they were able to build a 12 mile road. no now as a paved road. up to the go mountain, bring down trees and logs. they were used for framing of the houses, but they would also send them over to the lost edges as they traded. however, in 1867, after six years brigham young recalled the faithful back to salt lake. there were a variety reasons he did so.
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probably for different reasons, but the warm weather was one. going into the gold fields. it worked, but it was short-lived. had stayed. like i mentioned, 60% of the town, the public went back. those that stayed, they had their reasons. and this is surmising, but it's probably because faith wise maybe it was a bit of the tight reins of brigham young or maybe it was because of the warm , oldte of california opportunities with a lot of mistakes. they became prominent pioneers years later. brigham young did not have to recall back to salt lake, and if he didn't, what would san bernardino be like now? i spoke to a wonderful historian
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about this. leo lineman. a member of the church of latter-day saints. great, great. great-grandfather was one of the two mormon apostles. i asked him -- what do you think the valley would have and like if it wasn't for the recall? he said that it probably would have been like los angeles. the place would have really grown. because of the work ethic that was so strong. and he called in a mixed bag. the assignment really grew into a strong town. >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring san bernardino, california. the name derives from the italian priest, san bernardino of siena.
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the city staff recently visited many states showcasing the history. learn more all weekend here on american history tv. >> we are inside of the santa fe depot. we represent the railroad history and local history of the valley. construction was completed in 1918, replacing a wooden structure that was 100 yards east of here that burned in 1960. why was it built so much longer -- larger than it needed to be? they decided to how the division headquarters at this location at that time, making it an industrial area. there were a number of peripheral businesses that supported the railroad. close to 2000 people were employed here. the map here, there were two
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yards. anb. the lower part shows the depot and the switching tracks. the upper part of the map shows the shop facilities. the largest facilities west of topeka. they could rebuild any engine or locomotive. .epair cars anything they needed to maintain could read on here. some of the items, like a santa fe lincoln pain, stay on here. some of the tools and machine but in the next case, the travels the only way to transcontinental was the railroad. 26 passenger trains per day came
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through san bernardino. 13 eastbound, 13 west wound. the railway passenger service was the only way to commute from the east to the west. now that has sort of been taken over by airports. the bigger the depot, the more they had to accommodate a lot of people with restaurants and other services. in this particular one we had to harvey houses. the harvey house was open 24 hours per day. there was arn end more deluxe dining area that was open for dinners. fred harvey was a restaurant here. in 1876 he opened his first in kansas with the agreement from the santa fe railway. eventually he took over and operated all the restaurants for the railroad with santa fe on the route out here.
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he was also responsible for a lot of the food that was served on the dining cars of the train. we have different china here from different locations along the route. we have silverware that has fred harvey on it. we have a milk bottle that fred harvey had. he would produce his own milk, menus, and other artifacts here. 12 bedrooms where the harvey girls would stay. the harvey girls had their certain uniforms they would use. they were the waitresses in the harvey house. if you were a harvey girl, we would tell -- we were told, you had to live here and you weren't supposed to date. ofht now we are in a replica a wayside station. where they have a telegraph .ffice for issuing orders all of the stations were there.
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there was a major signing. it was one of these depots with the bay window just like this. train owner operator would sit here in front of this typewriter and whenever the dispatcher had in order for a train that was coming in either direction, he would get a hold of the operator and have the order -- the train owner operator copy in order on this form to issue instructions to the train about meeting and passing other trains or anything restricting track conditions where it was necessary to slow down. before, before the advent of the telephone they always -- the train owner operator always had morse. as it was being sent, the
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operator would get his typewriter out and put the form in there and type of the orders for the train. orse lights that you see you were to let the train owner operator know that a train was approaching. when either of the lights went out, it told the operator that a train was about six miles away and then the train owner operator would then get a hold of the dispatcher and let the dispatcher know, in case the dispatcher had any orders for the train. ordersdispatcher had after they were typed up, these handles were to stop. they would remain at stop unless the dispatcher had in order. , theere were no orders
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train owner operator would go back and give the train at clear signal. that meant that the train could go without stopping. otherwise they had to stop until they did receive orders. if the dispatcher had orders for the train, the operator would type them up, hold them up, and put them in this hoop. and then when the train came by in thed hold it up engineer, brakemen, or firemen would scoop it up with his hand through the hoop. >> this is called the ctc machine. it's made by union switch and signal, a company from the 50's. it was installed in the dispatcher's office in fresno, california. it controlled from fresno on this end clear up to stockton on that end.
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what it does is you can see that there is a mainline here all the way through it keeps track of where the trains are. to makes the dispatcher meetings with other trains going the opposite direction or taking a slower train by putting the inferior train on the side. that's control with these levers. the upper and lower end of the switches, the next row are the signals and then they are some in between that lineup according to these controlled signals. it's a more efficient way to theyand pass trains before used the telegraph office, where there used to be an office like that in almost every one of these towns along the way. they would get a written train order that told them where to
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meet or pass and gave them and in case you missed them. >> santa fe moved out the early 90's and then they constructed the inner facility here. most of the major repair now is done in barstow. the switching is done in barstow. this was the switching and diesel repair facility for the time. it was a major impact on the community. a loss of jobs. itthe peripheral business was the supplied to santa fe. >> our charter and time warner cable partners worked with c-span's city tours staff when they travel to san bernardino, california, to restore its is. the first mcdonald's opened in
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1940 there. the museum was created at -- by .he original >> for swat officers arriving on the scene. they're all going to be deployed inside and around the buildings. >> i was walking off the floor. i had just walked off. oddly enough we had just taken a vote in the majority have theked democrats advancing idea that those evil on the terror lot -- terror watchlist should not be allowed to carry firearms. my phone started buzzing from congress in members i would hear
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from back home. office, and to the once they got to see where it was i reached out to local leaders, including the police chief, who confirmed what was going on. i was on the first flight back and was able to join the press conference in the evening. and receive updates from law enforcement officials throughout the preceding days. i think the aftermath is a resilient community. pushed down in the past, they continue to you back up. the wakeat we saw in of this tragedy. people coming together and going to be aren't divided as a community. we will continue to work with each other. we won't be afraid of coming together.
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across thethnicity region, they were able to do that. attending many interfaith peoplengs, bringing together. i remember that that was so to the healing process. i think it has also made us more aware of our surroundings. it's made it real. when we talk about terrorism, the fight against terror, it's not something in the abstract anymore. something that across the country means something. this is a big city here that was attacked. this could happen anywhere. that is what i heard from my colleagues in congress. folks on the both sides of the aisle. saying that it could happen anywhere. i think that this -- that the support for my colleagues has been incredible in offering support to our community as we
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heal. the overtime in the manpower that was devoted, the 16 federal agencies in this event, i hope that 100% of the costs in the aftermath could be picked up by the federal government. it would be in the millions somewhere. maybe $4 million to $10 million, shifts picked up in overtime. the transporting of victims by helicopter in by ambulance to local facilities. those are the things i think the federal government should help and i hopen pay for that san bernardino receives a fair share as well. , someoneig supporter who spoke often about the role that gun violence plays in our communities before the tragedy.
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this was personal for me. brother was a probation officer who responded to the incident. he was stationed a couple of miles from where we are, helping to protect those employees from the regional center. they were transported to safety. .t became very real for me in the context of what we are fighting for here in protecting our country against terrorism and making sure that illegal guns have no place in our community. that we do simple things that protect the community. universal background checks. weapons in our communities. those are things that we can do. it is incumbent upon us to do something. something that will provide increased safety and the community. if there has been one law or bill that i could have authored or pass that would have protected this community, it's important for all of us to play
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a role in mcnish or our communities are safe in the future. >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring san bernardino, california. at thentains located highest peak, the city tours staff recently visited many sites showcasing the history. learn more about the history all weekend here on american history tv. >> the day started early on in the 1940's. in the 1950 it became the norton air force base. named after an air force captain killed in france bombing mission. it became norton air force base. era,right at the vietnam starting with a base transition to the 63rd military airlift
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wing. base.s introduced to the it became a major logistics supply hub. but their mission also encompassed worldwide. they were the fedex or ups of the early days on the military side. they couldn't deliver quite as quickly. it's interesting to have the norton air force base museum at the former air force base. it's right in the center of where things happened. it used to be a noncommissioned officers club. this little portion of it has been designated as museum for the base. we knew that there were quite a , if you will, still living in the greater in
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land empire. if you ask about their time here at norton, bringing it back to the museum, donating it to the museum, i told them that they have this stuff in the closet. they couldn't take it with them on the next assignment. so, what are you going to do with it? here it all is. corner as parte of the 141. you would use it are dropping of paratroopers. inside the airplane, it electrically moves outside into the slipstream. so that the paratroopers can jump away from airplane without striking it. again, this was donated by an , it's interesting how he got it or where he kept it
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for 20 years. but there it is. next we have footlockers. these were annotated in 1951. this is where you put your belongings, next year been to. at the foot of your bed here, from the over here is a display of some of the items that you would find inside the cop hit of the airplane. this is known as the yoke or steering wheel. this is the landing gear handle the puts the landing gear up and down. this is an oxygen regulator. every seat in the cockpit that has someone set there, there was an oxygen regulator next to them. this is known as an office lamp. it is a bright flashlight used for signaling. day, it was permissible to smoke in the airplane and these are the ashtrays that were found in the cockpit itself.
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the metal pedal cushions that were found on the rudder pedals. to keepan ni skit strip you from slipping if you spill the coffee. and down here is the bag that the crews used to carry their flight manuals in. we have an actual c-141 will -- windshield. if you look at the size and the thickness of it, it is two-and-a-half inches thick. this is an actual windshield out of a 1:41 p.m. instead of throwing it away, whoever did the work decided to take it home -- make a table out of it and ended up here in the museum. ok, this display is one of the first displays we have here at the museum. --is of colonel kathy look she was one of the first group
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of women to become pilots in the air force. she was chosen to come here to norton and fly the 141. she became an aircraft commander andwas able to take a plane a crew under her charge throughout the world. she was the first woman here at andon to make that rank that responsibility as being an aircraft commander. this highlights some of her career and milestones. when she became aircraft commander, that is quite a feather in her cap. when she made that milestone, therefore's wasn't quite -- the air force wasn't quite ready for women in that role. so the certificate that was "his to her says professional background," and they scratched out "his." but nothing stopped her.
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hugeas able to make that step for women in the air force. in this corner, what we have here is one of our more interesting displays. it features the return of the s from vietnam, from hanoi, back to freedom. norton provided the airplane and the aircrew that brought our soldiers and sailors back home after the war. they took them from hanoi to the philippines, clarke air force base in the philippines. they wenthere, after through physical evaluations and psychological evaluations, they were brought back to the united states and tried to go to base his closest to their home. it is a historic airplane now at the air force museum in wright-patterson air force base, ohio.
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the this close because that's basease closed -- the closed. this display is that to the closure of norton. it shows the last flag that flew over the headquarters building during the closing ceremony. they had a commemorative wine bottle given to each of the purchase of bentz. and this is the memorabilia -- each of the participants. and this is the memorabilia highlighted here. and this is the universe -- the uniform of colonel underwood. colonel underwood is still in the local area and still a supporter of the museum. closed, the san bernadino and the inland empire lost a lot of jobs, about 8000
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to 10,000 military and about the civilian jobs left to greater area and went on to other employment or they retired here and called their careers over. base was transitioned into the san bernadino international airport. tohas taken a while for it come along and it is still a rose that is blossoming. can long, all we american history tv is joining our charter and time warner cable partners to showcase the history of san bernardino, california. to learn more about the cities on our current tour, visit www.c-span.org/citiestour. we continue now with a look at our history of san bernardino.
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>> right now, we are at the 66 cafen at the route built in 1962. the first restaurant you would come to after crossing the mojave desert before going into the san bernardino valley. when the freeway came through, it had a tremendous impact on route 66 in a negative way. and also for many towns that were small to begin with that would thrive on route 66 emma people stopping by. it killed them. destroyed the town's. around 1990, a man named michael wallace wrote a book about route 66, the mother road. it is a wonderful book. i think that book triggered this
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renaissance of route 66. established,66 was really everybody from the east , the to the west coast winding roads coming across the country. about 1910 was when they started coming up with the idea of connecting wagon roads to bring people from the east coast out to california. route4, they called this the national old trails road. basically, it was a connection of old wagon roads that weren't always great. they were herky-jerky. they're the ones that brought the first people through. then when written 66 came up in 1926, it became more of a straighter route. it was a cleaner route. it extended from basically near chicago, illinois to santa
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monica, california. after traveling through miles and miles of desert, as there are not a lot of towns, there were a lot of little tiny towns. it had a gas station and a motel. not much else. then you go to barstow and it got a little bigger, a larger town. then victorville was small at the time. and then through the cajon pass and the san bernardino valley, which is really the first large city you come to. >> we just followed route 66 along for home boulevard and cajon vernon -- along the hom boulevard and mount vernon avenue. during the heyday of route 66, all along the route from illinois to california, there cafesumerous mom-and-pop and right colored
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attractions and all kinds of neat stuff, anything to grab your attention. there were at least seven wigwam motels throughout the southwest. and i think one in the midwest, in illinois. this is one of the few. building upon the reputation of route 66 and what it meant to the city, and even though route 66 is not the main highway anymore, the interstates have taken over, the nostalgia of route 66 is stronger now than ever. this is a car town. route 66 means automobile. and san bernadino was all part of that. route 66 the rendezvous for a number of years. we have a modified version of that now. and we want to continue that and try to revitalize sambar 19 ok it has been through some rough times lately.
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we went through a bankruptcy. we had the terrorist attack last december. evolved here.dino we have a lot of community support that wants to take back this town. route the emphasis is on 66. announcer: all weekend, american history tv is featuring san bernadino, caliph you. in 1946, glenn bell opened a restaurant called glenn bell's drive-in. and then he opened the first taco bell in 1962. posted by our charter and time warner cable partners, c-span's cities to her staff recently visited many sites showcasing the city's rich history. learn more about san bernadino all weekend here on american history tv.
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>> if i walk in, i know those chickens are about to pop. >> i came to san bernardino in 1986 and open my own rotisserie chicken chain. the same year i came to town, a book came out talking about the rise of mcdonald. the first chapter said, yes, there was a mcdonald's in cymer and i do, but there is nothing there. --new all about ray clarke in san bernardino, but there is nothing there. i knew all about ray clarke. the property came up for sale in 1998. i jumped and i decided to open a museum. the two brothers came to san bernardino in 1940 and they opened up a mcdonald's barbecue.
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they had to cook their meets 24 hours. so they were cooking all night, overnight and it became a grind. and they were getting older and they realized that most of the food they sold was hamburgers. so they decided to close and reopen as mcdonald's hamburgers. the brothers saw the fact that all the young kids, actually baby boomers, the war just ended . there were a tremendous amount of babies being born and they saw the future. little kids growing up. so that's why they cater to them. [indiscernible] so they sold hamburgers and cheeseburgers and french fries and sodas. upn the rose opened mcdonald's hamburgers, they needed specialized equipment for what they wanted. so they got them to invent
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portion control dispensers. an example of one. they donated it to us. squeeze forone ketchup and one for an exact amount of mustard. they used that system all the way up to the 1980's, the exact same dispensers. it was very efficient because, prior to that, when they needed a cook and they had fast food, if they like catch up, they put extra ketchup. if they didn't like mustard, they put less. so they wanted every hamburger to come out exactly the same. so the head portion control. there were the first ones to ever do that. cooked 20 hamburgers at a time instead of one hamburger patty they needed special spatulas. we even have some of the
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original spatulas that were donated to us. the clip it on the market at the time was light-duty. they needed everything heavy duty to handle mass production. so they made all the equipment to suit their needs. ray clarke was a salesman. he was based in chicago. in the early days, when he sold shakes, he had to put out a mixture. he had to have a mixer to mix it all up together and get the right consistency. multi-mixers, one the multi-mixer the had eight blades. some mcdonald's brothers were using five or six or seven machines at one time. ray crawford was selling all of these machines and said, what the heck, what are they doing? if i can go find out what they are doing, i could show other people had to do the same and i will sell more mixers. so he came to san bernardino
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unannounced in 1953. he sat across the street and he watched the business. he didn't tell the brothers he was coming. he saw the lines of people. by that time, rate was already in his 50's. was an entrepreneur. he was searching for something. he didn't know what it was. when he saw the lines of people, he instantly knew this was the switch. he taught to the brothers. he didn't talk about the multi-mixer. he talked to them about letting him be a franchisee. he talked them into being a franchisee so he opened his first mcdonald's in illinois. , the sales guy, he made it mcdonald's number one. so that made some confusion until the internet came. the brothers were older. they were in the twilight of their business career. ray clarke, even a he was
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getting up in age, he wanted to switch to something to leave his legacy. grow -- he saw the future. he saw the boomers. the masterbecame franchisor and he was said letting those out. -- subletting those out. he would pick locations near schools and churches because he knew that his work is would be. he is trying to raise the -- grow the company and lay the groundwork. houndingrothers kept him because they did not want to be bothered because they were making all this money. he knew he had to buy them out. so he set a price. the brothers wanted a million dollars each after taxes. it came out the $2.7 million to cover the taxes. but the problem was, when ray
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clarke was planning to do the deal, the brothers said the deal doesn't include this property. they could just buy the name. so ray clarke was very angry. so that's why he never talked about the brothers the rest of his life. it was a bitter ending to the partnership. this is the birthplace of modern fast food. mcdonald's became the biggest food company in the world. it all started right here. if i didn't buy this property, it would have disappeared. it is already bad that the original two buildings were torn down. the last one was torn down in 1972. thehat is remaining is original street sign. it is not restored yet. but this is the idea of where it all started. it has a mcdonald's story. something good or bad or something with a little, or even they walk -- oh, i remember that toy. what i am tried to do is have a
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little something for everybody. american: all weekend, history tv is featuring san bernardino california. the name san bernardino derives from the italian priest san bernadino of siena. c-span city tour staff visited many sites showcasing the city's history. learn more about san bernadino all weekend, here on american history tv. announcer: in 1972, the u.s. environmental protection agency banned most uses of the insecticide ddt due to its affect on plants and animals, including large bird populations. we visited the san bernardino county museum to see how its collection of bird eggs led to the study and the ban of ddt. we are at the san bernardino county museum in redlands
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california. and we are in our water bird exhibit. one of our main bird collectors is jean curtis -- jean cardiff. he is still a curator emeritus here. we also have wilson hannah's a collection, which he started in the late 1800s, into the early 1900s. our a election's third-largest in the united states and fifth-largest in the world. i think the fact that we have such a large eggs collection was known in the or cannot -- ornithology world or the biology world. when researchers were , sanrching a pre-ddt bernardino county museum would be a natural place to ask to study their eggs just because of our large connection -- large collection and the fact that it spans many, many years before ddt was introduced into the
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environment. wilson hannah lived in california since 1890. he started very young in life and most of the eggs were collected in southern california. after the second world war, ddt was actually used for some purpose in germany back in a particular time. and it was so effective on killing insects and things, agricultural people and health people in this country decided to try it here.
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it was very effective in controlling flies and insects and pests like that. i remember when they sprayed a lot of the rivers in southern california with ddt to remove -- of the farming communities use it for lots of different insect pests. it was so effective in getting rid of mosquitoes. but, people didn't realize what it was doing to themselves until we started seeing effects of wildlife starting to decline. no one really knew why the wildlife was declining. there was one instance of when hanna was working with the california river, they found a -- they fed on a kelli
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caterpillar which was the entire food supply for the yellow billed cuckoo. it collapsed, so the food collapsed. and those birds are gone from southern california now completely over a number of years. this was an example of what can happen when it directly affects the food supply. it affected the peregrine falcons. they started looking at why the peregrine falcons collapsed. they started investigating and they found one of the reasons the eggs were thin and would crash under the bird's weight when they were sitting on the eggs, therefore, the eggs were failing. nests were failing.
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ddt was the cause. the osprey was one of the hardest hit birds. their eggs are very beautiful. everyone is different. they are really great. they were a work of art, kind of thing. but they disappeared from the southwest. they persisted in baja, california where you did not have a lot of agriculture, but a lot of problems with ddt. they survived down there. it has taken several decades for them to go back into the southwest in places like san diego along the coast. dr. brown worked with wilson hanna investigating all that you see on the table.
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it was cleaned out completely. they would measure the thickness of the egg. it is a tedious job that had to be done carefully. >> a number of things occurred after 1962. the environmental defense fund was formed as was the epa. once those were developed through the u.s. government, there were congress congressional hearings held for
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eight months with over 120 witnesses and over 300 pieces of evidence. in the hearings, it would have been one of the pieces of evidence. in december 31 of 1972, the epa pretty much band ddt except for emergency uses. they would get a permission and emergency situations to control insect populations within the united states, but as an overall ban, december 31, 1972, the epa banned ddt. the fact that we are able to maintain this in pristine condition and for anyone to come and and look at it again, that
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is really amazing to have that kind of access. i think any scientific research that can give conclusive results helps the general public to understand the long-lasting effects of pesticides or anything we are using in our environment. this a collection, which was collected before the use of ddt, was instrumental in giving a sample of eggs to study to compare to eggs post ddt. our cities to her staff recently traveled to san bernardino, california to learn about its rich history. learn more about san bernadino and other stops on our two at
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www.c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv all weekend, everybody can on c-span3. announcer: next, holocaust survivor and a gross recalls her family's experiences after hungary that included her hometown and then imposed anti-semitic laws. the family was confined, along with other jews to a ghetto when nazi germany occupied hungary. they were transported to the office which concentration camp in poland and the -- auschwitz concentration camp in poland and then later forced to perform hard labor. this is a little over an hour. >> the life stories of holocaust survivors transcend decades. but you are about to hear from anna is one individual account of the holocaust.

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