tv The Civil War CSPAN August 27, 2016 6:00pm-7:17pm EDT
panel of scholars looks at perceptions of women, both white and black, at the end of the simple war and during the reconstruction era. topics include how movies have shaped the historic idea of women had. also, a discussion of how southern women viewed themselves as revealed in personal journals. this was a part of the annual summer conference hosted by the gettysburg war institute. >> good afternoon. peter carmichael, member of the history department here at gettysburg college. i am also director of the civil war institute. it is my pleasure to welcome you to the panel discussion on reconstructing southern womanhood. i will introduce our panelists beginning of my far right -- judy,ing on my far right, a professor of history at villanova university, where she
teaches a range of courses of 19th century u.s. history, civil war, women's history, the history of childhood, and reconstruction. i have had an opportunity to meet many of judy students. they are outstanding. she brings them here every year to gettysburg. i have had a fantastic time with judy out in the battlefield. she is a well-established scholar. she has published a number of books and articles. the book that has probably gotten the most acclaim is , sisterhood,il war and women's politics in transition. "
and just recently, she has assumed the editorship of the journal of the civil war era. it is a fantastic journal out of penn state, also published by the university of north carolina press, and certainly worth your attention. our second panelist, just to the left, is sarah gardner. sarah is professor of history and director of southern studies at mercer university in georgia, cultural andches intellectual history of the 18th and 19th century american south. the associate editor for the voices of the american stop series, and she is irony."or of "blood and
that is also published by the university of north carolina press. as you can see, the university of north carolina press has a real stranglehold on civil war history. almost everything that comes out of the press is something worth your consideration if you are interested in this period of history. she is working on two other books. the title of her current project "reviewing the south, the literary marketplace, and the making of the southern and also she is working on the intellectual history of reconstruction. our final panelist, catherine clinton. catherine is an endowed professor of u.s. history at the antonio,y of texas san and an international research professor at queens university in belfast. she's best -- she's special set
her specialty is women's history in african-american history. she is a prolific author and editor. she has edited numerous titles, including "plantation mistress: women's world in the old south." daughters who are 10, they adore the book. i'm not sure they get it, but they carry it around the house all the time. associationhas an with a plantation outside charleston, and "plantation mistress" is still one of the best sellers in the field. i recommend all of you, if you have not read any scholarly work on the experience of southern plantation women, catherine's book is the place to start. she has written a number of other pieces including "battle : gender and sexuality
in the middle of the american civil war," and in 2000 she released "harriet tubman: the road to freedom." in 2016, dr. clinton is going to become president clinton, president clinton of -- >> i'm already president clinton. i'm sorry.ael: when is your inaugural address? >> november the third, right before the election. 3, carmichael: november president clinton will give her inaugural address in florida at the southern historical conference in st. petersburg. are we going to have a massive banner that says "welcome president clinton?" >> they have some doubt about it. a good way to welcome. but there will be about a thousand some odd historians who meet annually, and you guys are welcome to come.
the first beach party since 1972. you canichael: and as imagine, the thought of a bunch of academics hanging around a pool at a beach party is a little frightening, i'd have to say. but it should be great fun. of course, i'm so pleased that catherine has been able to join us. she has been here long before i was here, and it is great to have her back. just another side note, dr. student of james mcpherson's, and i believe one of his first, is that correct? >> i don't claim to be the first or the last, but there were -- there was a generation before me, and jim was at pearson from his 15 years. i came along in the 1970's. dr. carmichael: the point is, we are all high on dr. mcpherson. i think it is an honor that you were able to study with him.
i'm going to turn the panel over to catherine, and after that you will have the opportunity for questions. say that i amo very pleased to be with you on this afternoon. returning to gettysburg. i certainly give jim mcpherson some credit. but i also want you to know that it is really you gathering in the summer heat and studying the civil war for 30 years. givee been asked to preliminary remarks and observations to get the ball rolling; exam i can share insights with you, rather than ballying to reduce -- rolling, so that i can share nd i hope weh you, an can engage in a four-way usversation, the three of and you, the audience. my first visit to the institute
was 30 years ago, courtesy of jim mcpherson. i want to say it was you, the audience that convert me, rather than the scholars of civil war history. when nina silver and i launched our counter frontal assault on civil war studies with divided households -- divided houses in the last decade of the 20th century, and then with battle scars in the first decade of the 21st century, little did we realize the great waves, the mighty tide of scholarship dynamics and revisionism that would come out of that, that women in civil war history would come out of the stockyards in which they had been trapped, cap's scholars scrapping in the sandboxes. my vision is that the violation -- lack women
in black houses, my title was reconstructing free women, almost a quarter-century ago. women, black and white, north and south, can really be a part of this great agenda. i am glad we are gathering here, and we welcome your questions about much of what is going on. focus onally try to southern womanhood, the struggle for women to overthrow male restraint, to defeat male assault and degradation. females seizing equal opportunity. again, i am talking about the women during that era, though i am happy to talk about women in civil war history during the q&a. angela was a dynamic, southern born white woman who said slaves might be emancipated at the same time women are denied equal status. but women can never be free until slavery is abolished. she recognized the interlocking systems of up russian, and she
proposed -- of oppression, and she proposed a domino effect. some joined in and participated, but we know others resisted and separated themselves. women that southern not fit this unpopular definition. i showed the way in which we can find a wider ranging definition to change restrictive dead ends. although i began my publishing career focusing on traditional southern women plantation mistresses, i also wrote on women who assumed the role of plantation mistress, women who south andlaveholding allied themselves with the north, certainly mary todd with her marriage to abraham lincoln and her allegiance to the union. and finally, i am very pleased that i worked on the women who fought the slaveholding power and worked toward a new nation she in liberty, where fought for women's rights, black
rights, as well as humanitarian causes, harriet tubman. grimke might have became an exception as a white southern -- youwho is quick escaped her slaveholding heritage, but during reconstruction she sought out her racially-mixed nephews and to educate these nephews. they attended harvard law school and princeton theological seminary. became a lawyer, later ambassador to haiti, and francis became a presbyterian minister. both became leading civil rights advocates. archibald's daughter, angelina, became a poet and an author. they are really amazing stories of reconciliation and recognition during this reconstruction period. plunge into the aftermath of the civil war, we learn that the war in many ways came home, in many parts of the nation. yes, we know that the civil war
was dramatically played out at bull run and antietam, in vicksburg and petersburg, but i would suggest that from kitchens to courtrooms, from porches to pedestals, american women renewed their battles afterward, -- afterward. their stories remain overshadowed by diplomats. women were romanticized. they were eulogized as descendents of scarlet o'hara, garnering the lion's share of attention. commemoration became a female preoccupation in post-civil war america, raised into an art form by groups such as the udc, and we will be hearing from caroline, so i won't dwell on that, but recovery and rediscovery are the watchwords of an era of exploding interest, expanding resources, renewed intellectual energy, and i predict our new, even more robust era of reconstruction studies will not just remember
the ladies as an earlier generation admonished, but will bring up from the footnotes and into the text the story of women. certainly a generation of scholars today is exploring the household lore. new editions of postwar voices have poured forth from university presses, some of these were very gifted and ambitious. sarah gardner can tell us about the blood and irony that soaked the south in the way of the war. we are reminded of other women's contributions, urban, northern, struggling with wartime. we can interrogate how war accelerated the opportunity for females, intentional or not, and how competing during the postwar. and. by the 1980's, -- the postwar period. burns's civil war.
i had made my critique elsewhere about the minimalist treatment in the series. i give the burns brothers credit for setting a fire, transforming the cold shoulder, particularly amongst university presses, into a red-hot publishing market. the fascination of civil war fans remains very buoyant, even the hunger for civil war video games, which are up to 26 and still counting. civil war history and women's history can no longer remain mutually exclusive. puzzled over how to engage the elusive african-american audience. this is a conundrum and painful puzzle for many of us excavating 19th-century sources, but we can begin by engaging with the dismantling conceptions of southern womanhood, which
continued to exclude or caricature black women. for women ofecords color such as suzy king taylor has created deeper, white or whiteration -- appreciation. the film "rebel" has reexport my interest in bringing scholarship to larger audiences. new cinematic, televised presentation of reconstruction. i think we forget that scarlet o'hara's story in "gone with the wind," which in some ways replaced the heroine lillian gish played in birth of a nation, continues very fascinating, and we have to remember that "gone with the wind" dealt with reconstruction. scene 618, andn
the war and at singing 344. a large proportion -- ends at 344.g 344 -- scene a large proportion deals with reconstruction. many of these notable works earth there offers pulitzer prizes. meanwhile, we hope fictional heroines will be joined by real-life carolyn's, who developed a more authentic appreciation of the war's impact. she is an exemplar of the formerly proud people laid low,
postwar lies, littered with the debris of reckless ego. she hashe 21st century, really become a richer, deeper resource. battles among politicians could took precedence over caring for the sick. homeless wanderers crisscrossed the byways of the south, seeking new bursts of freedom. we know the famous wife of sullivan blue, who was so romantically treated in the first episode of civil war, she did not leave an easy -- live in easy widow life. her southern sisters did not have the federal pensions. when i began my journey nearly 30 years ago, i was on very empty ground. theid have the emergence of magnificent multivolume documentary history of .mancipation we had prize-winning studies by jacqueline jones, deborah gray
white. we had a handful of focused studies. they are strong and sturdy inroads which are still transforming our field. yellen's, jane prize-winning work. the transformation of the plantation household allows us to move the study of freed women into a forward march. we sequences of black men and women liberated and powerful memoirs, such as "proud shoes," as well as harriet tubman's "scenes from a life." perhaps the larger understanding of these women will allow us to replace the names stand ends from all those black women. in my forthcoming book "stepdaughters of history," i suggest we must dismantle the
mammy before we can achieve any true understanding of reconstruction and the civil war. writers peppered their stories with obligatory references. at this moment, my eyes are tenderly filled with tears when i look back through the myths of long years upon the dear image of that slave and recollect how she loved me and her simple manner. all this waiting and missed -- contributesmist to distortion. this became so popular, the northern what writers -- the northern writers joined in. mamie's did not leave us their story, but they stare out at us in 19th century photographs, envisioning emancipation. we heard from barbara on friday night, how we can re-interrogate this evidence. on the literary front, white confabulation's are filtered through the lens of romanticized
fiction, something i've revisited in one of my books, where i labeled it confederate porn. senate, the u.s. authorized a mammy statute. a southern congressmen stated in support of the movement. we recall that you talk of southern civilization, when fidelity and loyalty prevailed. central to this was the mammy, which resembled. beecher stows aunt chloe. -- which resembled harriet owe's aunt chloe. , one contemporary newspaper suggested the statute of instead of having a mammy, it should be replaced by a white daddy, who could be sexually
assaulting a black woman as mammy looks helplessly on. lands for the actual monument stoped outrage. lacks not only culminated, -- butks not only culminated, they organize petitions and letters to politicians. the letter was presented to the calvin coolidge. what name can we give mammy and her anonymous sisters in this of historical revisionism? we are not post-racial, but we in more significant -- more tune with color in status, more attuned to seeing multiple layers of meaning. we could remember a six-year-old , who wasd malvina bequeathed of her owner. inn the owner's wife died 1852, malvina went to live with ruth's daughter, living in rural georgia.
she was illiterate. like most women of her generation, she struggled during , againstction incredible odds. in 1870, she appears with four children. she is working as a maid, a watch or woman, a farm worker. she left a hard life before her death internet -- she lived a hard life before her death in the 1930's. one of her sons was born shortly before or after the civil war and learned to read and write, and by 1900, he is listed as owning his own home. the first wife, alice, had a son named robert. robert married annie. they had to bang. after robert disappeared, and he moved to chicago with her children during the great migration. bersani married a nurse and they had a children. -- her son married a nurse and they had a children. this genealogy? because their granddaughter, michelle obama, lives in the white house as first lady.
[applause] self liberated, southern born harriet tubman has emerged from the sidebars of both the american textbook and our imaginations of the era. she will not be honored just the bridge named after her in south carolina, where she liberated over 175 slaves in one night. but she will be the first woman to have her face prominently on the front of american currency with a foothold -- footnote to martha washington. the $20 the redesign of bill emerges later in the decade, maybe we will see this not just as a token symbol of change, but perhaps heralding the new order where we can embrace a wider spectrum of southern women and there are compliments during reconstruction. am going to hand it over to sarah. >> thank you. i am delighted to see so many people here. [applause]
back tooing to take us focus. one area that deserves our attention is the reconstruction of southern women's intellectual and imaginative lives in the postwar era. certainly, we know that southern -- part of the story that southern white women wrote. indeed, a prodigious river flew from the pans of southern white women. about this in the postwar period, and for the most part we can find ourselves examining the degree to which example of hide some version of the lost cause. i am interested in something more fundamental and more expensive. my comments here today are suggestive rather than for senate as area this is not a for senatethan
if. i was studying the reconstruction period. i have put that on hold. i am now working on a project about reading. this project comes out of that, but what i am giving you today is all i've got. [laughter] you haveer questions for me, i will say, that's a fabulous question. my contention is that the amantic period lasted generation or so longer in the u.s. than it did in england and thatnental europe, mid-19th century americans, those who came of age in the 1820's, 1830's, 1840's, were romantics, and that the war utterly shattered those romantic sensibilities. i don't mean to suggest that southern white women willingly or easily abandoned romanticism's tenets. i do suggest, however, that
holding on proved increasingly difficult. i am going to turn to mary chestnut to illustrate this point. the first example comes from the late summer of 1864. as union troops lay siege on atlanta, mary chestnut "went in readings areke," epic scott's epic poland, something i am sure you are all familiar with, as well as the work of thomas campbell. can't in the -- caught up in the poland's' pathos, she wrote -- home loans -- in the moment, she could distance patriotic sentiment from mourning, but only for a moment. oh, my confederate heroes fallen in the fight, she wrote, you are
not to be matched in song or story. except that they were not matched, they were out son -- out son -- outsung. chestnut acknowledged an unspoken truth. we talked so commonly of them. lossesrmity of wartime candle sensibilities -- can dull sensibilities. literature was designed to heighten sensibilities, heighten the imagination, so person's abilities her friends' sensibilities. conversations become banal and formulaic. remember, was he not a nice fellow? he was killed at shiloh. day, she read the death roll. someone pulled up her hands. oh, here's another one of her friends killed. she was such a good fellow, hardly heroic. of these twotion
entries is telling. chestnut, who allowed herself to be caught up in martial spirit, but she was unable to fulfill the other half of the bargain, the fall anding two olympian status. we might understand chestnut's ability to render the confederate dead. chestnut was less understanding. reading had rekindled a patriotic fire when all seemed bleak, but it also reminded her of the beauty of the film. ralph waldo emerson, who chestnut -- unfulfilled. waldo emerson described the civil war as a new glass to see all our old things through. by the time the confederacy gasped its last breath, chestnut understood this sentiment in ways she previously had not. chestnut spent the last few months of the war as a refugee, first in north carolina, and then in chester, south carolina. let me turn to a next her at comes from her time -- an
excerpt that comes from her time in exile. , and indeed for her compatriots' old ways of understanding had been destroyed. this comes as something of a shock to chestnut, as we shall see in a moment. still, she seems prepared to .tare defeat in the face she remains unsure of her compatriots. so here is chestnut and i'll. this is a lengthy -- in exile. this is a lengthy passage, so bear with me. so here's chestnut in exile. then they overhauled my library, which was on the floor because the only table in the room they had to use for a two table. -- 18 table. 6 -- a tea table.
leer i read last, the tragedy of the world. atound it hard to understand first. eyeballs and the rolling around, and the old king, and i am making. that is not it erie it it is a laying bare of the curtain of propriety we hold up. humanity morally stripped makes us shiver. look at the judge. look at the thief. presto, change sides. who is the judge? who is the thief? preceded thackeray and the tearing off of shams. old mrs. chestnut. and here she is speaking of her mother-in-law, who died the year before. all mrs. chestnut shared her face to share only be pleasant things of life, and shut her eyes to wrong. the most devoted, unremitting
reader of fiction i ever knew. thackeray is a very uncomfortable, disagreeable creature. chestnut.en ms. she sat like a canary bird with no care of tomorrow. she lived in a physical paradise for her her atmosphere own private delusion. chestnut saw, but for many, the answer to her question seemed uncertain. packages suggest, the dissolution of one worldview does not mean a replacement is at the ready. for former confederates to transition to modernism was slow-going. is how toon before it transition play out on the ground? i will need the first to admit that in the great marketplace of
american history, the intellectual culture of the south deserves only a few modest boosts, and i am cool with that. but for those of us who like this sort of thing, these questions pierced scrutiny. thank you. scrutiny. thank you. [applause] i will add my thank you to catherine. thank you all for coming, and thanks for organizing. well, you might be wondering after peta's introduction why i i have neveruse gone farther south in my research than washington. remarksg to keep my where i might have something to add to my conversation today.
my work is focused on women on the northern homefront, but i do have a couple of things i thought i would throw into our mix today. add thanks to catherine for inspiring all of us to follow in your footsteps. i read "divided houses" when i was in graduate school, and i realized it was safe to teach both women's history and civil war history, something catherine referred to as crazy no man's land, which nobody had explored. and nina andherine others writing up a time, it is no longer a no man's land by any means. >> no woman's land. [laughter] so why am i here, and what do i have to add this afternoon? next week marks the one-year anniversary of what has be, to my mind, one of the most potent and poignant reminders of what
all of us, americans, black-and-white, women and men, gained in reconstruction. a federal government that has at times been willing to exercise power to extend rights and enforce those rights. invoking equal protection clause of the 14th amendment, overfill versus hodgins handed down on june 26, was a good decision, i rights, to the civil gains of reconstruction. i was teaching reconstruction class last summer when all of this came. it turned out to be a perfect moment to think about what reconstruction had meant, and how americans at the time thought the world had changed marriage, and -- the war had changed marriage, and what the ramifications were in the postwar era. my mind rushes in many directions. might know bruce, the montgomery county registrar
of wills, who had been issuing marriage license since 2013, in violation of state law at the time. . thought, great for bruce he is getting his day in the a civil waris aficionado. he writes about civil war issues as well. he is a friend of those of us who study civil war. thought of a lot of friends and family members, and how extraordinary that day was. i am sure all of you as well thought the same thing. i also thought that it was so appropriate that the position came at the tail end of the 's anniversary, when everyone was rendering -- was wondering if there was going to be a positive discussion on reconstruction, whether it would be commemorated. including, of course, the 13th amendment ending slavery, the 14th amendment promising a
promising, and the -- equal protection, and the 15th amendment which granted like men voting rights, and the civil rights acts of 1856 and 1875, extending various protections to african-americans and granting them access to various public places. , the civileasure rights act of 1875, lived only a being been declared unconstitutional in 1883. but it pays to remember that among other things, it guaranteed equal treatment in public accommodations. me, and many of you are likely struck by the difference a year can make from last summer to this summer. summer, i was thinking that maybe we are in the midst of another reconstruction, a third reconstruction, several scholars
have wondered. where we were a year ago versus where we are today on federal, and then we fast-forward to the summer, where we are on federal mandates and civil rights protections is a more open question than it was last year. a number of states have launched challenges. recentlenges to a federal mandate regarding public accommodations. it is once again under attack. for our discussion today about reconstructing southern womanhood, i have something to say about that. i want to draw attendees' attention to a vigorous debate that occurred along lawmakers early in reconstruction, and i am just going to be talking about a few things in the spring of 18 65, when lawmakers in washington were worried about marriage. lawmakers in
washington were worried about marriage. they asked how the civil war changed the institution of marriage, and how might lawmakers come together to try to protected or shape this future, mostly to protect it. i want to tell you about three of these briefly, and maybe we can talk more about it in our discussion. that i amld say borrowing all this from extraordinary scholars who have done this work. i will name it for you now so you can jot them down. anna rosen has written an excellent piece -- hannah rosen has written an excellent peach on reconstruction -- piece on reconstruction. amy drew stanley has written extraordinary pieces on lawmakers discussing marriage, the contextualizing marriage. , who has ane frank new book out on marriage, sort
of rethinking this notion of equal access to marriage, or marriage as an expression of the quality. doing thehe ones heavy lifting. i am just doing the easy work, reading their stuff in telling you about it. let me tell you about these three moments. in februarycurred 1865 in the lead up to the passage of a bill called s r-82 r-82, to protect the military efficiency of the united states. it was tied to recruitment of u.s. colored troops. while thee occurred 13th amendment went to the states for ratification. this lesser-known measure extended the immediate reach of emancipation by freeing soldier wives and children owned by masters in border states exempt
from the emancipation proclamation. drew stanleyamy has shown, the measure imposed freeing of slaves wise as competition -- slaved wives as compensation to their enlisted husbands. the outcome turned on how members of the 38th congress defined marriage. senators raised questions about what affects such measures might have on the institution of , like when one senator asked in response to an earlier proposal that the 13th amendment to clara a more open-ended universal freedom, the senator asked, i supposed before the wall a -- before the law, a woman would be as free as a man. a wife would be equal to her husband. and as free as her husband before the law. the senator's question was
rhetorical, but concern about upsetting the relations between husband and wife live below the surface of many debates about slave emancipation. , amyeart of the manner drew stanley explains, was the sovereignty that would supplant the slave master. first moment that i am going to mention. on the last day of the same session, congress voted to create a bureau. among the duties was an ambitious effort to regularize marriage practices among free women and men. examining freedmen's bureau reports and more widowed tension war-widowed -- tension applications found that rather than universally enjoying the freedom to marry, many women were forcibly inducted into the regulatory regime of marriage, as she describes it, by rigorous
enforcement of local anti-bigamy and fornication laws. people were being arrested and for not regularizing their marriage and living in a way that the fines marriage. this is something behind what we have often lauded as a humanitarian relief effort. the authoritarian white male agencies no longer opposed to slavery, white masculinity required new ground on which to be set off area background was marriage. -- be set-off. fat ground was marriage. the work of scholars has shown policies to protect traditional marriage, you might call it today, for more board forces that stood to disrupted. example, and i won't talk a lot about it, but there is another measure that --
if you guys write something nice about me, i can come back in the summer and talk about something samee spring of 1965, the law that outlawed dissemination of pornography to the troops. they were worried about what men were reading and what kind of husbands and sons they would be when they came home, and they were worried about what pornography would do to marriage, but i won't talk about that today. that's just a teaser. but there are a lot of these conversations. what would it be like? hockaday, through legislation, -- how couldontain day, through legislation, shake it or contain what happened during the war? this leaves a few questions. what elements of this reconstruction era debate about marriage do we see residences of today? -- resonances of today?
or to put it another way, what can we learn from that debate that can guide us today, and are we in the midst, as hannah rosen said in an update coming up, are byin the midst of what the considered another period of reconstruction? i think i might stop there and turn it over to the rest. [applause] >> rather than talking among ourselves, maybe we would like to open up to anyone who has any questions, or would like to expand the discussion? i could say that i am very happy ,o comment on most aspects although i have switched to looking at northern man. i just became aware that there were a lot of white northern -- men ine war m
the war. late-breaking news, but nevertheless. wouldn't mind just giving us your name and putting your thoughts out there. >> my name is lewis. i am from pennsylvania. >> just speak a little slower. i am not catching at all. >> my name is louis. i am from pennsylvania. >> thanks so much. >> question is, back in 1965, i worked with the department of welfare in the city of new york. at that time, common law marriages were accepted. i am hearing what you are saying about congress trying to force people to get married, i think i understood it correctly. was common-law marriage common at that time, or is this
something the federal government wanted to impose? >> i'm sorry, the last part of the question? >> is this something the federal government wanted to impose? >> i think the answer to the second question is absolutely yes. in frank's study of it, she found that among three people, there was a federal effort to -- many freed people were incarcerated for violating the laws of marriage and not legalizing them, getting the proper paperwork. >> so were their white people who lived with common-law partners, or is this law for everybody? >> absolutely. this is not the exclusive terrain of free people.
and i don't know whether or not she did a comparative study of if people in the same socioeconomic class -- >> i do know margaret did an early study of what happened to slave marriages, what was the transformation to marriage in the new era? we find a lot of moving testimony. there were people going to register a marriage of a spouse that had already been dead for a decade or more, but they found it very powerfully important to register their marriage. at the same time, you had different states dealing with it -- alabama, mississippi, texas, virginia, west virginia declared -- slave custom-made customary marriage is legal. others, you had to go to a cloudy clerk. -- a county clerk. the charges could be prohibitive. inheritancelso
laws, were only legal marriages would honor the children. some think it was an imposition, others suggest there may have been other motives at play. a legalmix, but it was mess when you have taken a group of people that you treated as property and now you're saying they are citizens. >> so refresh my memory, was the marriage --o make >> it's a stay right, so each state has to deal with it, so that's why it was complicated. but you have a federal issue going on as well. >> so the federal never passed? >> through organizations like the freedmen's bureau, though, you sort of had agents on the , butd administering relief also monitoring the behaviors of free people. it is something the states
control, but on the ground, federal agents are -- >> i understand what you're saying. the final one from me is, if you were not married according to the law, would you get men'smans' relief -- freed relief? ofit would go to the head the family. sometimes there would be more than one woman attached, because even though you had slavery, let's say a matriarchal, legal claim of the status of children, it slipped during the reconstruction period to the federal and state governments only recognizing males as the heads of families, and distribution during that time was very much in the hands of the patriarchy getting it to the patriarchal. >> my final question is, how many angels are there on a --
[laughter] >> in new york, a lot. from new hampshire. a personal question, my wife is a graduate of the university in roanoke. there are a number of women's colleges in the shenandoah valley. i was just wondering, what role, if any, did the women's colleges iny in the reconstruction that particular period? i don't know if you can answer or not -- >> southern women in southern colleges. >> specifically women's colleges. >> my first response is, that's a fabulous question. [laughter] >> what can i say? i know for some of those, and i know about the lutheran women's seminary that was in virginia, and its library stayed open during the war, so i can tell you that there were folks, women who were attending classes, but
there were also soldiers who were stationed nearby who were borrowing books. that does not answer your question, but that's what i've got. >> i think you can look at the work of amy mick candler -- mcha ndler. went onthe idea of what for white southern women, and generally american women, you had 700,000 young been essentially wiped out, and some scholars suggested that might reform movements that led to his settlement houses, to the growth of women's colleges, to women's education, two women trying to seek out self-support during that period, which was very important. in the south as well north, i think the impetus was there. an war had offered opportunity to continue it. although women's education was important, it was limited to people with means, private more than public.
so we see the private school movement and the larger movement of women's education had in in the north. -- had been in the north. to see it move to the south, it is a great book for your wife to work on. thank you. >> i'm from columbia, maryland. i was wondering if you might be able to expand upon the postcteristics of antebellum southern femininity, and how those might have been valued within different racial and economic communities. >> that's a great big question. [laughter] >> i remember a really great story, it was either in mississippi or louisiana, and it was in the late stages of war and occupation, jan white southern women thought it would be -- young white southern women thought it would be honorable to
deny their beauty, and they were fails. --n african of african-american women took it up, and that was hard to imagine, a quality hide the veil. -- he quality behind the veil -- equality behind the veil. then there were laws about how you act with status and class. i think there is a project between what happened between civilian women and soldiers, and that has been taken up in romantic films of the 1930's. but i think, what was the definition of southern women had , how it changed -- womanhood, how it changed, we have a lot of literature on what the dramatic changes were for women during that period. , in writing on opium addictions, said that opiates have become the drug of
choice, and the classic opiate addict of the late 19th century was a white woman. we have ironic turns and twists with what womanhood and southern womanhood was -- what it became in the wake of war. on a brighter note, women took up the banner of preservation, and to be a true southern woman, a good southern woman revered her loss. you touch on something that is a problem, what can be the difference between morning and and heralding the cause? even burying the dead was a great ordeal during reconstruction, reclaiming ing thembring home, having a sense of home. i am struck by some of the southern white women's heritage which pine for lost children, and a very much paralleled the
whose childrens disappeared, and they never got to bury them. sorry, i've -- the slave parents whose children disappeared, and they never got to bury them. sorry, i've wondered. but women's roles were very powerful in the ritual of nou mourning. i think that is something southern women seized during the postwar period, and they put themselves on a level playing field with the men. the women stepped in and after decades, put it together, put it up, and confederate memorialization rested on the shoulder of southern white women. >> i would add to that, i think what we have seen in the historiography over the past 15 or 20 years or so is that no one really speaks of southern women in the sense that it is too brought up a category.
we can talk -- broad of a category. we can talk about freight women and slave women, but we can talk about occupied an occupier, women on the borders during the war. different communities of women can appropriate and redefine what femininity and what womanhood means in a particular context. i think a lot of the scholarship that has emerged recently helps us look at those efforts to redefine it to a particular context. so some issues might be the same education, resisting or now resisting, all kinds of things might play out differently when we look at different discrete communities. >> during the war, women had to take the man's place when they
went away, and that was acceptable. again, and a chapter in my new book, i talk about the impermissible patriots, women who actually were spies, who disguised themselves as men. that was crossing over. but it is true that women sometimes take on these roles when war gives them these roles. patriotic, hill road. they fulfilled the dictates of southern womanhood. no, they didn't. they pulled back. one of the more important things was that southern manhood was trapped in trying to reassert power and authority in the wake of war, and women's femininity was caught on the tightrope of trying to restore their nation, but also maintain their own identity. all sorts of great stuff we have been you, talking about those physically disabled vets who come home, and
how that starts a new conversation about what kind of relationships they have. brian miller was talking about that yesterday. notthe work on whether or , whetherconciliation we sort of overlooked lingering resentment. she finds among women's groups very different experiences in the postwar era. there is a lot of great stuff to answer the question, and many different ways. >> thanks for your question. peter? >> i have two questions. first, i am surprised we have not mentioned the great african-american historian w.e.b. dubois at his book, which work. about they are voices you should all be familiar with.
with black reconstruction, the heart of it is the problem with labor. reflectlike for you to in a very concrete way, what did the problem of labor mean for freed african-american women and white women? my next question, one of my favorite books on reconstruction, hannah rosen's book, which i believe catherine heartned, "terror in the of freedom," about sexual violence against african american women. could you all comment on the motivations behind that violence , and could you explain to us how that sexual violence connected to the politics of reconstruction? it's a big question. catherine: i'd like to start with your dubois mention. i would say i'm aware of that scholar of slavery, where i started out, was very concerned about the way in which slavery is always phrased as a labor question and
know,d that, you something very gendered in its language and you know i can it and i welcome my colleagues addressing it but i at the otherlook great dubois quote, the problem of the 20th century is the the color line and therefore the idea that we about the means of reproduction as well as the means of production and that being a battleground -- especially in the wake of reconstruction. issueat ties into your about reconstruction, that the sexual violation of african american women was, i have central part of mastery, a central part of slave holding. that everyt mean master was taking advantage of powerle as having total over the body of all of his slaves. but it does mean it was manipulated. evidence in the w.p.a. narratives, we have evidence
from court records. this. certainly emphasize it was not emphasized in, slaverya lot of the scholarship and peter made genvesi and eugene he often did not taking victimization of women. he once wrote the free gift of happily wonas more so that he suggested there was a than a stick element to the sexual tension that went on between black and between enslaved and free. during reconstruction, white was certainly challenged by the fact that mastery was being taken away by the federal government, by the exslaves themselves, by their ability of mobility, that they could move that, they could change status. period isof the fraught with the kind of seems extremely
symbolic. we know about lynching and we from the 13vidence volumes of k.k.k. hearings that there was sexual violation, symbolic sexual violation, that the use of a gun disabledrt of a confederate veteran to insert in used as a means of terrorism and yes, hannah rosen and others have written about talked about its significance. we don't want, however, to paint portrait of an era of, you know, massive -- we want to talk symbolism and the symbolism was that the losers were the confederacy. the confederacy fought its loss levels and one of them was saying that the protection womanhood was a significant, important mission during the reconstruction period that you had to
demonize african american men, terrorize african american women and you had to get white women back up on the pedestal and built a fence them. them to protect that's one of my formulas. maybe my colleagues have to contribute. sarah: i add to your list of reading, "they left great marks on me" looked back at these hearings, as well. and when i use hannah rosen's book in my class, i always have a disclaimer on the book because it's a troubling book trigger -- youve have to warn them about the sort of danger of this triggering own emotional reactions to ownal violence in their lives. what i like about what kadata has done with these hearings is she's talked about -- students ofays ask why would women color put themselves through that? why would they go in front of
these congressmen and relive that moment when they were raped? and part of that's coming from their life andin but it's -- the point that her booksen makes in and i think k adata makes in her book, as well, is that it was an important moment for them, as recruiting of allies, that the telling the victimization allowed them to sort of move but also to get other people in their community them and it was an important healing moment for them to tell that story. very powerful -- a very powerful way to think about turningt of moment and that -- not sort of rejecting the victimization but starting toward the corner recovery. suggests thatosen
these hearings influence congressmen. it was those testimonies by klan that pushed conversation in washington to rights act.il so these are not -- these are moments where -- powerful recovery moments and which women are able to reclaim just a bit of agency. i forgot what the other question about.t you had asked catherine: he's interested in labor. judith: i'm sorry, i was going thing.one there's something else that amy stanley does in her book is at, you know, there were moments, not to get back to my point about marriage but she moments in which freed from sued for divorce their husbands and many times it's over questions of labor,
that there is this -- sort of marriage contract and when one was married that one's theings then became property of one's husband and it newlyd tension among freed, freed people and some of them would wind up in court to they suddenlyause realized there was this sort of ownedation that husbands the fruit of their labor. really -- on a sort of microcosmic level, those play out among freed people, in freed people's families, in marriages. catherine: they did own their freed women's property acts were passed on a state by basis, you traded one master for another under the law. sarah: i would add to judy's comments about testifying that one other way -- an confidential -- additional way to read it is that it demonstrates
and freedomation absolutely demands a recognition body,onomy of one's personal autonomy, and that the federal government is behooved that autonomy against violence.istic catherine: yes. are there any good works that discuss the role of southern push for women's voting rights? catherine: that's a happy note, would say margorie scrowheeler has a book dealing with this issue. it's complicated during this period, to say the least, during certainly the, formal women's rights suffrage split into a state certainly into into the democrats or anyone who a vote even if they're pushing an anti-black
feminism gets roiled during that period. the national women's association of suffrage decides to meet outside d.c., they're going to and fredericka douglass who had been at the original meeting pushing the seneca fallsn at was pushed off the platform because, indeed, the argument of fem niftsese southern pushing for an agenda of getting the vote out was for white women that you would have a southern white women's vote to growing african american vote. it is a long and complicated not onlyut i think does margorie do a good job but there are several other works. daniel go?re did if you could repeat your full question. i'm sorry to ask you to do that or somebody else can tell me
what it was. i didn't hear the whole question. >> i'll give it to you. actually --u have it was are there any good intersectione between southern women, be it fore or black, and the push voting rights? judith: oh, yes. catherine: and african american, penn does dealg with the southern wing. add to that,ld there's still a lot of work to on post-war of suffrage. there's still a lot of really good work left to be done in that regard. lisa ketchoff has written a book called "the myth of seneca falls" which it seems to me
game potentially be a changer. i think it was published in 2014. she talks about how in the then thatra, it's susan b. anthony rush in to history because they're writing their history of suffrage prematurely in the and they rush in at that moment to create this kind of makerm narrative and seneca falls sort of the origin -- sort ofassociate shrink down what's grass roots shrink itaried, they down to sort of we were there and everybody should be but there's a rich story to be told about suffrage before the well,d after the war, as that i think gets overlooked when we focus on that one those two, youby know, giants.
catherine: we'd like to hear from you. patricia hollaman from new york city. of information and rephrasing my question standing in line because some of it was answered, which is good, because the definition of what is a southern woman, i'm taking everybody in and that's not apparent in the structure of the title but my question, cut right to the chase and i haven't read book becauses sitting with all of you is really an experience because not only do you know the name of the book, you remember who wrote it and at my age that's an accomplishment. i'm wondering is there any beends or anything has written about children who were of slave rape and paternal existence? that's done inng that instance?
i understand how legitimacy was in those days but is there anything that was done in that work because it's in people's families. judith: is it mel painter who wrote -- called for a cost accounting? that nel painter? i'm going to stick with that, later on i might find out i'm incorrect. wrote an essay years ago now about sort of we have not yet the psychological consequences of slavery and she talks a lot about rape and sort of -- and others have referred to it, as sort of the how does a negotiate -- what is the mother of a child -- what does whatell that child and does she not tell that child when the child asks questions and sort of how do you manage a mother and sort of, you not giving children information that makes them feel whatever unloved or and she refers to that as sort
of the long-term psychological that we really haven't -- the short answer to your question is there isn't -- i'm not familiar with anything like that but there are these -- there have been occasionally these calls for us as scholars take these things into account. sort of -- it could get -- the psychological part but there parentage claims. judith: she also talks about it meanthe -- what does for children to grow up in violence, right? know -- we know, you know, because of modern social science we can tell you about psychological effects of that on children. but we haven't then taken that at thosed backward children who grew up as -- up as smallrew children as slaves and then what do they sort of become as do they deal with these kinds of issues? i think those are important questions. think they have been addressed in a lot of
family biographies that have gone on. edward balls rights, in the family, the hairstons and a new generation. kvaerner solers, neither black white, either, is a wonderful literary study and he about 25 years ago why is it historians don't deal with this and the literary so the literature of passing of interracial liaisons is so rich in 19th and early 20th century african american literature. scholars have really done this and you can promise you tonight i'll be able to give you list but unfortunately i have been told that our time is short me,ou can also email at --ineclinton judith: toney morris son does this. catherine: we want to have scholarly work and it is coming there and it is important but i'm sorry our time
is running short and we're happy to take your individual questions for the rest of the time or up front. up.lease come let's thank the panelists. thank you so much. [applause] [captions performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] weekend onp this celebrating ory, responding to lincoln's gettysburg address. replies, "gettysburg the world responds to the address" reads passages from the book. >> his presence still resonates from the words he has written and the artifacts and documents he has left behind for our posterity. simple yet deeply complex man who looked at plainly andes purely.
he accepted and spoke the truth. many believe lincoln transcended all other presidents who have since.before him and his great american story has --ched and continued continues to reach across anders and oceans, races religions, politics and party lines. on reel:00 p.m., america, the march in washington. 1963, the u.s. information agency filmed the march on washington for jobs and produced a documentary for foreign audiences. at 430 chicago p.m. eastern, this year marks the the nasaversary of viking landing on mars. recently discussed viking program. >> the events surrounding the 1976, werey 20, incredibly exciting. when the lan