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tv   American Artifacts  CSPAN  August 13, 2016 10:00am-10:31am EDT

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of wall street. >> watch the entire event at 1030: a.m. eastern on c-span3 american history tv. each week american artifacts jay shi to museums and historic places. up next a visit to 28 east 20th street in fork city, the theodore roosevelt birth place historic site. >> his legacy still impacts us today, whether it be about conservation or federal regulation trust busting. or foreign policy, which we don't debate whether it's good or bad here at the birth place. but the panama canal, his vision for america. given his time, was extremely progressive. and is
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something that affects everyone 100 or 95, to be exact, 95 years after his death. there are still tons of documentaries, books about him. he was endlessly fascinating and dynamic. he's a guy who overcomes the tragic death of his wife. and that's a story that sometimes i think is hard. cornelius and his wife cornelius and his wife margaret they had five sons. around the same time in 1853, two of their sons were getting married, their
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son robert and their son theodore. so what better wedding present to get your son but a house each. 26 east 20th, which you have to imagine was opposite this wall over here, was robert roosevelt's house. 28 east 20th was theodore's. our president was the second child born here. he had an older sister, he was around october 27, 1858 and lived here for the first 14 years of his life. in 1872 his parents decided time for the family to move. in 1872, they decided to move to the country, the country was fifth avenue and 57th street. kind of hard to imagine now. they traveled in traditional fashion, they vacationed for a whole year, where their, while their new home was being built. he sails the nile and is getting all these worldly experiences, he's
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14 and doles a cultural awareness how the world works. when they return they return to their brand-new mansion. so once roosevelt left this site in 1872, at the age of 14, as far as we know, he never returned to the house again. the original house unfortunately went through some changes over the years. i'm going to show you some historical photos to help you picture some of those changes. the first photograph dates back to around 1890's. and you can see there was a store front facade and a set of bay windows added to the building. but it's still the original home, and the property next-door where you see the cafe would actually be uncle robert's house right next-door. so if you visualize the two identical homes side by side. and this house was owned by various owners over the years. in 1916 the property goes up for sale once more, bear in mine roosevelt is alive in 1916, he's
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living in oyster bay, long island, which is also a national historic site today. and he has no interest in going back to his boyhood home. because in 1916 the gentleman that purchases the property demolishes the house. and this idea of historic preservation wasn't a priority in 1916. there was no one chaining themselves to the building, saying save t.r.'s home. in 1916 the original building is demolished and this two-story gets put up on this site. notice a couple things about this photograph. you see the two-story building here on the location where his house once once. you also in the the uncle's house is still standing right next-door. if we zoom in, you'll notice that the original building left a shadow on the wall of the building just east of us. so when the idea of commemorating theodore roosevelt's achievements, when that was spoken about, this is
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after his death, he dies january 6, 1919. startly after his death, prominent women in new york formed the women's roosevelt's memorial association. we call it wrma. they got together and decided roosevelt was worthy of a memorial of some time. so six months later the women in his family get on board. so the women had knew the president most intimately are active in this idea of preserving his memory. so we have his two sisters, alice and -- pardon me, anna and karen. they lived here as well. his second wife, edith, who also spent a great deal of time here as a child because she grew up just south of us, his daughters and his niece. his niece was the most famous roosevelt woman of them all, eleanor roosevelt. they decide it would be nice to rebuild his
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birth place. so this is how the site looked. the uncle's house next-door and this two-story building when this idea of memorializing roosevelt came b. so they purchased both properties, they commissioned a female architect, this is pretty amazing because in 1981 this is a have progressive idea. interestingly was a survivor of the lusitania, she using the uncle's house, which is i den tlity cal, as a model for the museum in terms of architectural details that really bring the house to life. then they tear down uncle robert's as well as the two-story building and combine both from the ground floor. so we opened up as a public building on what would have been officially on what would have been the door roosevelt's 65th birthday. the house was administered by the women until 1962 when it was dedicated the same day as the
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home in sagamore hill as part of the national park service. we're going to walk through five historic period rooms that reflect what life was like for roosevelt had he lived here. 60% of the furnishings, artifacts are only to the family. we walk unimpeded, so just be mindful, no touching, no sitting, and we're going to stay in one room at a time. the first room we're entering is known as the roosevelt library. roosevelt and his autobiography refers to the library as a room of gloomy respectability. horse hair furniture. horse hair wasn't very comfortable, for t.d., which was his nickname as a child. people like to refer to him as teddy roosevelt. but he actually hated being referred to
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as teddy. he accepted it from the public and he accepted it at political rallies and from the media. but as a child he was nicknamed t.d., as an adult he was referred to as the colonel. this is a great photograph of him. his to the rough rider military type was equivalent to about three months. but that was his preferred nickname. roosevelt was consumed lots of books, various interests, natural history, adventure stories, tales of western adventure, people like davey crockett, ban yell boon, george washington, president lincoln, most of the books in the family library are books the family would have owned and he would have had access to and read. the as you enter the room, the house is lit by gas lighting. from the
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chandelier you can see there's an extension rose down to the lamp, which is also original to the roosevelt home, that was to transport the gas for reading level. beautiful pocket doors, the dumb waiter system, the home had all the modern amenities that were available at this part of the 19th century. the pocket doors are also a great example of the roosevelt family business. as a common question we get here, obviously the roosevelts are doing pretty well for themselves, they are able toir fe sons. how did they make their money. it pays to get on the ground floor of anything in life, the roosevelts were very fortunate, they arrive around 1646. so by the time t.d. is born in 1858, they're well established both socially as well as financially on the island manhattan. they're seven-generation new yorkers, onlily in the hardware business. but they branch off and get involved in importing and exporting very fine glass. from
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there the grandfather cornelius van check roosevelt or c.v.s. would get more involved in real estate, banking, financing. our president's dad was one of these wealth i gentlemen who enjoyed spending the family fortune as opposed to making it. so he was not in tune with the family business. this photograph is from 14th street and broadway. you have young t.d. looking out of a second floor window from his grandfather's home with his brother elliott at president lincoln's funeral procession. have you ever seen this photograph? it's an iconic photograph. considering the fact that both their legacy was be remembered one day alongside each other on mount rush more. but it a bigamies conception that this photograph was taken from this house. you can see the street is pretty wide. this is broadway, this is union square park in the background.
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president lincoln's body was laid in state for mourners to pay their respects oh steps of city hall. in lower manhattan. from there they would travel by horse and carriage to, to the next destination. but this is the procession going north up broadway right past the grandfather's home and right past the future president of the united states. the door roosevelt. we're going to enter the roosevelt dining room. dining was very formal in the family. nothing happened until father came home from work, changes out, comes home from work, changes into an evening suit. children are expected to dress for dinner. they would do theme nights around the table, could be french, one night could be german, i tall can tan, so if you wanted to pass the food you had to say it in the language of the day. he spoke six languages, read in four. food was brought up by the dumb waiter system,
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which is right behind this door. so the kitchen was downstairs on the lower level. so that, the area that we all walked in today that was considered the service area, there would have been an informal eating area, kitchen, service quarters in the rear of the home. 1865 and we know that family added a fifth level to the house for servants quarters. the dining room table on display is original to roosevelt's grandfather's home, the chairs date back to his sister's side of the family, and it's all about the dynamic of the family members who lived here. you had the four children, you had his parents, and his mom, is that she wasn't a new yorker. she was a southern bell from roswell, georgia. 17 years old, marries the door roosevelt sr. and moves up to new york city. but you can imagine the social
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adjustments that come with someone so young moving up to new york. when the civil war breaks out, roosevelt's senior, her husband, like many men was drafted and called upon to go fight. but legally what you can do if you were wealthy is hire somebody to take your place in the war. this was referred to as hiring a substitute and that's the road his father chose to take. minnie had brothers who were fighting for the confederacy. her sister lived here as well as their mom. so it wasn't just one southern lady, it was three southern ladies living under the roof of an abolitionist and a lincoln republican. the perfect combination for some family drama. unlike the library, which was the equivalent of today's family room where the children spend most of their time, the parlor was generally off limits
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to the roosevelt children, reserved for sundays or formal occasions. one occasion was in 1868 when the charter that established the american museum of natural history in new york was signed in this room by his father. most people tend to associate president the door radios let with the museum of natural history. with good reason, there's a big statue outside, that is the official new york state memorial to president roosevelt. you walk inside this rotunda, there's a mural, there's a memorial gallery below. but when the museum opened up he was only 10 years old. his father was also involved in the founding of the metropolitan museum of art. he helped raise money that built a pedestal for the statue of liberty. organizees the children's aid society, the orthopedic hospital, vent goes onto establish the brooklyn bridge. theres his support behind bringing cleopatra's needle over. so much much cultural new york his father had a role to play. important to remember, if you were born to a wealthy after fleupt family, the idea of charity or philanthropy,
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of giving back to the public, was encouraged. the idea of working for the public, and i mean working for the public in the political sense of becoming a politician, really was seen beneither your station in life. yet it's odd that the door roosevelt at the young age of 23 is elected to the new york state assembly. early on, early on he took onto the fact that it was more important to be a member the governing class than the upper class. to be involved in the group of men that got to pass laws, implement change, make decisions that really affect people's life. at 42 he serves in the white house as the youngest president of the united states and the only president born in new york city. most the furniture you see on display in the parlor is original to the family with the exception of the piano and cure why piece. -- urio piece. we're going to step right out here, make our way to the front entrance. we're going
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to make our way to the second floor to visit the bedrooms. keep in mind, there are two more levels to the house. this is as far as visitors go today. but directly above us there are more offices and a conference room. the level above that is a large auditorium. the level where we are now, the nursery and the master bedroom. if you look out the window, you see the beautiful view we have. you'll see you've got to remember the 20-story building wasn't back there, neither was the fire escape. but this second floor porch area, that was a home gym that his father had built for him to help roosevelt overcome his asthma. most people don't realize, they think of the bow chested robust man, they don't think of the sickly, frail, even wimpy kid who had to overcome a severe illness at an early age. doctors recommended various remedies to cure asthma, they would tell his father, let him
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drink hot black coffee. other remedies, let him inhale cigar smoke. his dad took it upon himself, you have the mind, but the mine is limited out the body. and challenging young t.d. to build his body. so that transformation from sickly kid to bow-chested, athletic robust guy starts right here. off of the nursery, out on that piazza porch area. this is roosevelt preparing for a crew meet at this is probably one the more iconic photographs of the door roosevelt as a ranch man later in life. his father really helped roosevelt overcome his illness. but his education was effected because his asthma. he was home schooled. initially by
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his mom's sister, anna, who was staying in the house, there's a portrait of anna above the fireplace. she served the roafl the nanny, she was the family story teller. so roosevelt at a very young age grew up with tales of knowing about southern ancestry. they were hunters, politicianings, so they were very active. so roosevelt due to his interest, some say would be much more a bulllock than a roosevelt in the traditional sense. the children are privately tutored and t.r.'s first formal education was harvard university. one would have to think socially that would come with some adjustments. the nursery was used by all the children while they were younger. they would eventually upgrade to their own bedrooms. we also have some turn of the century exercise equipment, a medicine ball and set of indian clubs. you've got to imagine it would have been
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all sorts of gymnastic equipment, to help him build up his body. we have an al cove that connects us to the master bedroom, which you can feel free to walk through. this is the room roosevelt was born in. all the furniture is custom made, for the price tag of $3,000 in 1865. which back then was a tremendous amount of money. crafted out of satin wood with rose wood trim. beautiful portrait of the president's mom directly above the fireplace. i mentioned minnie being a southern bell, 17 years old moving to new york city, came with some adjustments. civil war breaks out, her husband is called upon to go fight. and in took a toll on young t.d., roosevelt the one thing that lingered with him throughout his ascension to the white house was
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this idea that his father hired a substitute. so when the opportunity presented itself to erase the stain that he left on the family and presented itself in 1898 on the outbreak of the spanish mesh war, the door roosevelt served as assistant secretary of the navy, he jumps at the chance, he resigns in his nice desk job as assistant secretary of the navy to go lead the charge of on san juan hill with the rough riders during the spanish american war and ultimately emerges as a big war hero, and here is probably the famous photograph of him with his men on top of kettle hill. coming back from cuba he's very popular, he's elected governor of new york, he's governor of new york state before he starts enforcing a lot antitrust legislation. which caused a lot of enemies within the republican party. and led republicans to gather together to oust him out of state and local politics. so
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they thought a fitting belows would be to promote him to the vice president of the united states. roosevelt was reluctant to accept the nomination. he makes the remark that the only thing he was guaranteed from becoming vice presidents with ahistory professor job at some college. it works out well for him, not so much for president mckinley, who was assassinated six months into his second term, and at 42 years old the door roosevelt ascended to the president, he's not elected until 1904 when he rubs on his own toarms, which in his mind was a political relief. being that he wasn't elected first time around but was the successor to william mckinley. he's on mound rush more. 230 acres of lab for public use. he did not start the national park service, which is a bigamies conception. because he was sort
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of the grandfather of the park service, by declaring that many sites, national monuments and but he had the vision. and the he causes controversy by inviting booker t. washington to the white house much first time an african-american had dinner with the president of the united states. he passes the meat inspection act. pure food and drug act. very progressive and ultimately he had detractors but was overall loved by the american public, easily winds in 1905 and makes a public statement that he will not run
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for president in 1908. so he steps down, throws his support behind william howard taft. unfortunately their relationship is sort of frayed from the start and he ended up, roosevelt ended running against taft in 1912. splitting the republican ticket and making history, because the only time an american presidential election an independent has come in second place, he beats out the socialist candidate, he beats out taft. tavment, some joked that taft stood for take advice from theodore. you saw the shirt he was wearing, and the speech was on display in the lower gallery and amazingly the bullet pierces the topcoat, hits his speech, lodged into his chest and roosevelt is very well we'd. it was said he could read two books a day, he had a traffic memory. he -- a photographic memory. was familiar with the human anatomy, he was an experienced hunter. he coughs,
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realizes he's not coughing up any blood, and also realized the importance of this. in terms of a public relations moment to go out and address the audience, i believe he goes out to speak for 90 minutes and said it tikes a lot more than a bullet to stop a bull moose. he never has the bullet removed and i'm going to share with you the "new york times" headline from the day after the assassination attempt. mainian in milwaukee shoots as you can imagine after this political loss, he looks at the opportunity for the next adventure. he says it was his last chance to feel like a boy and that was exploring the amazon down in brazil with his son kermit, an uncharted portion
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of the amazon, which probably at 57 years old wasn't his best decision. he ends up getting very sick on that trip, contracting malaria, his fever spikes to 103, 104 degrees. his son really saved his life. he never fully recovers the last few years of his life he's pretty sickly, in and out of hospitals much he does do some writing and editing. he does attempt to raise another regiment for world war i which he respectfully declined, but all his children are involved in ward wore i and later on world war ii. unfortunately he loses his junkest son -- his youngest son over germany. many say he died of a broken heart, he died shortly after quentin. thank you for spending the afternoon with the national park service. i hope you enjoyed it. if you have
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any questions of me know. thank you very much. like us on facebook, follow us on twitter. coming up this weekend on c-span3 this evening at six eastern of the civil war, robert krauthammer history professor talks about how photography is used to chart the history of american slavery >>. we had to spend a fair amount of frederick douglass who wrote extensively about photography and about the power of software facilitation. african americans to be able to present themselves as they saw themselves as they experience themselves and each other. theunday morning at road to white house rewind the first of it three presidential debates
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between al gore and texas governor george bush. >> step one is to make sure we performed the system, to have the system in place that leaves no child hide. will put you we here, 12 put you here and start asking the question, what do you know and if you don't know what use are supposed to know we will make sure we do it early before it is too late. >> parents should should have more choices. i think we need to make education the number one priority in the country entry teachers like the professionals that they are. i have made it the number one priority in the budget. c-span series the contenders, keep the you soon ran for the presidency and lost a changed history. tonight, the 1972 democratic nominee, george mcgovern. >> i believe it is yet possible that we will find the country
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not simply because we were born here, but because the kind of great and good land that you and i want it to be and that together we have made it. that is my hope. that is my reason for seeking the presidency of the united states. >> sunday former texas businessman ross perot who ran as an independent presidential nominee. set the highest ethical and moral standards for the people who serve in the government and all that has got to be changed for the next four years and we will have to stand at the gate and we will. for a complete american history tv schedule go to c-span.org. sunday night on q and a documentary film instructor talks about the students award-winning documentaries some
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of which have been grand prize winners in the studentcam competition. >> i'm not the kind of teacher who will look at something that is not very good and just go that's nice, you did a nice job with that feed i will see what's not working? eventually, everyone of my kids makes a better piece. eventually the kids to do really well, they internalize all this stuff so i no longer have to say it to them. >> >> sunday night car eastern on c-span's "q&a." >> historians and scholars discuss african americans in the workforce throughout american history. topics include black farmers, the first black millionaire in new york, and african american men working in american cities. a three-dayt of
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conference called "the future of the african american past." it was cohosted by the smithsonian and the american historical association. >> good late afternoon. my name is steven hahn. i teach at the university of pennsylvania, but soon new york university. i would like to welcome you to our session on capitalism and the making and unmaking of black america. let me begin as my predecessors have in thinking not only the organizers but especially lonnie and jim grossman. foruld like to thank them not only enabling me to be part of what has turned into a extraordinary

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