tv Native Americans and Europeans in the Great Lakes Region CSPAN July 23, 2016 2:06pm-2:31pm EDT
perhaps will join us, not because they are deserting their party, but because their party deserted them at los angeles two weeks ago. >> all over the world particularly in the newer nations young men are coming to power, men who are not bound by the traditions of the past, men who are not bound by the old fierce and hate and rivalries, young men who can cast off the old slogans and the old delusions. the republican nominee, of course, is a young man, but his pproach is as old as mckinley. >> for a complete american history tv schedule, go to c-span.org. >> next on american history tv, a conversation with history professor susan sleeper-smith about 17th century native american and european
interactions in the belmont stakes region. she discusses migration patterns, intermarriage and misconceptions about the fur trade. c-span's american history tv interviewed professor sleeper-smith at the annual meeting of the organization of american historians in providence, rhode island. this is nearly 15 minutes. >> when did europeans first migrate to the great lakes egion? >> this come in 1640's, 1660's and at the same time indians are moving out of the ohio river valley in an attempt to access trade goods where european traders are coming in. that's generally green bay. >> which europeans are we talking about? professor sleeper-smith: primarily the french.
the british will come later in he 18th century. host: this is about more than exploration. this is about business? professor sleeper-smith: yes it's kind of a complex but interesting way to think about it. if you think about the early landscape in the united states as being a landscape of not just a series of indian villages, but a series of combined ages often as con federal are sis or even some indian nations becoming entire all of the transcontinental united states networks.d by trade before europeans even arrive in the great lakes, european trade outes preceded them.
they stretch from the west coast through the center of the nation, the southwest, the north are exchanging trade goods. european trade goods become incorporated in that existing network. host: how did the native american transcribes in the area respond to the arrival of the french? professor sleeper-smith: very welcoming. most french traders began to come in the 1660's after radisson comes into the great lakes. basically most of the traders are french. they come from montréal and québec. they bring goods with tremendous high state us value and also have tremendous utilitarian value. initially, most of the trade is n iron goods, trade that are
pots, vessels that women would primarily use, digging sticks that make cultivation of grain crops much easier. as many of those goods become saturated in the great lakes, what was initially the fur trade turns into what becomes a cloth trade. and so most of the prossdz that would come into the great lakes from the end of the 17th century to the end of the 18th century will be cloththe indians become involved in almost a fur trade that is a clothing trade. transforms into it by the 1720's, 1730's, really evolves almost into a silver trade. europe begins manufacturing goods for the indian trade, and that includes as the trade
becomes more established, even becomes what you would call a luxury trade. so, you see incredible numbers of silversmiths moving into the great lakes, creating items for he indian trade. host: which indian tribes were in this area? who are we talking about? professor sleeper-smith: in the ohio river valley, much of that center portion of the ohio river valley, much of that is miami land. but along the wabash and the miami rivers, you find a huge group of very diverse eople. so, for instance -- originally a french post on the wabash, you can find several roups, kickapoo, you are going to find miami.
as we move toward the center -- and these are fairly well-established towns. these are 5,000, 6,000 people. these are not scattered indian villages. they are united by the trade. you are going to find shawnee. you are going to find delaware. they have moved from pennsylvania into the ohio river valley. you are going to find mohawk who have come down from iroquois land. you are going to find seneca eople. you're going to find even people from virginia who have moved into the ohio river valley. host: did the european men marry into any of these indian tribes? professor sleeper-smith: yes. for most of the fur trade, it would be very difficult for them to trade. they had no understanding of indian languages. and initially women act as
cultural mediators during the 17th century. by the 18th century, much of that becomes intermarriage. so you find frenchmen intermarrying into indian communities. they are not really removing those women from the indian communities. it would be useless. indians trade based on kinship alliances. so, trade is not something we think of in 20th century terms. t is embedded in villages. it is embedded in kin networks. there, women become a very crucial component. they not only act on the trade. they are involved in the exchange process. bringing an indian trader into a household unit becomes very important. it brings prestige to the household unit. it brings them access to trade goods.
simultaneously, it gives a trader access to a woman's kin network as trading partners. host: so were marriages more business arrangements than love matches? professor sleeper-smith: i don't think there were any love matches and the 17th and 18th century. i think that romantic onnotation of marriage was -- will take root primaries in an anglo society. it's not to say it is not romantic relationships between people, but to a great extent in indian communities, marriage had this companionate -- but it is often not romantic. if women, because they are the agriculturalists, they are the people who are responsible for a major portion of the diet.
so frenchmen that marry in have in a sense can devote all of their efforts to trading. women become the agriculturists. they become involved in the trade. it gives women power and authority they did not have before. many of these marriages are long-lasting. so, it is not just a trading process where he have come for the trade and i will be here for five years and then i'm going to disappear. yes, there were traders that do that and those are advantageous relationships to those communities. but we also find that many of these frenchmen actually never return to quebec or montreal, that many of these marriages go on 20, 30, 40 years. you can trace them back to the registers the jesuits kept in the great lakes. host: what happened to the children of these matches? did they become part of the tribes? professor sleeper-smith: yes and no.
some children who are born to women traders and indian become part of the french trading community that has indians living in that community. others simply disappear and become part of the in-depth nous society. it is difficult to trace them. they often do not appear in baptismal registers. e ones that tend to become linguisthically skilled become translators, being mediators, those become listed in bapities mall registers. host: i understand george washington figures in the story. professor sleeper-smith: yes, he does. by the mid-18th century, the fur trade in the ohio river valley had become very prosperous.
it was evident in indian dress. it also had an incredibly large population. so, you would have places with 5,000 or 6,000 people. you might have miami town with 7,000 or 8,000 people. you might have places near the river and you might have clusters of shawne, delaware villages there who have 3,000 or 4,000 people. what becomes incredibly apparent is when washington omes into power and you have a new constitution that payment of the debt -- in other words, hamilton creates the national debt -- to pay off the debt, you have to have access to indian lands. in order to obtain indian lands, you have to negotiate those lands in treaties.
north of the ohio river valley, indians will not come to the treaty table. they do not have much intention of moving. they do not have much intention of giving away their lands or trading them for goods. so for washington during that first administration when the nation has a very large debt, it is linked to land sales. if indians will not come to the treaty table, you have to do omething about that. washington initially sends in one of the first generals in the u.s. army. is defeated at miamitown by early northwestern pan
ind dwan con federal ri. -- pan indian confederacy. that completely and periods george washington that he orders the kentucky militia to lead a raid against agrarian villages in the wabash river valley and that raid results in the united states capturinging d dwan con federal ri. initially about 50 women and children. a second raid of another 41 women and children. those women and children are then held at fort washington, which is today cincinnati until the indians will come to the treaty table to negotiate away heir land. so there is violence and force that comes in and in many ways disrupts these communities. harmer that comes in with washington's express orders, charles scott who comes in with the kentucky militia, these and burn indian towns
you read those reports and they are describing those villages. people who "lived in a state of civilization," who live in log cabins, whose cornfields stretch for miles along the river. it's a very different view of indian society than we normally have. host: one last question for you. was this essentially the end of the fur trade? professor sleeper-smith: no, the fur trade goes on. it allows the indians to persist in the ohio river valley until late into the 19th century. it transforms from what was originally a european-based fur trade to a fur trade that switches from the peltry of beaver and otter and these type of animals to a black raccoon trade. that is one reason why the miami remained and able to
persist. there continued to be a market for furs. host: think you very much. professor sleeper-smith: you're welcome. >> interested in american history tv? visit our website, c-span.org slash history. see our upcoming schedule or watch a recent program. american artifacts, road to the white house rewind, lectures in history and more at c-span.org/history. tonight on american history tv, director emeritus of the smithsonian museum of american history talks about his book, 50 great american places. here is a preview. brent: how did i select the sites in the book? i had four criteria in selecting these sites. first of all, i wanted to have sites that represented all of the regions of the country, not every state, but all of the
regions of the country. second, i wanted to have sites that represented all the different time periods from the precolonial period to the present day. the book is arranged roughlyly in cronlolcag order, although i start with the washington mall in washington. after the national mall, i listed my color in roughly chronological order. that's important because some of the places that i wrote about thought if they were listed earlier in the book, that meant they were more important than the sites that i wrote about later in the book. i had someone call me and say, well, i'm happy my site is more important than gettysburg because i'm number eight and geties burglary is number 15. the third criteria, they are publicly accessible open to the public. many of them were free and that was important to me.
the fourth criteria was that i selected sites that represented major themes in american history. i chose five themes in american story that i think represent and define american identity. ose themes are freedom, war, innovation, diversety and landscapes. freedom, war, innovation, fwidl ty and landscapes, if you're trying to memorize that. >> watch the entire program tonight starting at 9:00 eastern here on american istory tv on c-span 3. seat to ve a front row
every minute of the democratic national convention on c-span.org. watch live streams of the convention proceedings without commentary or commercials and use our video clipping tool to create your own clips of your favorite convention moments and share them on social media, also read twitter feeds from delegates and reporters in philadelphia. our special convention pages have everything you need to get the most of c-span's seat to every minute of the democratic national convention on c-span.org. watch live streams of the convention gavel to gavel coverage. go to c-span.org/democratic national convention for updated schedule information to see what is happening during each convention. each speech is available on demand for viewing when you want. our special convention pages and all of c-span.org are a public service of your cable or satellite provider. if you're a c-span watcher, eck it out on the web at c-span.org. >> each week american history tv's real america brings you arrest kylal films that provide context for today's public affairs issues. this year's democratic national convention is in philadelphia. up next, a look back at the city in the early 1960's with a
film by the reynolds metals company and american institute of architects. >> it was in the 1930's that the first proposal was made for a mainly project in the old city area. it centered around independence hall and the historical buildings to the east. the man who succeeded in getting the ear of the civic leaders and worked out the design for independence mall in 1936 is roy larson. >> this is an area braced by some of our most historic structures clustered around independence hall. , the independence hall old congress hall, the old city hall, and the home of the american face so far cal society. to the east, the second bank of the united states later to
become the old custom house and carpenters hall, the setting for the meeting of the first continental congress. here was also the first bank of the united states, the oldest banking building in america and the old philadelphia merchants exchange. but conditions around these buildings were deplorable. there was no relief from congestion, fire hazards in the immediate vicinity of these historic buildings. as a part of the study. area by the committee on municipal improvements area of the philadelphia chapter of the american institute of arc techs, i conceived the plan of 1937, a simple statement with a green area to the north of independence hall and a green secondary mall from
independence square east connecting with the second bank , merchants hall and other buildings to the east. of course, all this remained in the idea stage until the good people during world war ii decided that philadelphia needed a better vision of what it might become in the post-war period. this was done through the medium of the better philadelphia exhibition. oscar was the designer of the exhibit and worked with him on it. >> there was a series of important landmarks throughout the historic society hill area. the house on locust street, st. mary's church, and church yard with the grave of commodore barry who was the father of the united states navy, the powell
house, a beautiful 18th century house at this place and to the south is st. peter's church where george washington worshipped and to the west is the first presbyterian church on pine street. these last two churches were in the center of hampton church yards which established the green belt on the south of the old city. i suggested a series of interblock parks and foot path extensions centering upon and connecting together these principal historic structures and to establish an open greenway to connect with roy larson's extension at the second bank of the united states. the idea was adopted by the national park service and is now nearing completion. roy larson's design for independence mall provides a transition from automobile scale to pedestrian scale. i extended the plan for pedestrian movement throughout the old city by the meandering pattern of the greenway system.
we must train men who can think in terms of broad design structure and who can deal with design problems at the level of government. without a central design idea as an organizing force, the individual efforts under urban renewal will lead to chaos. with a central design idea, the creative energies of individual arc techses will be stimulated to new heights and the results ill be truly architecture. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016 >> c-span makes it easy for you to keep up with the latest developments with the c-span radio app available as a free download from the apple app store or google play. get audio coverage of every minute of the convention as well as schedule information about important speeches and events. get c-span on the go with the c-span radio app.
>> coming up next, two former republican members of congress sit down to talk about their time in washington, d.c. and how things have changed in the u.s. house of representatives since the 1980's. we hear from nancy johnson of connecticut and peter torqueleson of massachusetts. the edward m. kennedy institute for the u.s. senate is the host of this event. it's about 90 minutes. >> i want to thank you all for coming to the session, former members of congress, donors and audience. i would like to introduce our moderator this morning. peter king is senior lecturer and public administration programs in the john f. kennedy schools of government at harvard university. since joining harvard faculty in 1992, professor king's courses have focused on legislatures, political parties and interest groups. he is also a member of the core faculties within the carr center for humig