tv Politics and Public Policy Today CSPAN July 21, 2016 4:31pm-7:01pm EDT
>> i'm wondering how you were introduced to her and also was that an excerpt from your book? >> no. so how did i first come to find belle la follette and was it a excerpt. i put together this just for you. but i wrote a biography of robert la follette when i was in graduate school. i had never heard of him. i read this paragraph about this man who did all these things politically that i approved of. he was very liberal and able to achieve a lot of meaningful reform, the direct election of senators, a lot of protection of workers, the stuff that was really changing people's lives on a daily basis for the good. i was interested in why someone who had been such a successful senator and who really wanted to be president waensn't able to
parlay that into the presidency. once you get interested in him the la follettes write to each other every day and save every scrap of paper. you have so much information. and you can't really do him without her. because he is so -- he just -- he loves her so much and all of these things she's saying is getting a lot of criticism and he doesn't care. he never says to her once could you tone it down. the stuff about peace, because she pushed him hard to vote against u.s. entry into world war i. she was struggling. he said, you know, that la follette jr. said mom you have to come, you have to be with him. he can't take the strain. he was very dependent upon her. once you get into him, then you get into her. then you get into the children. because they all write to each other every five minutes too. it's a package deal. you can't just do one la
follette. >> could you say something about robert la follette jr. and his career in the u.s. senate was like. i presume he was one of the so-called isolationist senators, correct me if i'm wrong. >> well, junior, like -- what was la follette jr. like as a senator? i would first of all say la follette jr. did not want to be a senator. this was not his passion. this was his obligation as a member of his family. his younger brother wanted desperately to be senator but he was too young, only junior had reached the age of requirement. so he is a dutiful senator. yes, he opposes u.s. entry into world war i, he lines up in support of the war. he's a solid senator. he does good work. all of these years, but he hates
campaigning. at one point he's campaigning someone brays out from the audience, you're not as good as your pa and you never will be. and he said no one knows that better than i my friend. no one knows that better than i. he does his duty and stays in the senate for 21 years. and then he's supposed to go back to wisconsin and do some campaigning, so he doesn't. and is defeated by joe mccarthy. and which as you can imagine is devastating for a great progressive. and his health is impaired and he talks about how he let his father down. he's very upset. and he struggles for a few years and in the end he's a suicide. it's a very sad story. >> i used to live in washington, d.c. near the alice paul house, which president obama just this
week has dedicated the belmont paul house there. i wonder if you -- i also used to live in wisconsin for a couple of years. so i was curious, do you have any tidbits to add about the relationship between allen paic and her efforts and mrs. la follette? >> i'm delighted to comment on tidbits between la follette and paul because they're fascinating. alice paul as many of you may know is an american she sort of got her suffrage training in britain where she was shouting out at politicians and getting arrested. and they were force feeding her and so forth. she really believed this was the way to go. you had to get attention, you had to get headlines. belle la follette is so polite. that just seems so -- she doesn't approve of this method. then she says every day she's going to congress to, you know,
sit in the gallery and listen. she walks by what are called the silent centilsentinels. and she starts thinking maybe alice paul is on to something. and she admires them and her writing goes from sort of a scolding tone of this is going to put people off and don't do it. to more of a perhaps we do need to be more aggressive. so she does come to admire paul. then after women get the vote, they have a bit of a break. because alice paul wants only the equal rights amendment and nothing else. belle la follette says we still need to campaign for rights for our working sisters, to impruov conditions we need other things as well. alice paul says equal right amendment and that's it. they start off, they come back together and then they separate again.
>> there was a meaningful relationship between belle and elizabeth kate stanton. and being a secularist as to whether belle was influenced by stanton. >> so what kind of a relationship if any did belle la follette have with elizabeth katie stanton. i can't trace a relationship there. she never said anything about the feminist bible i ever saw. i know that she got very impatient with women like elizabe elizabe elizabeth katie stanton who were willing to throw other races under the bus to get women's rights. she had very little patience for that. but i don't recall. she talks in general terms about other great women leaders but nothing about stanton in particular. >> nothing with susan b. anthony.
>> no. she talks about a couple of them, you know, speaking in wisconsin on tours and so forth. she was clearly, of course aware of them and so on. she really didn't tend to spend a lot of time focusing on the past. she was really dedicated on getting things done today. yeah. >> i am just discovering and enjoying learning about mother jones. did belle la follette know or appreciate or -- i know the style is so completely different. but i hope she appreciated what mother jones did. >> i have never read any -- i've never found anything in belle la follette's writings about mother
jones. which doesn't mean that it isn't there it means i haven't found them. i haven't seen that. again, i mean, when she gives her speeches she rarely harkens back to the past. you know -- [ inaudible ] she was very supportive of labor towards the end of her papers there are some wonderful tributes from big unions and so forth writing not to her husband but to her. thanking her on support of organized labor and the stance she took for them. yeah. yeah. >> let me once more on behalf of everybody thank you for the brilliant presentation you have made. >> thank you all very much. [ applause ]
>> now i'm talking about the book. >> let's talk about the books. >> you will buy these or be shot. [ inaudible ] >> i would just to give you a little incentive they're cheaper here than amazon. if you're ever going to buy them this would be the time to do so. >> that's pretty good. amazon will be discounting later on. >> this is cheaper than the amazon discount i'm giving you my author's discount. >> you get a precious valuable signature. >> my husband says the unsigned ones are rarer and more valuable. actually can you hand me that? i'm still -- so this is beyond nature's housekeepers. this is american women and environmental history. this is oxford university press. i got very impatient with some feminist issues. and i got tired offend hearing
about how women were more vie t environmentally attuned than men which i think is not true genetically. why do men and women respond differently? why have they in american history responded differently to the environment over time? from the beginning of the precolonial period up to the present. so i really sort of an examination of how what we're told it means to be a man or a woman. men are naturally this way. women are naturally that way. this really says how does that get constructed. where do the ideas come from. one quick example. i have some boy scout manuals and girl scout manuals. boys are told that the camp fire represents camaraderie and battlefield. girls are told it represents hearth and home. it's a fire for crying out loud. but the best thing about this book i want to tell you is this is my mother-in-law when she was 16 years old at ranch camp.
just for the cover alone i just absolutely adore this cover. i think it's so fabulous. and i was talking to the editor about what i wanted on the cover. i said let me tell you what i want on the cover. we were talking on the phone. we had the pictures all set out. and he said, look, you know, you may suggest but the cover is the most important marketing tool that we have. you know, you can suggest but we will decide. and i said, okay, i want to cow girl. he's it's pretty freaking good i think we're going with that. that was how i got the cover. so, yes, there's a biography of bob and one of belle and then this one as well. >> okay. i hope your minds are not closed to the idea of buying the books.
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on lectures in history, boston college professor heather cox richardson teaches a class on the new roles women assumed during the late 19th century. she described the gains women made and looks at the growth of political organizations run by women that focused on issues like prohibition and women's suffrage. this class is just over an hour. let's go ahead and start. as you know the theme of this course comes from the idea that the civil war dramatically changes american history because what it really does is it destroyed everything everybody believed about the relationship between america and the american government. so once the war is over and this is a good day to talk about this, today is the anniversary of the firing on fort sumter. everybody has ideas of what the country is supposed to become.
african-american men who fought for the union had ideas about what america should be and white southerners had ideas about what america should be. the northerners had ideas. the indians and chinese who were out west had ideas about what america should be. and certainly the northern men who had fault faought and won t had ideas. the critical question of what it was going to be was who was going to have a say in it. we've gone through that as well. who had a say in what that new nation was going to be was going to have a dramatic effect on what it eventually became. today i want to talk about congresswomwomen and their role in what was the reconstruction the rebuilding of the north, south and west into a new nation in the wake of the civil war. and the story of women is way more crucial to that story than most people realize. most people when they think about women's rights and women's
roles in america start here. with the seneca falls convention of 1848. when a number of women came together in seneca falls, new york, to talk about women's rights. and the idea of rights for women came out of the abolitionist movement in 1840 when a number of female abolitionists went to london for the first anti-slavery convention. while they were there to speak about women rights the women were not allowed to speak. they had to sit in the gallery and were not allowed to talk. a number of them get talking and they say this is not right. that if really people are supposed to be free and equal, that women should have rights as well. and out of that comes the organization of the seneca falls convention in 1848. and this is the group of people who issue the declaration of sentiments which is based on the
declaration of independence but calls for rights for women and tries to fight back against what they consider the oppression of men. you all learn about this. and everybody talks about this being the beginning of women's rights in america. and it is. it's an important symbolic moment. essentially, after 1848 with the declaration of sentiments and the seneca falls convention, nothing happens. it happens in new york, new york's got a lot of other things going on. they're fighting a battle over property rights in new york. there's a lot of things going on in the east, especially in the northeast in the 1840's and 50's. one person looks at the convention and says, you know, it's almost as if, you know, we're talking about martians voting and having rights. it's not on people's radar screens. at a national level. and not a lot of changes after the declaration of sentiments. the real change for women and for women's rights comes not out of the declaration of sentiments
in 1848 but out of the american civil war. we talked some in this class about that. women's roles changed during the civil war dramatically. so they go into the war both in the north and the south believing that they are going to be able really to maintain the roles they had before the civil war. that breaks down almost immediately. you know, they start with the idea they're going to be help meet if you will and very quickly women have to take over a whole new set of roles during the civil war. so first of all, they begin by supporting the troops. and both in the north and the south. and especially in the north that quickly becomes taking on very public roles. women in the north had had public roles before because of the abolitionist movement and had gotten them into politics. during the civil war the roles of women take on new dimensions. we have for example women working in the new government jobs, when i talked about the
creation of american money, somebody actually physically had to take those large plates of paper and cut them into bills. and those were women. those were government girls who did the cutting. and actually if you look at these now and sometimes you see them in museums or you can buy them on the internet. if you look at the edges, you can tell when the women were cutting them because by the end of the day they got tired and the edges aren't straight. if you collect them you want the ones with the straight edges. women are working in the government, they're beginning to work as clerks. in the northern fields they're taking over for the men folk who have gone off to war. they're working in factories in the north and the south. and they begin to do a number of things that are not usually part of women's roles. so, for example, we have women getting involved in nursing. which had always been a male, considered a dirty male profession. you get women involved in nursing. this is the point at which nursing becomes a female rather
than a male profession. this is the beginning of the switch to that. as men go off to war you get women involved in teaching, it had always been a male profession. it becomes a pink collar profession. women literally own a piece of the american government. they're buying the bonds on which the government and the military depends. of course, they're sending their sons and their husbands off to fight this war.
they are part of the u.s. government. they supported it with their money, with their lives. they supported it with their sons. they supported it with their efforts and some of them quite literally put their lives on the line for the u.s. government. we have civil war spies, and we have even a few women fighting a civil war soldiers. there's a great story about that, a woman who has discovered many years later when she applies for a pension. and is able to prove that in fact she fought during the civil war. there aren't many of them but they're a great story. so have women especially in the north coming out of this war. they feel like they should have a say in what happens. certainly more of a say than those white southerners that andrew johnson was pardoning at
such an extraordinary rate during 1865. all but about 1,500 of the former confederates had received presidential pardons or had been part of the blanket proclamation. they look at that. don't? and you're going to see a similar pattern incidentally after world war ii when -- it's no coincidence that you get the second wave of women's activism after world war ii after a very set of similar circumstances. coming out of the war, women expect that they're going to be able to have a say in this new reconstructed government. and that of course is not what happens. what happens is coming out of the war, the focus is for various reasons, as we've talked about, is on african-american male suffrage and especially women's suffrageists look at this and they're willing to let that happen, but they also
expect that they are going to be included as well. in a moment, you're going to hear more about julia ward howell. put it this way. when we are writing this 14th amendment, women should be included. if we're talking about citizenship and having a say in society, women belong in that amendment. of course when congress is discussing the 14th amendment at great length, some congressmen introduce the idea that women should be included in the 14th amendment and that they should be considered full citizens with a say in society and they're laughed out. the idea that somehow women should have rights and should be able to participate in american society is just a non-starter in 1868. this so suffragists just really stung. julia ward howell said the civil
war came to an end leaving the slave not only emancipated but endowed with the full dignity of citizenship. the women of the north had greatly helped open the door which admitted him to freedom and safeguard the ballot. was this door to be shut in their face? in 1868, when that door was shut in their face, two really dramatic things happened. two suffrage associations form in america. most of you know from textbooks that these organizations joined together in 1890. most people who look at the advance of women's suffrage across the country really look at that 1890 merger as being crucial. yet, these things come out of the 14th amendment. they come out of the idea that if african-american men should be included in american citizenship, so should women. so should white women, is the people that these women
primarily are concerned with. but women should have a say in american society. so what happens is, first the national women's suffrage association forms. these are women like elizabeth katy stanton and susan b. anthony who was very active in the abolitionist movement. they want a wide number of reforms for american women that are going to level the playing field between men and women with property ownership, divorce laws, the different economic inqualities between the sexes. and they are seen really as radicals. three months later, you get the organization of the american woman's suffrage association. that's a much more moderate group. it's an interesting group for my purposes today because it's formed primarily by lucy stone and julia ward howell. they demanded only the vote with the idea that once you get the vote, you have a say in your
government and you can change the laws if you don't like the laws. now, this is always the part where i want to talk a little bit about julia ward howell. julia ward howell is the same woman who wrote the battle hymn of the republic in 1862. especially through her writing. she's actually a brilliant thinker. her diaries are at harvard. and she is -- she becomes involved in the american woman's suffrage association because she really wants the vote. now, she's a much more moderate character than say elizabeth katy stanton. her husband is abusive and every time she wants to leave him, he says, great, go, you'll never see your kids again. because in this era, children are the property of their fathers. and if women divorce their
husbands, in fact, they can be kept from the kids. so she stays married to him and she tries to continue to have access to the kids. and the great part of this story is, he's really awful to her. i read through her diaries a few years ago. he's really awful to her. he keeps trying to get her to destroy the diaries. that he's really the shining light in the couple because he's a very famous reformer. and i always try to make a point to talk about her and this situation because i want you all to leave this room and for the rest of your lives to remember that julia ward howell is an incredibly important thinker, writer, you're going to hear more about her in a minute. and she was married to some jerk nobody remembers. that's my part for her. all right. so what happens after the
organization of these two suffrage groups to try and push for women to have a say in american society? well, this is the era right after the civil war when legislators are trying to create a world in which equal rights really is the underpinning of the american government. so this is a period when people are talking about everybody having equal rights, everybody should have a say in american society, and they're really trying to expand with the 14th amendment which theoretically includes everybody except indians not taxed, that's an important caveat, important exception. but out west, unlike where seneca falls took place in new york, out west in the organization of those territories that i talked about during the war, those territories that come in the west so quickly, the idea of women's suffrage takes off. in 1869 in wyoming territory,
wyoming territory gives women a vote when they put together their constitution. there are very few women in wyoming territory, i promise you. but it gives women the vote with the idea that in these new western territories, women should have the right to have a say in the construction of that society. takes off. the next year, in 1870, utah gives women the vote. so about 1,000 women in wyoming. there's about 17,000 in utah. and they give women the vote in utah in 1870 because there is a referendum coming up on whether or not polygamy should be included in the state laws. and the expectation of the legislators who include the women is that women will vote against polygamy. that by opening up the vote, you're going to move society forward and of course women will vote against polygamy. women go to the polls in utah, and they vote in favor of polygamy.
that stops the spread of women's suffrage across the west dead for years and years and years. the idea that somehow expanding the vote is going to create a better society hits real trouble when it hits utah and women vote in a way that most of the people who gave them the vote thought that they would not. so this is going to change the idea of women's suffrage spreading state by state, especially through the west, in the early 1870s. still, if you look at that date, women have hope because in 1870, congress is going to be debating a new constitutional amendment to protect african-american voting in the south and that's the 15th amendment. you know about the 15th amendment. it's the one that protects voting. women lobby hard to be included in the 15th amendment. when congress passes and then the states ratify that amendment in 1870, women are not included. when they are not included,
suffragists are furious. they decide they're not going to try to lobby any longer for women's suffrage specifically. what they're going to do is they're going to argue that they are citizens under the 14th amendment because of, of course, they've either been born in america or naturalized in america. so women decide in the presidential election, the tight presidential election of 1872,
women decide that they are going to test their right to vote under the 14th amendment. and across the country in 1872, suffragists try to vote. they will go up to a registrar and have their names enrolled, it's called, and be able to cast ballot or not. in 1872 across the country, they try and do that, and some of them succeed. others do not. there's a really important course case i want you to remember. and that is -- starts in missouri. as you remember, missouri is kind of a mess of a state because it was so evenly divided between confederates and unionists and they've got that 1865 constitution that prohibits democrats from voting, being lawyers, being doctors, being ministers, all those things. so who gets to vote and how the government is going to work in missouri is really a crucial spot in the country. in 1872, a woman named virginia miner tries to register to vote under this idea that she should be able to vote under the 14th amendment. she goes to the registrar and the guy who is at the registrar is a guy named happerset. he refuses to let her register. she sues him. and the case miner v. happerset
is going to work its way through the courts and it's going to be decided by the supreme court in 1875. i'll tell you about that in a minute. but the one you've heard about in this year, in the year of 1872 without probably putting in context, is that susan b. anthony does register to vote. she registers to vote in new york. and she actually casts a ballot in that election. but after she casts a ballot, she is arrested for the crime of voting. that's kind of an interesting concept to get your head around, the crime of voting. the argument about it being a crime to vote, interestingly enough, they get her under the enforcement acts that were put in place to protect african-american voting in the south. but the crime of voting, the argument behind that is that if people who should not have a
right to have a say in american society vote, they're diluting the votes of those people who do have a right to vote. by the time she is arrested in 1872 for voting, susan b. anthony is a very well-known figure. this is very public case and she is very public about it. after she's arrested and then let out on bail, there's a story behind that. but after that happens, she actually goes around her region of new york giving a number of speeches about the fact she's been arrested for the crime of voting. and in the trial, the trial just adds fuel to the fire. because in the trial, what happens is susan b. anthony is the only woman in the courtroom. she is not allowed to testify on her own behalf because she's a woman. and after her lawyer and the prosecuting attorney present
their cases, the judge simply reads the decision he had already written before the trial. and in a -- in a wonderful moment, she watches this happen and she gets up and answers him and she won't shut up. and he says, you need to sit down now, that's enough, you need to stop. she's like, no i'm not going to and she tells him exactly what she thinks of him. it's become such a powerful cause as she's giving these speeches about what happened that it becomes sort of a flashpoint where people look at the question of who really should have a say in american society. and one of the things that anthony says as she's speaking across new york is this. she's so mad at what happened, she says, this government is not a republic. it is an odious aris tock racy. pay attention to how this is
actually punctuated. the right way. she says an ole garky of wealth where the rich govern the poor, on ol gark ki of learning or even of race. where the saxon rules the african might be endured. she's actually okay with the idea of rich people governing the poor. educated people governing the uneducated. but this of sex carries dissension, rebellion into every home in the nation. this should sound familiar because this is 1872 when many people especially in the north are turning against the idea of
laborers having a say in american society. what you're seeing here is once again the switch from the idea that everybody should have a say in american society to the idea that's developing in the 1870s, talked about some in the 1880s that in fact maybe not everybody should have a say in american society. and the question after the 1870s is where do you draw the boundaries and how do you draw the boundaries. and women's roles in this is going to be crucial to drawing the boundaries. all right, so what happens? in 1875, congress -- i'm sorry -- the supreme court hands down the miner v. happerset decision. when you read that for this week, read my version of it because it's a very long kind of boring decision until the very end of it. they go through everything that they can think of that women have done in american history. they say, the question at hand is are women citizens. they say they did this, they did they and they did this, and yes of course they're citizens. but then there's a kicker at the end on f it. the kicker at the end of it is
they say of course women are citizens, by citizenship does not necessarily convey the right to vote. this is a really big deal. because with this decision, the supreme court unhinges citizenship and voting. remember this is reconstruction. and this is 1875 and in 1876, you're going to have a tax on black voting across the south that returns the southern states to the control of white democrats. the idea of women voting is intimately connected to the question of who should have a say in american society. who is a good member of society and who should have a right to participate in the construction of that new nation and the government that rules that nation. meanwhile, if this is the
philosophical argument about who should have a say in american society, women are not sitting home eating bon-bons waiting for this to play out. because of the loss of so many men during the civil war and the dramatic change in the economy -- we talked about the rise of industry, women in factories, the changing agriculture, the push west, the rise of cities, women's roles changed dramatically in the 1860s. you have men dying in huge numbers as well as coming back to their homes from the war crippled, either in body or in mind. and those things open up entire new realms of opportunity for women, both in the north and the south. and african-american women and white women as well as immigrant women. i've talked to you before about
edmonia lewis. she's a great example of somebody for whom the post war years opens up a lot of doors. she shows up in the chicago ex-position of 1893. she is obviously one of our most famous american sculpters. she is african-american and indian. and she especially after the civil war became for many americans a symbol of human rights. the idea that this extraordinarily talented woman happened to come in an african-american and indian skin to many people seemed unimportant compared to her talent. not to everybody, i have to say. but because she is so visible, because she is so popular, she becomes a symbol of what women
can do, what all women can do. she gets a lot of her training actually in rome because there the prejudices are not as strong as they are in america. so she gets a lot more opportunity there and a lot more training there, becomes very famous in rome. by 1873, when i say she's a well-known sculptor, an average farmer let's say made $1 a day, ballpark. not a lot of money. a good living, $300 to $500 a year in that money. in 1873, she had two commissions. those two commissions were worth $50,000 each. uh-huh. in 1877, she was the sculptor grant chose to make his bust. he was very pleased with what she had done. and opening up the door to women in the arts. one of the things she does is she sculpts -- she puts almost a neoclassical look on americans, especially american women, especially american women of color.
so this is very famous, perhaps even more famous is this statute of 1867 called "forever free." she's doing a lot with this here. the chains are broken, but they are not off, which is interesting. for our purposes today, one of the things that is more interesting is that the man in this sculpture is unclothed, but the woman is clothed. which is a real reversal of the idea of african-american women as being somehow objects that are not -- that are not bounded. she's dressed. she is, if you will, taking part in society in a way that he, without clothes, is doing less of.
it's sort of the protected woman and the idea that she can carry -- she can carry herself forward into modern american society, even though he's bigger and more powerful and even though she's at his feet, there's a lot going on in that particular statue. you're looking at this and thinking, never heard of her, my life was complete without hearing about her. it actually wasn't. she is only one of the women in the late 19th century who dramatically change american culture after the civil war. here's a woman i would lay money none of you have ever heard of. she is a novelist after the civil war. first female american author to earn more than $100,000. she proceeds edith wharton of course. the reason i bring her up is because i've talked a lot about
the north so far today. southern women are in an especially pinched spot, if you will. they're from a region of the country that has just lost the civil war and as i've talked about is devastated. economically and psychologically as well. and the man, especially the white man returning home are often really unable to assume positions in society again. so you've got a bunch of women who are financially dependent. they've got to find some way to make money, and they know they're living through a dramatic time in america. and they're talented and they're educated. so coming out of the civil war, you have a huge number of female writers. north and south, by primarily in the south. what they write are things that now don't make it across our radar screen very often, but she is famous as a romance novelist. the southern women worked out a lot of the tensions between the
north and the south through romance novels and through the explorations you could do with romance novels of boundaries, of gender, of economics, of race. a whole lot of these things and they're really, really interesting. you can see some of the ideas of that picked up when we read the virginian. it's about the west mostly, but he is definitely tieing into the incredible popularity of post civil war romance novels. but this lady may be more familiar to you. this is louisa may alcott. sold 35,000 copies in its first year. she really pioneers the way for northern female writers. she actually didn't like writing these books, but they become
enormously popular. one of the reasons they become enormously popular is because her "little women" of 1868 explores a whole bunch of new roles for women. how many of you have read that book? if you think about it, and there's four girls in "little women." only one of them is a traditional stay-at-home precivil war girl and that's beth. beth finally dies of some unspecified illness. i'm making a little bit of fun. but beth is kind of a home body, she doesn't like to leave the house. the other sisters are all modern women, if you will. meg works for a living. doesn't like it all the time, by she works for a living. jo is a writer and wants to -- wants to go out and write the great american novel.
and amy is a sculptor. all three of them are successful in those professions. all three of them end up settling down, getting married, and having children. that's going to be important for the way women reintegrate into this new reconstructed society. so you've got southern writers, northern writers. by the way, we found out, oh probably 20 years ago now, that she also wrote real pot boiler stories which she denigrates in "little women" because they paid better and she preferred them. she wrote a short story called "mask" about women had to hide themselves that people only discovered recently. interesting stuff. people aren't just reading about women. they're watching them. this is anna dickinson. she is the first american woman to address congress, 1864. very, very well-known, very
highly paid. eloquent speaker. she speaks across the country at lectures where she introduces topics. now women are not only taking part in the arts, showing their work, they are actually physically in public informing people. they're taking up public roles after the civil war in a way that really they didn't do before the civil war. so they're very visible. and they're also using that visibility to influence american life. here's julia ward howell again. i told you she'd come back to haunt is today. she increasingly focused on her position as a mother, which is of course what's driving her support for suffrage. her position as a mother to say that women are different than men.
that women really can do society better than men have done. and what really sets her off is not only does she live through the civil war and watch the incredible carnage of the war, remember, she's in washington in the end of '61, seeing the circling fires around washington, seeing one of her friend one of the first people killed in the war. after the franco prugsen war, she decided enough was enough and that women really had to take over world society. she said, after the war, i was visited by a sudden feeling of cruel and unnecessary character of the contest. seemed a return to barbarism. the question forced itself upon me. why don't the mothers of mankind interfere in these matters to prevent the waste of that human life of which they alone know
and bear the cost. so what she does is she issues an appeal to womanhood throughout the world. and she writes to women. she says throughout the world, but it's women with whom she has contact in other countries. and she says, we need to stop war. and she makes this declaration that says, we will not have great questions decided by irrelevant agencies. our husbands shall not come to us wreaking with carnage for ka rests and applause. our sons shall not be taken from us to unlearn all that we have been able to teach them of charity, mercy and patience. we, women of one country, will be too tender of those of another country to allow our sons to be trained to injure theirs.
so this is the idea that women can take on even something like war and stop war if they are willing to exercise their roles as women and as women in politics. while we're on this, this, the idea of joining women together in meetings -- cameron knows where this is going -- becomes mother's days, where mothers, plural, come together to stop war. if you google mother's day, it will tell you it started by anna jarvis in 1908. that's wrong. anna jarvis starts it because she remembers her mother going to these mothers days. this is an attempt to turn it into a day personally for her mother. but the idea of mother's day comes straight out of this post-civil war period with the idea that women as mothers could clean up world politics. isn't that cool? this is where we get mothers days then. this idea of women taking a role
and taking a role because they're different starts really to take off in the 1870s. in the 1860s right up through 1870 you get the idea that women should have rights because all humans should have rights. but during the 1870s you get the growth of this idea that women should have rights because they're different. because women have perspective that is going to be able to do things like stop war and stop the dangerous aspects of industrialization.
so in 1874 we get the creation of the women's christian temperance union. they organize under annie whitenmyer. they're trying to stop excessive drinking. and many cities have theoretically saloons are being regulated, but they're really not. and they're intimately involved in the political system. so the wctu begins to do things like pour liquor into the sewers. sewers don't really take off until the 1880s. but they're actively trying to clean up the cities by getting rid of alcohol. and the wctu becomes incredibly powerful. i'm going to talk about idaho in 1889. literally when the guys are trying to organize the constitution, within days, they're still figuring out who's supposed to sit in what seat, the first people through the door are the wctu saying out here in idaho, we can't have
alcohol. they're there before anybody else shows up. that's one of the first things that goes onto that agenda because the wctu is so very powerful and popular. women are not only taking roles in society in sort of atomized ways. because women have entered the teaching professions and because women have entered nursing and because as i talked about, we've got the rise of middle managers. because women have entered the teaching profession, and because women have entered nursing, and because, as i talked about, we have the rise of middle managers who now have extra money and leisure time, you have a concept coming that women need education. i want to talk about now the rise of women's colleges, because women's colleges are going to be crucial for the late 19th century. and while women have had seminaries and have had educations before this period, people really point to the organization of smith college in 1875 as a real landmark for the education of women. and radcliffe is going to
organize the radcliffe annex, as it's known, is going to organize in 1879. it borrows professors from harvard. it's known as the radcliffe annex. smith has its own professors. what these colleges are doing is they are setting up women, they're recognizing that women have brains and they're educating women. but there's a funny twist to it because they have to overcome the idea that women are weak vessels who, you know, are going to be injured by the application of their brains, that they're going to turn into, you know, sort of stoop shoulders bespectacled people who, you know, can't do a hard day's work. so at the same time that women's colleges are actually quite aggressive about teaching women, many of the same curricula that men have, women also have to take physical education classes. they have to walk, they have to learn how to have the womanly graces some colleges, not universities, have courses in setting tables.
in serving tea, in knowing whether the different places for dishes go. so that women will not be educated out of their sphere. that they'll be able to be good wives and mothers even though they can also read greek. there's a funny hybrid. if anybody is interested in this, one of the things that comes out of the rise of the college movement that i think is fascinating is there's a whole series of novels and novelists that come from the 1870s on that write novels about women's colleges. so you get that whole series called the betty whales series where it's set in a women's college. some of you may have read daddy long legs which is set in the 20th century. a famous fred astaire movie that misses the point of it being a women's college. there's a whole series of people who take on this idea, and women, girls, read them avidly. you see this in the late louisa
may alcott books where jo and her husband start a women's college, and there's a wonderful scene in one of the books where the women -- it eventually becomes a coed college, the women and men sit on a staircase and discuss the use of women's education. while women are learning these things and these tend to be middle-class women whose families had the money and time to pull their girls out of the workforce and send them to school, it's really crucial about these things is they're going to create a body of educated, intelligent, connected women. women begin to form social networks in these colleges, the same way i keep saying to you, your networks from school are going to matter in your lives. so women coming through these colleges are going to have friends. they're going to have friends they took classes with. they're going to have friends they sat up late talking about social issues with. and these networks are going to have a huge effect on the rest
of american society, both in terms of what they do, but also the way they think about what they do. and one of the people who is crucial in this is this woman here, jane addams. now, it's worth mentioning, by the way, that by 1870, so many women are getting involved in education, that by 1870, the majority of people graduating from high school in america are women. that early, women of the majority of high school graduates. only about 2% of americans going to college in that year, but women are already 21% of that group. this is not just a few people. jane addams is from illinois. her father had worked with abraham lincoln. and she was only famous, incidentally, for those eyes. which were supposed -- they were
blue, and you were supposed to basically sink into those eyes. i'll show you a picture of her later in a empty. pretty much anybody who saw jane addams commented on her eyes. but jane addams did a tour of europe when she was a young woman after going to a seminary. not to smith or radcliffe, but to a seminary, a small women's college. and was horrified by what she saw in europe because she toured the tenement districts in london and felt that the people she saw there were hardly even people. she actually likened them to animals, and she said this is not right. this is the modern world, because of course, it was the modern world to her. and there's no way in a modern world that people should live like this. but exactly what one could do about it was not clear. she eventually does what one would expect. she turns to her social networks, to a woman named ellen
gates starr, and the two of them begin to talk about how women could have an effect on the terrible conditions created by the urbanization and the industrialization of america rather than europe. because i have shown you pictures here, this is five points, again, one of these great pictures. five points is the region of new york, the area of new york that is famous in -- gangs of new york. it's famous for being sort of the most dangerous part of new york. another image of five points. so the question is, what can sort of sheltered, middle-class, usually white, not always, but usually white women do to ameliorate the sort of conditions when they can't vote, they're not involved in the economy. what can they do to stop america
from going down this road that we have talked about, where there's very rich and very poor, and everything seems to be falling apart? and the answer is, women see the world differently. they see the world organically. the idea that the way women can heal this split, if you will, is to return the idea of an organic society to america. and the way they can do it is one thing to talk about it, right? but the way they can do it is literally by living in these areas. so in 1889, starr and addams buy what becomes known as hull house. it's in a poor district of chicago, here in chicago. and they begin -- they open it up, and they live there. they don't say this is nasty and we're not going to live there. they actually live there, and they begin to open services for
the immigrants. it's an immigrant community. the immigrants around them. they begin to provide baby-sitting. they begin to talk to people about why their lives are the way they are. they try to clean the debris out of the cities, out of the trash out of the streets. and the garbage especially because they notice that the garbage is carrying flies, and the flies, the areas that have the worst garbage have the most sickness among babies. they take in unwed mothers. they try to provide social services. crucially, because of the social networks i talked about, lots of middle-class women, lots of educated middle-class women come through hull house and later on the henry street settlement started in new york. i'll talk about that in a minute. but they come through hull house, and they start to listen to the immigrants and the poor people around them. about why they're poor. about what their lives are like. and they begin to really to value those immigrants and the immigrant experiences. they start to focus on the old world traditions that are still
in america. they have presentations of needleworkers, for example, from countries where the women are really famous needleworkers. they try to encourage the daughters of these immigrant women to value their mothers' experiences and crucially, when they're trying to figure out why the cities are the way they are, these educated women go out and collect statistics. they go into factories. they find out what people are paid. they find out how many hours they work. they find out what the work is like. they ask questions, they compile charts. and this is the beginning of social work. it was not an accident that the university of chicago in the early 20th century was a place one went to study social work, because this is where the idea had come from. crucially for historians, these documents that these women collected are invaluable. and they are invaluable in the early 20th century when the
supreme court starts to take into consideration conditions of life to make supreme court decisions. so for example, in the brandeis brief, brandeis, when he writes the brandeis brief, which puts together a whole bunch of information about conditions in the country, he actually cribs the material from his sister-in-law, who was a settlement house worker. these were called settlement houses. so the settlement house workers like those at hull house and those at the henry street settlement begin to try to re-create an organic society, which they try to do it in a modern way, by gathering statistics and ideas. and crucially, lillian wald brings to the table nursing skills. she is the one -- jane addams brings political skills and social skills. lillian wald says we really need to improve health. she's the driving force behind getting nurses into schools and
behind improving public health across the country in general. here, i told you i was going to show you another picture of jane addams. this is jane speaking to a number of children, and again, trying to improve the lives of women. this is a new york picture, even though jane addams is from chicago. i like this image because this is what the settlement house workers are trying to address. women and children primarily, but you cannot improve the lives of women and children without improving society as a whole. but they don't stop here. this woman, florence kelley, is actually the daughter of a very famous industrialist congressman from pennsylvania, a guy named pig iron kelley, who is very important in the civil war. i always liked pig iron because he was not necessarily the brightest crayon in the box, but what he was really good at was listening to what everybody else said. if you wanted to know what
people thought and you're in a hurry in the civil war, you can just read pig iron because he sort of synopsizes what everyone says. he's very involved in the republican party and industrialization. then he has this daughter. and she's got issues of her own that she wants to address in american society. she had been at hull house. she had seen the terrible conditions, especially of garment workers, and she wanted to take that on. she wanted to take on industrialization. but how do women take on industrialization? see, now they take on politics, social issues. by the late 19th century, women can take on industrialization as consumers. and florence kelley and josephine shaw lowell begin to advance the idea that women can ameliorate the extraordinarily bad conditions of industrialization, the sweat
shops, the terrible pay, the terrible conditions, by refusing to buy products that are made in sweat shops. and they organize eventually in 1891 the national consumers league. and what they did is they would say we will not buy clothing or goods made under unsafe or unhealthy working conditions. and we demand as consumers, as mothers feeding our children, safe food and drink. we need to have the government guarantee these things for us. by virtue of the fact we're consumers, not virtue of the fact that every human being should have a right to these things, but because we are wives and mothers, and we deserve to have good things ourselves, but we also must protect the other mothers who are out there producing these things. well, if this is women taking on
industrial society, i really only talked about the east, the north and the south here. but there's also the west. and the west is going to play a really important role for how women's roles play out in the late 19th century. this is not a woman on a horse. this is actually that stereo typical image of the cowboy coming out of the civil war, i talked about, with the movement of the cattle up the plains from 1866 onward. what i didn't talk about when i talked about the cowboy was by the 1870s, the image of the cowboy has a certain role for women, if you think about it. this role has gotten picked up in westerns ever since. women are either good, stay-at-home solid wives or they're sort of criminals/prostitutes. in this western image. coming out of the civil war. and that has to do with, as you know, the political image of the american cowboy, but those two images of women, either very
good or very bad, becomes crucial to the way women's images and women's role in american society develops after the civil war. if that's the image of women with the cowboy, the reality of women in the west is very different. women worked very hard in the west. they work in all the ways that they do in the east. they're homesteaders, they're farmers. they work in factories. they work in -- i'm sorry, industries growing in the west. basically, the employment patterns of the west for women replicate those of the east. women work as servants when people can afford them. they do laundry, especially in mining areas. they do all the things they do in the east despite the image in the west that women are essentially nuclear wives or
prostitutes. but there are, of course, i have to include this picture because it's fun. there are, of course, prostitutes in the west. and i like this picture especially because of the liquor and the striped stockings. an image taken of striped stockings and liquor signifies this is a picture of two prostitutes. but this is not the only reality of the west. for western women. yes, there are prostitutes, yes, there are wives, but for the most part, there are women doing everything they did back east. the old saying they had to do everything the men did and still take care of the kids at the same time. so the experiences of western women have an image of being stay-at-home wives but the reality is they're doing everything. although i just said that, because of that image of the cowboy, women really do push the idea and women writers and writers about the west, push the idea very heavily in the late 19th century that good women, good american women, because the cowboy takes on such great power as a symbol of america after the civil war, good american women are housewives.
they're in the home taking care of kids. and i put up laura ingalls wilder here because she's born in 1867. she lives through this period, and she is probably our most influential western writer. you know, i say that and you're thinking, laura ingalls wilder, a western writer? her books have been in print since the 1930s. in my generation, everybody read them. what's fascinating about them, she's from a number of places, but she writes out of south dakota. what's fascinating about them is she wrote them in part because she so thoroughly hated the new deal, but she develops in these books a very specific image of a western woman. and of an american woman, and that's somebody who follows a good man, who stays at home in the home, takes care of the kids. and is rewarded for that good
behavior. what's fascinating to me about that is that's not the life she lived. that's the life she wrote. in fact, at one point, the family lives above a saloon. in fact, she worked for other people. in fact, she makes most of her own money. in fact, pa is kind of a loser, but that's not what she develops in these books. that idea of women being in the home, taking care of kids and being rewarded for that really takes off in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. the reason that i make such a big deal about this looking back to the idea of who should have a say in american society is what i'm suggesting is that by the 1880s, you get the rising idea that women are different, and they should have a say in american society, not because everybody should have equal rights, end of discussion, the way people were talking about in 1866, but rather because they're
wives and mothers. and again, yesterday, i was reading the convention notes of the idaho constitutional convention, and i found this and couldn't resist giving it to you, because here in this convention, when they're talking about women's suffrage, mr. king says, i'm in favor of allowing the largest liberty to every citizen of the united states. now, this is interesting because they have just blanket, without discussion, said chinese and indians can't vote, can't hold office, and can't sit on juries. no discussion. they let that one through. here, he says, i firmly believe that a majority of women of this territory, or in any state of the union are just as well qualified for the right of suffrage as the average man, and here you go. and there are thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands of women, 10,000 times better qualified than one half of the men who vote in these united states. so while i'm setting up here is the idea that at the very moment that americans are trying to
figure out who should have a say in american society, they're cutting out, as you remember, african-americans with the idea that african-americans are corrupting the vote because they want hand-outs from the government. they're cutting out laborers because of the idea that organized labor also wants a hand-out from the government. they're not always even so sure about the robber barrens because they're concerned they are the industrialists are switching the congress and legislatures to unfairly benefit them. there's a lot of people like susan b. anthony said that maybe shouldn't have a say, maybe they shouldn't -- they should be taken into consideration. maybe class should be taken into consideration. maybe education should be taken into consideration.
but women are good wives and mothers. they're going to vote the right way, so long as they are wives and mothers. in 1890, the year after that, mind you, there's no direct correlation. i'm just giving you the line here. the national women's suffrage association, american national women's suffrage association merge to become the national american women's suffrage association in 1890. what they do is focus on getting the suffrage, focus on getting the vote. this alienates a number of the people who had been part of a national women's suffrage
association and they make susan b. anthony the president, the honorary president of this organization. she was an elderly woman, and she sailed for europe shortly after. it's clear her moment has passed and the focus will be on suffrage. crucially, there idea of suffrage and women having a say in american society, by 1890, relies not only on the idea that everybody should have equal rights, but rather that some people belong in american society because of the way they think or who they are. so i have talked about the rise of lynching after 1889 and the idea that certain african-americans should not participate in american society. i have talked about the government using the troops in both homestead and pullman against strikers. women aren't part of that. women want the suffrage insist they should have the suffrage because they're good wives and mothers. they're going to clean up american society. they're not going to ask the government for any special favors. they're on the right team, if you will. and this is a powerful argument.
so, for example, the first woman elected to congress from montana in 1917, is not the first to sit in congress, by the way. you'll hear about the first woman to sit in congress in a few weeks. but she's the first woman elected to congress. she was a member of this organization. this worked. the idea that people should get the vote because they're wives and mothers. and i want to argue that when women get the vote, when they begin to push this idea, they do it very deliberately. so after 1890, after the mississippi constitution i talked about, which restricted the vote based on education or poll taxes in the south, the whole range of new constitutional conventions that led to new constitutions after 1890 in the south, bualso in the north, there are a number of new constitutions that take the vote away from african-american men, from poor men, from immigrants, at the very moment that women are getting the vote. which is really interesting, and women get the vote in part
because they argue they will purify american society. they're not like those people trying to use the government for the wrong ends. they will use the government for good american families. and i love these images because women not only wear white when they're arguing for suffrage, but they also push their babies. look at this image here of them dressed in white, pushing their babies. not because they deserve to have equal because everybody deserves to have equal rights, but because women must participate in an american society, but they must participate in a particular american society. it is no longer an american society based on the idea that every human being by definition should have a say in american society. it is now the idea of an american society in which certain people should have a say in american society because they are defending the idea of a
nuclear family, of a government that is not beholden to any special interests, that in fact will advance that idea that we talked about from lincoln through horacio alger, onto the late 19th century. a middle class idea, if you will, an ideal that the government should not respond to everybody. should not be responding to those african-americans who have been read out of the country, not responding to the organized labors who many accuse of trying to pervert american society. it should respond to a group of people who claim not to want special interests, who claim not to want any help from the government. and paradoxically, because they don't want anything from the government, they are the very ones who should control it. and of course, they may be the ones who can control it, they will control it for their own interest. it's this moment, the rise of an
articulated look at how women should participate in american society, that we crystallize in the late 19th century, the idea of an american middle class. are there any questions about crystal ties idea of an american middle class. all right. let's pick it up on thursday with the long day. dorothy richardson. c-span's convention coverage begins at 7:20. making america one again is the theme of the convention tonight. our pre convention show starts at 5:30 eastern. again, live coverage of the rnc convention dpings at 7:20 eastern.
next on lectures in history, professor kat williams teaches a class about women and life on the home front during world war ii. she describes the role of women in factories and military auxilliary units. she talks about the rise of women's baseball leagues at the time including the all american girl's professional baseball league which operated from 1943 to 1954. her class is about 1:10. are you toward talk about world war ii in the home front? last time you saw a part of a documentary called total war. and that i know some of those images were probably pretty gruesome. one of the reasons i show that to you is to give you a sense of what that concept total war
means. war is never, i don't care what war we're talking about. it is never simply about two armies fighting one another on a battlefield. it is all encompassing. i think that video helped to show that. it gives you an opportunity to see, and i think the news reels and things, the images on there give you an opportunity to see what that was like. what the beginning of world war ii was like in europe and in japan as well. now remember, the beginning of the semester, i told you guys my mantra. i don't know if you remember that or not. but it is all about perspective. that's how i teach. that's how i teach history. that's the, my mantra when it comes to my own research and scholarship. it is all about perspective.
when i talked to you about that at the beginning of the semester, i used world war ii to illustrate that. the images you saw from the battlefield and from the bombings in europe, that's one perspective. if all you do is see that video, if all you do is hear the stories of the infanorymen on the beaches. if all you to is talk about the impact of war on sailors, you're only getting one perspective and you really don't understand world war ii. you might understand one piece of that military history but you don't really understand world war ii. as i said to you before, in order to really understand world war ii, you have to look at
world war ii from all different perspectives. yes, it is important to look at it through the eyes of that 20-year-old marine on normandy. but it is also important to look at it through the eyes of japanese americans. through eyes of women and african-americans. you simply cannot understand the full impact, the total war impact unless you do that. what we're going to do today is sort of flesh that out a little bit. the greatest effect that war has on the people involved is change. in war time, change occurs, and that seems like a very simple statement. it doesn't just occur on the global scale or a national
scale. it changes us individually. it changes the way we see the world. it changes the way we are in the world. where we're talking about world war ii or vietnam or the war with iraq. people change as a result of war. and it is not just the people pointing guns at one another. people change as a result of war. one of the most incredible changes, and one that i guarantee you, if you spend any time talking about or studying world war ii, i suspect this is not a change or not a piece of it that you talked about. one of the most incredible changes is in identity. individual identity. the changes that happen to us as individuals. world war ii specifically, and i believe you can make this argument about any war.
but we happen to be talking about world war ii. world war ii specifically enabled people to learn about each other, about other cultures. different races, ethnicities, cultures, genders. all of a sudden, we're doing similar things in the world. we're working in similar jobs. we have a common enemy. that change was felt long after world war ii. war in general and specifically world war ii for many women and african-americans particularly was about gaining strength and mobility. from the beginning of this country's history, women and first africans and then african-americans have always
been limited in their mobility. war helped to change that. war was very much a doorway through which women ventured out of the homes where they have been and for african-americans, it was a way to overcome the racism, at least temporarily. now, i'm not trying to suggest that, oh, thank god there was a war. because now african-americans and women have an opportunity to bust out and gain some equality. it was just the effects of war. it was byproduct of war. keeping in mind this idea of, it is all about perspective and this idea that in order for us to truly understand world war ii, to truly understand the impact, the total war impact of the war, we have to look at
individuals. now, we can spend the entire semester doing this. we could spend weeks and weeks talking about the impact of world war ii on japanese americans. and an entire semester talking about the impact of world war ii on african-americans and certainly another semester talking about women. and we're going to in a class period or two. we're going to be addressing the civil rights movement. the modern civil rights movement. we'll talk more with the connections between the civil rights movement and world war i ii. i'll talk more about the impact on african-americans but there will be a lot more when we get to the civil rights movement. african-americans, and i said this to you when we were talking about world war i. african-americans have served valiantly in every sent war or conflict this country has ever been part of.
and certainly world war ii was no different. the figures for the numbers of african-americans who served in world war ii are these. first of all, prior to say, 1941, there were fewer than 4,000 african-americans serving in the military. and only 12, 12 african-americans have become officers. by 1945, more than 1.2 million african-americans were serving in the united states military in the pacific, in europe, and on the home front. we all know -- yeah. by 1945.
we all have seen those images of what happened to recruiting stations after pearl harbor, haven't we? after pearl harbor, after the united states was attacked by japan at pearl harbor, every young man, old man, middle aged man, just about every man that could possibly do so, went to a recruiting office and signed up. you don't get to attack us. young men lied about their ages and got in. old men lied about their ages and got in. men who were probably physically not capable lied and got in. the same was true about african-american men. including some of those asian-american men who were not taken to kindly. african-american men joined in
huge numbers. unfortunately, however, the segregation that was present in the united states at the time spilled over into military life. african-american soldiers were given in many cases, supplies that were maybe be up to snuff. they were given boots that didn't fit. not always. obviously i'm being very general to make this point. sometimes the uniforms didn't fit. and we did not want them in combat. so they were often expected to do things such as service duties, kitchen work, supply, maintenance, transportation. this was in the beginning of the war at least. many drove supplies during d-day.
how many of you have sustain movie, saving private ryan? i mentioned this to you before but it is a perfect image of what i'm talking about. the 30 minutes interesting first 30 minutes of saving private ryan, horribly, horribly bloody, and as i understand it, fairly accurate important traportrayal. this is a shot in the first 30 minutes that is down the beach. there is no one talking. there are bodies everywhere. the water is red from blood. and off in the distance for a few seconds, you can see hot-air balloons. african-american men piloted hot-air balloons over those beaches on d-day. i'm not sure which end of a gun to hold but i can shoot that down.
those are incredibly dangerous jobs. by the way, not really a movie critic but i will say that it appeared to be the only nod toward african-americans in steven spielberg's movie. the efforts of african-americans were second to none. the bravery, second to none but those were the kinds of jobs they were given. it was invaluable. the information they were able to radio back from being at that vantage point, very valuable. very, very dangerous. they also loaded and unloaded live ammunition. still, we did not want them in, quote, combat. that started to change as you can imagine as the war continued and we needed more and more men
in battle. we started to include african-americans in some of those battalions. one of the things that the army air force did was start to recognize that we needed more pilots. we needed people to protect fighters. we needed pilots who would fly supply missions. so a group of african-american pilots that became known as the tuskegee airmen, how many of you have heard of the tuskegee airmen? a couple of really good movies about the tuskegee airmen. i'm sorry in t-you s-k-e-g-e-e.
the tuskegee airmen. the tuskegee airmen flew support missions, they protected bombers over southern italy, they flew more than 15,000 missions between may 1943 and 1945. 66 tuskegee airmen died in combat. certainly the tuskegee airmen were not the only african-american men to serve valiantly during the war but it is the one that most of us have heard of. african-american men continued to serve in every branch of the military. by the way, every branch of the
military was segregated until 1948 when harry truman decided that was not appropriate. they served in segregated military units. they went off to war. they fought and they died for democracy. yeah. 948. they fought and died for democracy. they fought and died for the united states. yet they lived in a segregated world. remember our conversations about jim crow from the cradle to the grave. they lived in that segregated world. a leader, one of the leaders of the black community, a man named
a. phillip randolf. the initial a. phillip randolf. he was extremely important figure in the black community. and he said to african-american men, fight for freedom. if you go off and fight for freedom for this country, they cannot take away your freedom when you get home. he helped to institute something called the double v campaign. v as in victory. it basically said, victory oversees inequality at home. you cannot expect the united states of america to give you your freedom. your equality. earn it. the message was, victory oversees inequality at home. the double v campaign was put into place to help encourage
african-american men and women to do their part during the war. it was a. phillip randolf who convinced fdr that he needed to stop discrimination in new deal job programs. he went to fdr and said this double v campaign, understand, we're willing to fight for our 50. but we expect to you fight for us when we get back. african-american men served tirelessly in the united states military. and african-american women did their part, too. believe me. we're going to talk in a minute about til pact of world war ii
on women in this country. and we'll talk very specifically about some images that you've all seen. rosie the riveter, for example. don't let these images fool you. most are of white women because those are the women that the propagandist wanted us to see. black women were very much a part of the war effort. we'll talk about that in a little bit. for women, life changed during world war ii. like no other point in american history. if women worked outside the home, like many did, there was a misconception to think there was this perfect family of 2.5 children and mom and dad. that was an image.
women often worked outside the home and when they did they worked in something called pink collar jobs. what is a pink collar job? what does that mean? any ideas? yeah. >> something that would be suitable for a woman, quote/unquote for a woman to do. >> exactly. suitable women's work. if you had to define that, what is an example of a pink collar job? i'm sorry? cleaning. what else? seamstress. exactly. what else? childcare. anything else? nurses. i'm sorry. go ahead. waiting tables. service industry. acceptable women's work. what do you think is something that all those jobs nevada common aside from the fact that they're service jobs?
any ideas? low pay. it was perfectly legal to pay women less money. now may not be the time for me to have a conversation about pay equity. but it was nowhere near equal in the 1940s. women's work, it's not career. it's not a career. it is a job. it is one of those things women did after they got married. after they got married, chances are they won't work outside the home. so prior to world war ii outside the home, and many were, they were working in these pink collared jobs. certainly there were exceptions to that but not as many. after the war began, as you know, many, many women go to
work in factories because so many men have gone off to war. we talked last week about the fact that it was fdr's move into war production ultimately helped to get us out of the depression. that war production had to continue. and especially after the united states had entered the war. so who will do that job in well, some people suggested to the war department, what if we allow women into the factories? what if we allow women to do those jobs? the initial response was, no, no. women are not going to get out of bed in the morning and go do these awful dirty jobs. well, as you know, that was not
the case. women answered the call just like men did. and there are a lot of ways women participate in the united states efforts in world war ii. one of them, the factory workers. we'll talk about that first. another is the fact that they were used, images of women were used as propaganda. and we'll talk about that. i have some images i want to show you. women joined the women's army corps and the women's army air corps. there were a lot of ways women participated. the first was the one most of russ familiar with. that is they went to work. they went to work in factories. you've all seen this image. haven't you? rosie the riveter. this was a propaganda poster.
we can do it. propaganda was important to get women to do their part. many of you may even have parents or grandparents or great grandparents who worked in the fact rixs anybody have a family member who worked in the local factories? there were a number of these rosies who worked in this area. most of these women who went off to work in the war industry, at the beginning anyway, were single women of often boyfriends or brothers or fathers or other family members had gone off to war. so industries, the shipping industry, all kinds of war industry, reached out. they recruited women from everywhere. they sent out the posters, uncle
sam wants you, they can those directed at women. we need to you work. go ahead. women answered the call in huge numbers. think about this. this was this really wonderful photograph of these women leaving. i don't know what the factory is but as you can tell, they're dressed like workers. these women had an opportunity for the first time in their lives they left home. at this time, women stayed home with their parents until they got married and then they moved in of course with their husband. there were very few opportunities for women to live on their own. all of a sudden these women are coming from small towns into the united states into industrial centers around the country.
and they can go to work dressed like that. this is an incredible sense of independence that these women have. they live in an apartment with two or three or four other women. they go on work in their coveralls and their hard hats and they bring their lunch pails just like the men did on. a break they had a cigarette and afterwards they stopped at the local war and have a beer. this sounds like no big deal to us, right? it was a huge deal. it was a sense of independence but also a sense of, i'm doing my part. women had an opportunity with this to make their own money. to participate in the war effort. yeah. of course not.
i'm glad you brought that up. the kinds of work they did varied. they became welders, electricians, riveters, all kinds of things that believe me were definitely not pink collar jobs and jobs they would never have had access to before. but always not equal. they worked in very dirty and unhealthy conditions. they worked long hours. and certainly, their pay was nowhere near what it was for a man. here's an example. if a woman had training and one year experience as a welder, she could make $31.21 per week. if a man was trained as a welder and had one year experience, he
made $54.65. now, i'm not suggesting that women didn't complain about that. but i suspect they didn't a whole lot. that's just the way it was done. that's just what happened. women, as i said, worked in all kinds of industry. go ahead and click the next -- this is another example of one of those war propaganda posters. victory waits on your fingers. women were also expected to, yeah, do some of those jobs that were considered women's work. were considered pink collar jobs but do it in the war industry. these kinds of posters put the pressure on women to do their part. go ahead and do the next one. do the job he left behind. again, there was all kinds of recruitment.
these posters were everywhere. they were in women's magazines. they were on posters in local small towns. go ahead. and then there's this. the propaganda against japanese americans. and this one is frightening. but there is one coming up that's even more frightening. one of the thing we needed to you was convince women, men, too, but specifically women, we needed to convince them that this is a big bad enemy out there. if you take a day off -- that was their biggest fear. that women were not going to take this seriously. they would take too many days off. they would sleep in and they just wouldn't be able to handle the rigors of a full-time job. so the images of japanese
americans are very animalistic. it is very cheer here what will happen if you don't do your job. go ahead. and again, beautiful wernlgs very feminine. you have to do your job. we understand that you're longing for your love. but in addition to working, make sure you're buying war bonds. there are also posters directed at women that encourage women to do things like grow victory gardens. not all of them were about working in factories. one of the most disturbing images of all. women were often used. the images of women were used in war time as propaganda. this is an example of that.
as you can see, this japanese soldier, again, does not look human. he is a monster. and he is after the poor defenseless woman. one has this same sort of japanese soldier and he has this woman thrown over his shoulder as he goes skulking off with her. and it says this is what we're fighting for. to protect the virtue of our women. these images were everywhere. this is one, and you may have seen something similar to this when you saw the total war movie the other day. this is from britain. and one of the earlier images.
now women were strong workers in the war industry. their images were used as propaganda. but women were also very willing to step up and do their part in the military as well. the women's army corps, the wac, was established in the early 1940s. now again, much like it was with the tuskegee airmen, the thought was, we need more men going off to battle. so we need to have some of these jobs that are taken care of by military, male military personnel, we need some of those to be done by women. so let's create a women's army
auxilliary corps. this was huge for women. this was enormous. you can join the united states military. you had a uniform. you had a job. you had a purpose. you were part of the war effort. the wacs took over jobs like file clerks, operators, cooks. that allowed the men who were in the military to then be trained for combat. but it wasn't just the wacs. it wasn't just the women's army corps. it was also the wasps. the women's army pilot service. like tuskegee airmen, they had to make a claim that they would
be useful. a woman named jackie cochran who was a pilot and a florida native, along with a test pilot named nancy harkness love, approached fdr at the beginning of the war and said, you know, there are a lot of women who could fly supply planes. there are a lot of women who could pull targets. who could transport planes from one factory to a base. and again, as the same response when the effort was first made to get women into the war industry. no, no, no. we can't do that. we don't want women in those roles. well, it didn't take long before it was clear, we needed someone to take over those roles. we needed someone to fly the
planes from the factories to the bases. so in september of 1942, the wasps, the women's army service pilots, were headed to their first training. the initial training, some of it took place in texas. some of in it texas, some of in it north. these women had a pilot's license. a commercial pilot's license, and they learned to fly, quote, the army way. they were not trained in combat maneuvers. they were not allowed in any way to participate in combat. more than 25,000 women applied to be a wasp. fewer than 1,900 were accepted. after the training, wasps were
stationed in over 120 air bases across the u.s. they new 60 million miles of operational flights from aircraft factories to bases. they also towed targets for target practice. is that a job you want? they towed the targets for the guys to use their surface to air missiles for target practice. they flew supply missions. by 1944, they had delivered over 12,000 aircraft of 78 different types.
by 1944 they had delivered over 12,000 aircraft, 78 different types and they were in every area where the united states was located during the war. 38 wasps lost their lives. listen to this. 38 lost their lives. and they were all over the world. but when their bodies were sent back home, they were not allowed to be sent home in a flag draped coffin. you know as well as i do, if you've never been part of a military family, and i have not been, really. but if you've never been part of a military family and all you've ever done is watch the news, you know the significance of a
fallen soldier being brought home in a casket covered by the united states flag. they were not allowed to have a u.s. flag. from as early as 1943, efforts were made in congress to get them recognized. yep. as early as 1943. people started to get them, tried to get them the recognition that they deserve. but once the war was over, and again, they were all over the world. once the war was over, their superiors went to them. they took their wings. they took their uniforms. and they were told to find their own way home. eventually, people continued to
try to get them recognition. does anybody know when the wasps were finally given the recognition that they were due as world war ii heroes? anybody know when that might have happened? take a guess. it has happened. president barack obama in 2009 was the first president. the remaining, the remaining members of the wasps, and there were only a handful, were brought on may 10, 2010, brought to the capitol and jointly given the congressional the gold medal.
>> that's correct. they cannot be buried in arlington national cemetery. now, i think it is always, it can be dangerous to compare, well, well, more men died and men had a harder time or more women died and had a harder time. i'm not comparing and we should not compare. what we should do is respect what they were able to do as pilots. so we've looked at women as propaganda. we've looked at women as ways in which the women participated in the war effort as factory workers. go ahead and flip through. i'm sorry. i got ahead of myself.
these are just some training photographs. the other thing women did, they made payable. in the all american girls professional baseball league. i guarantee you, if you've ever taken a class and it talked about the history of world war ii and the importance of individuals or groups, rarely if ever have you ever had a conversation about baseball. how many of you have seen the movie, a league of their own? oh, yeah. if you haven't, please don't tell me. in 1943 as i said to you before, men of all ages, of all shapes and sizes, headed to war. that chincluded professional baseball players.
we know baseball is america's favorite past time. apple pie, baseball. that was the image in the 1940s and it kind of still is. as more and more ball players, major league ball players and minor league ball players were leaving to go to war, a lot of the owners were concerned. remember, we were still coming out of the depression and still in a depression. these ball players had gone off to war. some of the owners including a man named phillip wrigley. wrigley chewing gum. if you're a baseball fan, wrigley field. phillip wrigley was concerned that baseball was going under. in fact, there was even a discussion about whether they should play baseball during the
war. in a letter written by fdr to the commissioner of baseball that was, would become known as the green light letter, fdr said, no, it is important that we play. it is crucial that we may baseball. that's what these guys are fighting for. they're fighting for the memory of that and what that means to this country. so phillip wrigley together with some other owners, came up with the idea, what if we start a women's baseball league? you have to have a little context. women's softball in the midwest was extremely pop hard. extremely pop hard. in fact, by 1939, women's softball brought in more fans than minor league baseball in the midwest.
that's softball. so wrigley said what if we take some of these ballparks, minor league ballparks, they're empty. let's create a professional softball league. women's softball league. it will get some attendance to some of the fields. they will make a hill money. and provide entertainment to citizens during the war. there were a couple of problems with this. first of all, female softball players, a bit of a bad image. as a former softball player i can tell you, some of it was probably deserved. they were too masculine. not feminine enough. so wrigley said, let's recruit
some of these softball players. we have to be careful who we recruit. only a certain kind of people. well, for those of you who have seen the movie, a league of their own, you know that that, there were scenes where the scouts go off into the farms and stuff and they're recruiting people in gyms. that's kind of the way it was. they recruited a bunch of softball players and brought them to wrigley field. spring training, the first spring training may 17, 1943. hundreds of women were brought to wrigley field for tryouts.
ultimately, teams were chosen. many women of course didn't make the cut. initially there were four team of racine and kenosha, rockford, indiana, and south bend, indiana. on may 30, 1943, the first games took place. wrigley had no clue what to expect. do i sell this as a novelty? go ahead and change the image. this is a group photograph -- i believe that is the rockford peaches. but wrigley had to decide do i
sell this as a novelty? women in dresses playing ball? it didn't take long for him to realize, these are good ball players. you can see this is a very popular photograph. these women made ball in dresses but that didn't stop them. there's one of a former ball player, mabel blair, who is 89 years old. and she still, she talks about, yeah, i'm still digging gravel out of my hip from all the sliding in those dresses. that's what it was like to play baseball in a dress. remember how women didn't have a
lot of opportunities outside the home and certainly not a lot of opportunities to challenge the norms. these women were given the opportunity to may professional baseball. the first season it was called the all american softball league. and then wrigley realized these are good ball players and people came to watch them play ball. so the size of the ball changed. and ultimately, it became the all american girls professional baseball league. these women were paid $45 to $85 a week. that was enormous. enormous amount of money. and they got to do it playing baseball. something they would never have dreamed was possible. this is also one of my favorite
photographs. these women were very serious ball players. i spent a lot of time with these women, the ones still with us. and they will tell you. the single most important thing in their lives was that they had an opportunity to participate in the war effort by saving baseball. i asked one of the ball players, a woman named bees. they all go by nicknames. trust me, it is impossible to keep up with them. when i first met bees, my first reunion at the ball players, very tall, lanky, very friendly woman from oklahoma. and she came up to me and somebody told her my name.
and she said oh, kit kat. i became kit kat and continued to be kit kat until bees died just a few years ago. when i first had a conversation with bees about what does it mean to you that you got to may baseball? and she just shook her head and she said, kat, it just means everything. it was my life. it is the best thing i ever did. and the reason is that we helped to make sure baseball stayed alive for those men who came back there war. we did something else. we created a foundation on which the young women today can stand. we helped to bridge from the 1940s, and women playing professional baseball, to title 9. they understand their
significance in women's athletics. the league lasted 11 years. and in that 11 years, over 600 women were given an opportunity to play baseball. they traveled around the country. they played in yankee stadium. they played in 1947 many havana, cuba. there were, by the way, four cubans who made for the all american baseball league. over 30 canadiens played in the 11 years of the league. they had spring training in mississippi and florida. some of them could travel places around the country they had
never seen before and would never have an opportunity to travel. what that opportunity gave them was an opportunity to go to college. they saved some of that money. they sent themselves through college. they sent siblings through college. they became doctors and lawyers. one became the first female manager at northrop airlines. they became principals, surgeons, politicians, pilots, and they were able to do that because they had access to professional baseball. so when i asked them, what did it mean to you to play in the league, they say everything. exactly right. what did it mean for this country and the efforts of these
women to help during war time? it meant everything. i've asked a number of these women. so what was it like to have to may baseball in a dress? and of course their answers varied. some of them i can repeat and some of them i can't. base which i the message is, we would have made naked. whatever it took, we got to may baseball. and we truly believe that we helped keep baseball alive during the war. as i asaid, the league ended in 1954. it lasted 11 years. the league expanded over that 11
years from four teams to 12 teams. it is possible that the expansion maybe happened too quickly. i think that there was expansion in the league, the fact that the war was over, women were being told to may be go back to some of those more traditional roles. all of those things including the arrival of television and major league baseball on television helped bring about an end to the all american girls professional baseball league. if we look at the impact of african-americans, women, japanese-americans, any other group we can possibly think of.
if we start to pick that apart, if we start to look at their actual role in winning the war, in surviving the war in some cases, we start to see a more full picture of what life was like in the war and those who were involved, even on the periphery. when we started this conversation today, this discussion today, we talked about the fact that total war, that war was this completely all consuming thing. that it was not just about two armies shooting at one another. we started to think with what that meant and how can we further understand world war ii if we bring all these pieces and parts together.
we can try and that's my -- that's what i'm trying to do here. to get us to understand again my mantra, it is all about perspective. because there's not one of those pieces that is less important or more understand. we have to think thabout them a. for me because for me i am a women's sport historian, for me, the role of women in professional baseball during world war ii is an extremely important piece of this story. in part because it is not one that most of us know about. also because those women, those
600 women, they believe they made a difference in the war effort. and they did. the number of women i talked to who worked in factories. the rosies. they believe they made a difference in the war effort. and they did. every single person who went to work in a factory. every single person who grew a victory garden. every single person who participated in blackouts, gas rationing, food rationing, every single one of those people participated in and helped to win world war ii. so this is another picture i
wanted you to see. standing in the hahn outside the baseball hall of fame in cooperstown, new york, is a statue. and it is a statue that is patterned after the swing. by the way, that just happened in 2006. this is an example of what happened in every baseball game. women lined up in the v for victory sign. and finally, a league of their own. 1992. the movie that finally brought these women's story to the forefront.
for every single one of these individuals, everyone of these groups we talked about, they may a role in world war ii. they made a role in surviving world war ii. for to us fully understand it, we have to understand all those perspectives. questions, comments. >> you mentioned four cubans and the canadian league. they were african-americans too, right? >> no. there were no african-americans in the league. it is a bit of a contentious subject. this is probably one of the best scenes in league of their own is
geena davis who is there in the catcher's gear, missed a ball and the wall went past her. and two or they have american women were standing were standing off to the side and she ran and told the woman to throw it to her, instead she threw it past her and into the hands of someone who was standing behind her and realized what an incredible arm that woman had. if you ask any of the players they will tell you there were no rules about segregation necessarily. black women just didn't try out. segregation from cradle to the grave. no, no black women played in the league. however, there were a number of black women who did play successfully in the negro leagues with the men.
tony stone was one. the all-americans did not have any african-american players. >> did other countries have -- did france or britain -- how did they treat their women compared -- >> great britain did have -- and i don't remember the name of their women's pilot corps but they did have one and they had one before the u.s. did. as far as how they treated them after the war was over, i don't have that information. but they did make use of them and, in fact, jackie cochrane spent time there flying with those women and it was, as a result of they are time there and that experience, she was able to come back here and encourage strongly encourage the united states to do the same. >> it was supplies, that kind of thing, not combat related.
although, of course, it's all combat related. other questions, comments? does anyone know what a victory garden was? go ahead. >> you don't have to buy as much. you were doing your part by providing your own. they started in great britain, didn't it? >> yeah. victory gardens were -- exactly. >> rations. >> yeah. it was a time where you can only buy certain foods and we were rationing things. victory gardens were exactly that.
women were told, grow a garden. go out into your backyard, grow a garden, help to feed not only your family but maybe another family. there were lots of ways that women participated in the war effort and certainly that was one. and if you were at home, your husband had gone off to war, you were at home and you had kids, maybe you didn't have an opportunity to go off and work in a factory or play professional baseball but there were things you could do and that was certainly one. >> were children also sent to the factories to work? >> no. by the time -- by the time we get to world war ii we had child labor laws in place. no, children were not -- now, that didn't mean they didn't help in other ways because, of
course, they did but, no, they were not expected to work in factories. in fact, that would have been illegal. >> we didn't have nurses in the army -- >> yes. >> they were in combat zones. >> yes. in theory they were not in combat, right? but, of course, we had nurses who were killed during the war. we had nurses who were taken prisoner of war. so, yes, that happened everywhere but they were not officially in combat. we still have that argument, right? that's obviously changed a lot because women can, in theory anyway, do any of the jobs in the military that men can do, at least i believe that's the case. [ inaudible ] no. other questions, comments? >> the anti-japanese propaganda, the most decorated combat unit
we had served in italy. one of the hardest places that we had fights, the japanese-americans. >> yes. yeah, there were any number of stories like that. a number of the male japanese-americans who were rounded up and sent to camps in places like montana and wyoming had served in the united states military during world war i. these were american citizens in many cases. so, yeah, it was a very dark, i think, difficult time in our history.
we understand if you think back about it and certainly we can bring this to the present and think about what we felt like after 9/11. we are fearful certainly when we've been attacked. when we're threatened by a group of people. we rounded up japanese-americans and put them in what amounted to concentration camps in the middle of the country. sadly there are folks who want to do similar things today. other questions, comments? for your midterm that is tuesday -- yes? you could write me a nice essay about total war. where you talk about the importance of perspective and understanding all of those
important pieces and parts. yes? okay. i'll be counting on that. yes? >> would you agree that total war means that war was more than just fighting, it means, like, everybody was affected by the war and did their part to help in their own way? >> yes. i think you hit the nail right on the head and you said it much more succinctly than i did. it is exactly that. it is about those battles, of course about the, unfortunately,
the killing and the protection of your country or your geographic location and the change that happens with individuals. and if we expand our view beyond just that piece of it, then i think we can really get a sense of that. in the same way -- now most of you were pretty young, but in the same way that -- again, i keep using 9/11 because it's the most current similar experience. those of us who were a little bit older on 9/11, yeah, you know, i didn't go to war. i didn't go to battle. but here's what happened to me. i walked into my classroom on that day, in a classroom much
like this one, and we were all devastated, and we talked about that. we talked about what that meant. and then as the weeks went on, there were fewer and fewer young men in my classroom. and then after about, oh, i don't know, a month, six weeks, i looked out into my classroom and i have two or three young men and that's it. i go back to my office and i have an e-mail from someone here at the university saying, by the way, a lot of reservists have been called up. so i stood in my classroom and i watched -- i watched these young men leave my classroom. they went to war. they literally went to war. i don't know what happened to them. i have no idea.
did i fight in the war? no. will that memory live with me the rest of my life? yes. other questions, comments? okay. all right. then i will see you on thursday. cspan's convention coverage beings today at 7:20. speakers include rnc chair reince prebuice, donald trump's daughter ivanka and donald trump himself. making america one again is the theme of the convention tonight. our preconvention show starts at 5:30 eastern. again, live coverage of the convention begins tonight at 7:20 eastern. next, santa clara university history professor nancy unger,