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tv   Oak Ridge National Laboratory  CSPAN  August 25, 2016 4:48pm-5:04pm EDT

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ownership of the scotts reverted to his sister and technically to her husband dr. chaffe who was from massachusetts, he was an abolitionist and he was a member of congress, a sitting member of congress at this time. so suddenly he finds he's the owner of the most famous slaves in the united states. just literally overnight. and he wanted to divest himself of these slaves as quickly as he could before the press found out, basically. what he did was he actually sold the scott family for a token dollar to taylor blow, one of the sons of the original family from the plantation where scott was born back in virginia. and taylor blow brought them into this courtroom and set them free in 1857. so the scotts achieved the freedom that they had fought so long to obtain, while still
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provoking this incredibly important supreme court decision which led the country on a road to civil war, which, of course, eventually freed all the slaves. dred, unfortunately did not live very long after the decision was rendered. he died probably of tuberculosis in 1858 only a year after the case was decided. his wife lived on until 1876. she saw the civil war and saw freedom come along. for a good share of their lives the scotts lived here in st. louis. they died here. they are buried here. so in many respects, you know, we can say that the scott family were st. louisians and their case started here and in many ways ended here, not with the supreme court decision in washington but with being set free. 100 years ago today
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president woodrow wilson signed leverage allocation creating the national park service. join american history tv tonight at 7:00 p.m. eastern time when we're live from arlington house. the robert e. lee memorial. it is the park easter vises most visited historic home. this is american history tv only on c-span 3. december 1938 that two german scientists, fits and hahn. that fuels the fire of fear. the oak ridge national has been
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around right after the second world war. it is a major, perhaps in some sense it is the premier researches too in the entire united states. it started as part of the manhattan project in 1942. the manhattan project was the u.s. government attempt to build atomic weapon to drop on germany in the second world war and resulting in the atomic weapons that we are all dropping on japan, august of 1945 which did end the second world war. out of that laboratory. it was set up originally in 1943 as clinton's laboratories did not have a name of okposo ridak
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the time. the purpose was to learn how to produce plutonium which was a radio active element, split and relieving vast amount of energy like uranium. they did not know much about it. it was an artificial element that had to be created by man. they knew nothing about the characteristics of plutonium. this facility, graphite racket reactor as we know today completed by november of 1943 and came online as the first operating nuclear reactor. in this case, he used specifically to produce tiny amounts of plutonium which were
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recovered and ship up to the laboratory which is part of the manhattan project and chicago. so we can characterize up there. and other bits of plutonium that was produced here shipped out in the laboratory and new mexico where they were designed and built and tested out in new mexico. the purpose of oak ridge national was as a test reactor which of where we are right now. ty the government realized quickly back in 1942 or 1943 that oak ridge and east
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tennessee were not the places to produce vast amount of plutonium for a weapon. polama plutonium is very dangerous for not handling properly. east tennessee is not a place to produce large amount of plutonium. this reactor here was designed to learn how to produce plutonium and not producing large amounts of it. originally, the first reactor, that was developed was at the university of chicago. he did it in the the field which
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where football were playing in the yuuniversity of chicago. they were not playing football anymore. that's where he ended up under the squash board. he produced the first nuclear reactor and proved that nuclear reaction can be created and maintained. that's what you have to have in order to produce plutonium as a chain reaction. the government says no, this is not the place to be messing around nuclear reactor and downtown chicago. the purpose of this facility at oak ridge, it was not oak ridge at that time, it was a farm community. the purpose was not to only build of what we know today of
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the graphite reactor. it could be used as a field as weapons but also to enrich yu re uranium. gross was the sort of fellow that said well, we don't know if plutonium is going to be a better field or enriched uranium so we'll produce both of them. we don't have time to try one and then try the other. so here in oak ridge, two facilities known as k-25 and 12 were set up to produce uranium. they both produced rich uranium but by different methods. oak ridge consisted of three
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facilities. it was for enriching and k-25 which was for rich uranium. all three of these were separated by ridges and many, many miles. that's what oak ridge was but that was not the entire manhattan project. in addition, the state of washington where plutonium were produced in kilogram amounts. then the third major facility was at los alamos in new mexico. >> scientists designed and built the nuclear weapons. the university of chicago had a laboratory where a lot of the basic work of plutonium was done and there were universities all over the united states, columbia, michigan, iowa state
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and berkeley and california and so on. all of which participated in various ways of the manhattan project. it was a massive under taking $2.2 billion which was a tremendous amount of money during the warrior years and not so much today, of course. and, the money was allocated without the knowledge of congress and even vice president truman did not know about it. it was conducted in a secret and there were secret cities here in oak ridge. they had to build a secret city that ended up housing 75 or 80,000 people. you could not get in or out going through security. we were fearful that the germans would get access to our technology. it was obvious that all this had to be done in secrets. it was. i mean people in the vicinity
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did not know what was going on. we had super secret projects. if you were hired and worked on the project, you only knew what your job was. you were not informed on what anybody else is doing. you only saw a little piece of the entire project and really was a few exceptions. you could not put together the entire story and understand what's going on. they actually began to produce enriched uranium over y 12. that was carried out of here in a handbag. on the train it went out to los alamos and small amounts of plutonium were shipped in chicago where they can characterize it and los alamos.
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everything was coming in, train loads and train loads but nothing as far as anybody could tell going out. it was a secret under taking and no one knew what was going on except the managers until the bombs were brought to hiroshima and nagasaki in japan of august. the local population here and the workers learned that they have been producing plutonium. they went wild and they were dancing and you can see people in the streets holding up newspapers that says the world
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is over. the laboratory that was known at the time that we had built this reactor and built a bunch of technology around the reactor or the effects of radiation on humans and the effects of radiation on the environment, fish and other critters out there. we knew a lot of the technology associated with atomic technology. >> clinton laboratory known today as graphite reactor and used for purposes of better understanding nuclear power of their energy and most importantly use the reactor for
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producing radio isotopes from different elements that could be used in medicine. well, there are a variety of different scientific topics are under takeing here in oak ridge today not many are important. energy technology for instances and conservations is a major under taking. conserve energy rather than wasting it. new found science going all the way back to new origins to graphite reactor. a major particle accelerator that was built a few years ago and cost 1.4 billion dlas$1.4 b. the application were immense.
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when it comes fully online of thousands coming every here from all around the world to use the facili facility. super computing at various times at oak ridge and the fastest super civilians in the world. it is a disciplinary, personally, any time a scientist or engineer or social scientists can be found here some where on the staff. if you need to under take a research project that involves mostly disciplines, chemistry and biology a


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