Skip to main content

tv   Lectures in History  CSPAN  August 29, 2016 10:23pm-11:40pm EDT

10:23 pm
informed consent were not fully articulated until well after this time, so not really fair to go back and say, well, they didn't do things the way they would have done. the committee did come up with a method of making retrospective. that i think makes a lot of sense. first of all, they said there are certain basic ethical principles that stand the test of time and place. they then of course pointed out that all of those ethical principles have exceptions. then they said there are certain policies of government departments or agencies, you ought to follow the policies of wherever you're working. the problem here is that if the policies are secret, how do you know about them? finally, they said there are the rules of professional ethics that people need to pay attention to. they did conclude and i agree
10:24 pm
that it's not okay to just use people because they are dying. some of the rationale for some of the plutonium experiments and radiation experiments and other injections was that these people are dying and we might as well get some information from them. being ill and hospitalized did not justify that. you still have to respect them as people. so what are key lessons from the radiation experiments. i've only scratched the surface. i hope you will go and read more about them, in arlene wilson's book, jonathan moreno has a wonderful book on the history of the experiments, these human irradiation experiment books, a lot more detail. one of the lessons is the medicine and the quest for knowledge has to be looked at it the in a specific political,
10:25 pm
economic, social context. it can't be understood if you take it out of the context. these radiations experiments started in the context of a world war and ended in the context of a cold war which turned quite hot on occasion, which was characterized by secrecy, which was characterized by fear that these weapons could be used against us. nonetheless some of the features that came out of these experiments continue to this day. large scale research, big research, for the idea that if you want to do a big project, that you can get government funding to do huge big protocols. even smaller protocols have to do with the era that this is coming out of. people got used to the idea that
10:26 pm
they ought to be funded it do research and many institutions are built on this notion that people doing science, people doing physics, people doing medicine should get funding, should get the funding they need to do the research. one of the casualties of these experiments is trust. even if nobody got hurt, there aren't very many people who think for example that it's a good idea to give children radioactive oatmeal without telling everybody or to release radiation from a plutonium plant to see what happens. even if at the end of the day, nobody got hurt. i think it impedes. the kind of trust that helps to bind society together in the best possible examples. what i tried to do was give you a sense of the radiation experiments, and what happened. we got just a few minutes. let me see if there are any questions or comments. okay.
10:27 pm
well, thank you all for your attention and we'll see you on monday at the medical science building two. the instructions are going to be sent in a message with details. thank you very much. [ applause ] our features include lectures in history, visits to college classrooms, american artifacts, takes a look at the treasures at u.s. historic
10:28 pm
archives, real america, revealing the 20th century through newsreels, the civil war where you hear about people and the presidency focuses on u.s. presidents and first ladies to learn about their politics abdomand legacies on cspan 3. featuring programs from our lectures series. each leads off with a new program. tuesday a look at sexuality in america. we'll begin with a lecture on the origins on the gay rights movement followed bay discussion in the 1950s. gays and lesbians in early 20th century america and race and sex education in the mid-20th century. that's tuesday night on american
10:29 pm
history tv here on cspan 3. each weech american history tv sits in on a lecture. you can watch the classes every saturday and sunday at 11:00 a.m. david dalton covers kol lonization. it follows the end of world war ii. this is about an hour and 15 minutes. all right. where did i stop last time? >> we dropped two atomic bombs on japan, right?
10:30 pm
august 6, august 9th. we'll talk about the post war world roughly defined 1945 to 1960. focus primarily on what's known as the cold war. it's sort of an odd term, cold war. when were you guys born? >> '92. >> you have no concept of the cold war. but this is a term that's applied to post world war ii period to talk about the conflicts between the united states and the soviet union. we are going to emerge from world war ii as the two great global superpowers and this post-war world is literally a struggle between the u.s. and the ussr for global supremacy. it is a cold war simply because we, the united states, could not come into direct military conflict with the soviet union. we're going to be battling them
10:31 pm
all around the world for global supremacy. but never directly. this is -- this is the most important foreign policy issue of the last half of the 20th century, the cold war. it encompasses what's going on in europe after world war ii. it encompasses the fall of china, the communism, korea, vietnam, all kinds of topics that we'll talk about over the next couple of weeks. so, it not only has a foreign component. we're also going to talk today what's going on, the effects of the cold war here at home. and we'll talk about presidential elections. about a domestic issue known as the red scare, sort of the second red scare. and how the united states is sort of going to be gripped with suspicions and paranoia about all things communist.
10:32 pm
so a lot of ground to cover today in terms of foreign policy and domestic policy. all right, so we're going to start with the origins of the cold war. where do we start? well, let's go back really to 1941. last class period when we discussed the war itself, one of the mistakes that i mentioned that hitler made was when he invaded russia in the summer of 1941. he tried to have sort of a second kind of blitzkrieg to get in, get out and knock the russia, the soviet union out of this war. it didn't happen. an early winter, he gets bogged down and then eventually in december of '41, the russian red army gets up and begins to counterattack. hitler gets bogged down in the soviet union. one of the things about the invasion led me to this interesting quote. take a look at this for a second and without the author, tell me who you think. this can be attributed to.
10:33 pm
>> churchill. >> winston churchill. prime minister of great britain. interesting quote. we're going to have strange bedfellows here in world war ii. winston churchill, prime minister of great britain, franklin roosevelt, president of the united states and our ally in our war against hitler is going to be joseph stalin. interesting quote. if hitler invaded hell, i'd at least make a favorable reference to the devil in the house of commons. war makes strange bedfellows. and in this case, we have the united states, great britain, long ties, long sympathies, long-time connection history and culture, and yet we also now have the soviet union as our ally to defeat the common foe of adolph hitler. so the leader of the soviet union, joseph stalin. what do we know about stalin early in the war? not much. what we know now is an awful lot. the greatest murderer of the 20th century.
10:34 pm
imprisoned more of his people into camps, murdered more of his own people than hitler killed jews. he is a ruthless brutal, paranoid dictator for the soviet union. now, when i say paranoid, i mean sort of schizophrenic kind of paranoid. he is paranoid about the safety and security of his country. two times now they've been invaded from the west by germany, world war i and world war ii. there's no natural boundary that separates, there's no division on his western front that would be an obstacle that would prevent other nations from invading. and so twice now, his country has been invaded and his people have suffered the consequences. he's very paranoid about the safety and security of his western front. he's also paranoid again about his own position of power. we have on the one hand
10:35 pm
democracy, capitalism, free enterprise in the west and we have this sort of totalitarian dictatorship in the east. he's very paranoid about the attempts to solidify his power or attempts that he would be thrown out of power. one of the things that he is going to make or make known early in the war is that he has some demands. one obviously is going to be a western front. hitler's army is bogged down in russia. the russian people are suffering. the russian red army is suffering the consequences of this. he wants or really is going to demand that the allies, meaning primarily great britain and the united states will open up a second front in europe to help his army in the east. that would draw some of hitler's forces from the eastern front and allow his army to gain some momentum. try to drive them out of their country. he wants a western front. another demand that he has, or a consequence of this first demand is that when we actually do
10:36 pm
attack in europe, it's not actually in europe. that's not until 1944. american forces first go into battle in north africa. he doesn't like that at all. he wants a western european front. in his paranoid ways, he is thinking that we do this intentionally. we don't attack in western europe to help him in the east. we actually are attacking in north africa, which is very little of concern or help to him. he thinks we're doing this almost intentionally so that the nazi forces in russia could continue to wear down the russian forces in the east. he's -- that's not the case. we talked about this last time. where we're trying to stretch hitler's forces thin. we're trying to make him stretch his resources until something snaps, fighting a three-front war instead of a two-front war. but in stalin's mind, our third front in north africa was intentional to punish his people.
10:37 pm
we don't like communists so this is a way that we are trying to destroy them. and the other thing that he's going to make known to the west to churchill, to roosevelt, is that he wants protection. when this war is over and we are victorious, meaning we meaning the allies are victorious, he wants a buffer zone of protection. but he wasn't very specific. that is, he wants to be able to protect his country from any further invasions. does he want 50 miles? does he want 500 miles? does he want part of a country, all of a country, more than one country? he's not very specific on what he wants in terms of this buffer zone of protection. he'll get specific later. but the here early in the war, we're sort of uneasy allies to defeat common foe in hitler. we know a little bit about stalin. we know some of his demands, some of his philosophies. but we'll learn much more about him as time goes on.
10:38 pm
so what's roosevelt's response? president roosevelt guiding us through the great depression, now into war. roosevelt believes that the best way to the win this war senior -- is to cooperate with stalin. if there is one term that i could give you that is synonymous with roosevelt's foreign policy in dealing with the soviet union, it is simply cooperation. don't antagonize stalin. yeah, our systems may be different. democracy, capitalism on the one hand, communism, socialism on the other. we may be very different in terms of our political and economic systems and institutions. but we have to cooperate with each other to defeat adolph hitler. and that is going to be the driving force in roosevelt's foreign policy in dealing with stalin. we're going to go along, get along as far as we can and as far as that will take us. well, the first time that roosevelt, churchill and stalin
10:39 pm
meet is in 1943 in tehran. they've communicated with each other with telegrams and the like, but never face to face. they probably already developed some predisposed notions of what the other guy is, what he looks like, what he likes to do, that sort of thing. but the first face to face meeting of the "big three" stalin, roosevelt, churchill, is in 1943 in tehran. they are going to be talking about several items. foremost on their list is, the progress of the war and by 1943, the war's going well. if you'll remember from last time by 1943, we have already driven the german forces out of north africa, an invasion of sicily and an invasion of italy by now. the russian red army is beginning to push the nazis out of their country. we are also in the planning stages of operation overlord, d-day.
10:40 pm
all of this is happening by the time these guys meet in 1943. and so it's a pretty friendly meeting. it's a cordial meeting. they're getting to know each other. they're exchanging, you know, pleasantries, telling jokes. it's sort of a very cordial atmosphere. roosevelt even commented that you know, this guy stalin, he's not so bad after all. thinking that i can cooperate with him. we'll be able to get along. and so the progress of the war really dictates that this is a fairly pleasant meeting. they're also going to be planning for the post-war world when this war is over, we need to be able to cooperate with each other to figure out what peace will look like. one of the things that comes out of tehran is stalin is just insisting this operation overlord, this invasion of
10:41 pm
normandy, this western front that i've been asking for, it's going to happen, right? yes, we're in the final stages of this planning. it is going to happen. in exchange for that, stalin informs roosevelt that once hitler is defeated, once hitler is defeated, his nation will declare war on japan. that hadn't happened yet. we're fighting japan in the pacific. soviet union has not declared war on japan. here in tehran, stalin tells roosevelt, you guys go ahead with the d-day. we defeat hitler and with three months, within three months of hitler's defeat, the soviet union will declare war on japan. and help you, the americans, defeat this nation. so it's a very friendly kind of cordial meeting. the next time they get together, it's a little bit different.
10:42 pm
in february of 1945, the big three meet for a second time. it's known as the yalta conference. this is on the black sea. this time, things have changed because if you'll remember everywhere last class period, by the early part of 1945, the red army is driving deep into germany by now. they've already pushed the nazis out of their country all the way through poland and into germany and they are knocking on the door of berlin. the western allies, the americans, the british, well, we got slowed down a little bit along that way. what was that? >> battle of the bulge. >> battle bulge. that's going to slow us down in our race to get to berlin. they get there first. we talked about that last time. so what i'm getting at is, when these guys meet again at yalta, the situation favors the soviet union. they are closer to berlin.
10:43 pm
they are going to get there first and so stalin uses that as a little bit of leverage. he's no longer sort of going to cooperate with the americans and the british. he's going to start making demands. this is what i want in the post-war world. he begins to get more specific with his demands. one of which is poland. his buffer zone of protection is not 50 miles. he wants all of poland. i want a few other eastern european countries. not all of them, he said. i will allow for free elections to be held in some of them. but he is starting to define what he wants in terms of spheres of influence. there's no negotiation on this. here's the big three again. and if you notice anything different about it, it's
10:44 pm
franklin roosevelt. this is the impact of war. as well as his health. he doesn't look well. some historians have said roosevelt really wasn't well at yalta, he wasn't at his best. but roosevelt's going to agree to some of stalin's demands, poland, for example. part of it is simply he's maintaining that philosophy of wanting to try to cooperate with this guy. i'm not going to antagonize you. i want to cooperate with you. part of it might be he wasn't -- in fact, some historians claim part of the reason, you know, roosevelt gave in a little bit at yalta was he's simply not at his best. the fact is, he's not. six weeks later, a little over six weeks later, roosevelt is dead. we talked about this on tuesday. cerebral hemorrhage, april of '45. roosevelt is dead.
10:45 pm
the president who carried us through the depression, the new deal on the road to war and now almost, almost all the way through the war is gone. that brings a change. missouri's own harry truman now becomes president of the united states. very interesting circumstances, obviously. we are just about to wrap up the war in europe. we are i land hopping our way into japan. i mean, it looks promising and yet, there are all kinds of pot holes along the way. we still have to finish the defeat of germany. we still have to finish off japan. how we do that, when we do that, and what are the consequences of what we're doing, that's the rest of the story. truman is going to meet with stalin and churchill in potsdam,
10:46 pm
germany, after hitler is defeated. i mean, it's a new big three now with harry truman being the president now instead of roosevelt. truman's attitude is going to be very different from that of roosevelt. and some indication of that change of u.s. policy comes right away. remember i mentioned to you that even vice president harry truman had not been kept informed of the manhattan project. there are probably a few things you need to know, one of them is we have been working on a bomb. you know what, it is the biggest, baddest bomb around. here in potsdam, truman gets the word that it works. we have successfully detonated an atomic bomb.
10:47 pm
it works. and so he goes over to stalin and says to him, yeah, hitler's been defeated. we want to cooperate with you, but i need to let you in on a little secret. the secret is, we're going to end this war with japan because we have an atomic weapon, the likes of which, again, the world has never seen. that was supposed to be news to stalin. it wasn't. he already knew. really ironic, our own vice president harry truman was sort of kept in the dark about the whole development. yet stalin already knew. we had spies who passed information along.
10:48 pm
he already knew we were very close to having a successful nuclear weapon. well, what truman is going to do is give the japanese an opportunity to surrender. when they don't, we talked about this, we dropped two, first on hiroshima and we dropped and the japanese surrender. i mentioned to you to save american lives. the estimates, what was the casualty if we were going to invade japan. today i will give you a
10:49 pm
secondary reason. joseph stalen is a completely different message about the relationship with the soviet union. we are going drop this bomb to send you a signal. truman will have a very different foreign policy objective. he will rely on this guy. this is george, our so called expert on all things soviet and all things stalin. george kennan probably knew more about the history of the soviet union, the current status than anybody else. he came to truman with basically
10:50 pm
a couple of themes, if you will. he told truman first that there can never the soviet union. we are simply two different countries. so don't even try. roosevelt tried to cooperate with them, and he's saying we're simply too different. the second thing that he told truman is that joseph stalin is determined to undermine and overthrow free and democratic countries around the world. if you thought hitler was determined to take over the world, joseph stalin probably is. he will use every opportunity he can to spread communist around the world. therefore, what truman was hearing was a change in foreign policy. kennan is going to recommend that the united states not cooperate with the soviet union
10:51 pm
anymore but we need to contain the soviet union. this is a dramatic shift in u.s. foreign policy. containment. if stalin is trying to infiltrate this area or this country, we must be there, stop them, thwart them, hold them back, contain their expansion. this is what kennan is advising. and so the days of cooperation are gone. the days of containment are here. this is going to mean that the united states is going to have a dramatic shift in foreign policy that largely lasts up to this day, where we are going to become sort of the big brother to the world. we are going to be involved in other countries around the world. the days of isolationism are gone now. how does containment play itself out? well, 1947 is a big year for the cold war. harry truman is now going to start to describe for the american people and for the
10:52 pm
world what containment actually means. there is trouble in greece and turkey. after world war ii, both greece and turkey are struggling financially, politically. there is rebellions. there is insurrections in these two countries. truman is going to develop what is known as the truman doctrine in which the united states is going to send over $400 million in economic assistance to greece and turkey. now, brief explanation. this is exactly what kennan was talking about. there is insurrection and people rioting in the street. there is a problem. is it possible that the soviet union is infiltrated in greece and turkey trying to overthrow countries in the mediterranean? this is exactly what we have been warned about. stalin is not just content with controlling eastern europe, now he's spreading his influence down into the mediterranean.
10:53 pm
now, that's not the case. we know that today. but in 1947, it fit perfectly with our suspicions of stalin and the soviet union. so we're going to get involved. we're going to send $400 million worth of aid to prop them up to defend themselves against this insurgency. second element of containment, the marshall plan, named after george marshall. $13 billion in economic assistance to rebuild western europe. world war ii has devastated france, belgium. the netherlands, britain. they are in a weakened state. as long as they are in weakened state, they are susceptible to influence, foreign influence, communist influence. when people are at the bottom rung, they are willing to listen
10:54 pm
to anyone who offers them a different message of hope or whatever. the best way to hold back communist expansion is to with a healthy rebuilt europe, $13 billion to rebuild western europe, to hold back the soviet expansion. congress passes the national security act in 1947. this is an amazing piece of legislation and has lots of facets to it and creates a national security agency. we're going to revamp our military, coordinate our various branches of the military. but what i want to talk about specifically today is it created the cia. what does that stand for? >> central intelligence agency. >> if josef stalin is bent upon undermining free and democratic countries around the world, we ought to know that. how are we going to know that unless we have people in countries already the world? we will send out folks who are
10:55 pm
going out to gather intelligence. i'm not talking about james bond. we are going to be sending out individuals working for the government, eyes and ears. what's going on in this country? are they susceptible to influence? of course, if we think that the soviet union will undermine and overthrow free and democratic countries, maybe those guys might have the opportunity to undermine a weak and vacillating communist state as well. so we're not only going to go out there and gather intelligence, we might spark a little rebellion on our own behalf if we see stalin sort of asleep at the wheel. and then finally, in 1947, we sign the rio pact. it sounds like a song, but it's a military alliance between most of the countries of central and south america and the united states. it's a defensive alliance. where an attack upon one is an
10:56 pm
attack upon all. of course, big brother, the united states, will come to their aid and rescue. we have always been the protector of the western hemisphere, from the days back in the monroe doctrine, the 1800s. now we codified that and say we will militarily come to the aid and assistance of countries in central and south america. this is a lot of stuff in just one year. this is containment. stop for a second and put yourself in joseph stalin's shoes. the united states has gotten involved in greece and turkey. the mediterranean. the united states has gotten involved in rebuilding western europe. the united states is sending out guys all around the world, and now we have signed on to a military alliance in central and south america. if you are joseph stalin, who is
10:57 pm
the great threat to the peace safety, and security of the world? who is trying to take over the world? >> us. >> yes, the united states. if you paranoid and suspicious, it's the united states. so if you are joseph stalin, you have to respond. the cold war is like a tennis match. it goes from one court to the other. we do something, the soviet union does something. we respond, they respond. here is stalin's response. he is going to tighten up control over countries in eastern europe. hungary and czechoslovakia i mentioned here specifically because those were two countries that were supposed to have free elections after world war ii is over. well, the free elections go out the window by 1948. the communists have a purge of leadership and the two countries
10:58 pm
will be puppet regimes of the soviet union and then berlin. it gets complicated now. just keep in mind that during world war ii at the very end you've got the russian, the soviet army is driving deep into germany. they're going to get to berlin before we do. they're going to occupy much of eastern germany with their army, with their forces. berlin is a very important city in german history and culture and government and politics. it is going to be a divided city here in the cold war era. we are going have the eastern part of berlin controlled by the soviet union and the western part of berlin will be divided into different sectors. the french, the british, the american sectors.
10:59 pm
it's a divided city in a divided country. i know this is a foreign concept to you guys. my generation, it makes perfect sense. i grew up understanding there was always an east germany and a west germany and an east berlin and a west berlin up until about 1989, 1990. you guys were not even born then. this is difficult for to you comprehend. back in the end of the world war ii, the soviet red army moved into and controlled much of east germany and surrounded berlin. the americans, the british, and the french are going to have a presence there because we have to wind up the war and we have to have negotiations and have to have a demilitarization and have a presence in berlin. as a response to containment and as a response to everything truman was doing, what joseph stalin did was to try to drive us out of berlin in the summer of 1948.
11:00 pm
what he is going to do is cut off all ground access into and out of west berlin. up until this point, you could freely and easily move from one sector to the other without much of a problem or much of an issue. you show proper identification, you can cross from the american sector to the soviet sector or back and forth into different sectors. in june of '48, stalin puts a stop to that. we are not building a wall yet. the berlin wall comes later. what stalin is going to do is put up a perimeter that separates east from west and around the exterior of west berlin. he is basically holding west berliners prisoners. nothing is coming in or going out. he is trying to basically starve west berlin, meaning the
11:01 pm
americans, the british, and the french, to get our countries out of west berlin so that he has complete control over the city. it's a blockade, if you will, of west berlin. what does truman do? is he going to allow our interest and allies' interests in west berlin to be eliminated simply because stalin has this ability to close us off by land? truman is going to respond with almost an entire year of an airlift of goods and supplies. food, fuel, anything that the people of west berlin needed will now be flown in to that part of the city. i love the map simply because it shows you that in each of the three sectors, each of the three sectors has an airport. so we can fly in cargo planes into each sector, loaded with food, medicine, supplies, wal-mart gift cards and aa batteries.
11:02 pm
whatever they need, they will have access to. truman knows they won't shoot down those planes. if you stop and think about your geography here, these planes are going to have to fly from -- take off maybe from a base in great britain, fly across the channel, across friendly air space in western europe, and then they have to fly over eastern germany before they can get into west berlin. they have to fly into soviet controlled airspace. truman said they won't be shot down. nothing stalin can do about us airlifting all these goods and supplies into west berlin. he won't shoot down the planes. why not? [ inaudible ] >> and if the war starts -- we have the bomb and they don't. truman has a very tough stance against stalin. he's talking tough. we've got the bomb and you
11:03 pm
don't. our experts had told truman it would probably be at least five if not ten or maybe even more than that years down the road before the soviet union would ever have the ability to successfully detonate an atomic bomb. we can fly all the planes in and resupply and help the people of west berlin, fly over soviet-controlled airspace, and they won't be shut down. we have the bomb and they don't. eventually the airlift is over in may of 1949. stalin was trying to drag it out and see if our resolve would weaken. it didn't. we have planes taking off and landing 24/7. it's a battle of wills and we won out. when it's said and done, berlin is going to be a divided city. we are going to string up barbed wire, have checkpoints along the
11:04 pm
way, and eventually, a wall is going to be built. that's another lecture for another day. >> is it like 24-hours? >> yeah, basically he's going to have forces along the interior separating east and west berlin, as well as simply move them in -- since west berlin is technically in east germany, they're going to be forces that they can quickly move in and blockade the roads and the waterways to make sure nothing gets in or out. at the very bottom of that slide, truman's response at the attempt to blockade. what does nato stand for? what's the "o" stand for? organization. good. north atlantic treaty organization. this is sort of the byproduct of the rio pact. if we are going to have a military alliance with latin america, nato is sort of a military alliance with western europe.
11:05 pm
an attack upon a country of nato is going to bring the united states' involvement. you don't want that, joseph stalin. you don't want that at all. why? because we have the bomb and you don't. the cold war is back and forth and back and forth. we do something, they do something. well, here's the soviet response to the creation of nato and the airlift. remember, experts informed truman it would be five years, ten years, maybe more down the road before the soviet union would ever have the atomic bomb. no. in early september, an american spy plane picks up evidence of a successful nuclear blast.
11:06 pm
it's not us. the blast actually occurred at the very end of august. truman is informed in early september. folks, this changes everything. truman's foreign policy, his containment, has been predicated on this very tough stance against the soviet union because when push comes to shove, we have the bomb and they don't. well, now, that changes because the soviet union has successfully detonated an atomic bomb. by the end of 1949, we basically have a stalemate in europe. the united states is propping up western europe economically and militarily. the soviet union is propping up eastern europe economically, militarily. both countries are mutually suspicious of each other, and both countries now have an atomic bomb.
11:07 pm
we are an awful lot alike and we know that we simply don't want to push that envelope much further with both countries possessing nuclear weapons. so what happens then when we have this stalemate in europe, it simply means the cold war is going to spread into a different area. and we are headed into asia now. who is this fellow? >> chairman mao. >> chairman mao. may tse-tung. >> i lived down the street from street in cambodia. and i live a block away from it. >> wow. >> isn't that cool? >> how many years ago was that? >> mao tse-tung? when you lived there. >> december. a year ago. >> really? recent. all right. here's the situation in china.
11:08 pm
after the war is over, there is a civil war that engulfs china. between the forces of chang kai-shek and may tse-tung. the nationalists and the communists, a civil war. long story short is, by the end of 1949, mao and the communists drive the nationalists out over to the island of formosa, taiwan, and china falls to communism. this is not a good couple of months for harry truman. if you stop and think about it, he is informed that the soviet union has successfully detonated an atomic bomb, and then a couple months later, he finds out the most populous state in the world has fallen to communism. it's not a good fall/early winter for harry truman. the largest territorial state in
11:09 pm
the world has an atomic bomb. the most populace state in the world has now fallen to communism. in our minds, they are linked. and, in fact, in early 1950, the chinese and the soviets, they sign a treaty of mutual assistance which just solidifies the fact that a communist is a communist is a communist. again, what we know today is that chinese communism and soviet communism, there are some real differences. but back in 1949, 1950, this is panic starting to envelope in the united states. we have stopped the spread of communism in europe, but look what's happened in other parts of the world. so we have to respond, some way, somehow. this is containment. instead of containing communist expansion in europe, we have to contain it in another part of the world. what do we do? one is that we simply refuse to recognize the legitimacy of mao.
11:10 pm
for over 30 years the united states is not going to have any sort of diplomatic relationship with communist china. we will continue to recognize the chinese government in taiwan as the legitimate government of china. we simply aren't going to have anything to do with mao and the communists in china. all right. that doesn't hurt them much. but we have to find a way to stop or contain communism in this part of the world and need a new best friend. one of the strange ironies of the cold war is the nation that we just nuked back into the flintstone era a few years earlier is now our new best friend. by 1950, we're going to start rebuilding japan so that they can help us stop the spread of chinese communism in this part of the world. then finally, there is a document that is known as nsc-68. this is a national security
11:11 pm
council report simply listed as nsc-68. it will outline what the united states should do as we turn into the 1950s in dealing with communism. three things. first it said we shouldn't try to contain it anymore. we need to go to war and have victory over communism, not just try to contain it, but be victorious over it. second, in order to do that, we will have to have a huge increase in our defense budget. i just threw some numbers up there for you. i haven't done the math yet. somebody has to help me out. our defense budget goes from $13 billion in 1950 up to $50 billion just three years later. i don't know what percent of increase that is, but it's big. we are building up not only the conventional weapons, but more
11:12 pm
planes and more ships and tanks and artillery, but we're also going to build up a new bomb. the development of the thermonuclear bomb or it's simply called the hydrogen bomb. we have to do this because the soviet union has the atomic bomb. if they have the atomic bomb, we need a new bigger, badder bomb. we are going to be developing the hydrogen bomb. in other words, we're starting an arms race with the soviet union. >> that's why the japan was willing to join us so easily as an ally because they were intimidated? >> fair question. i think they are looking for who will offer them economic assistance and help them rebuild? they are always wary of the chinese, certainly wary of the soviet union, and the united states is reaching out, offering something of an olive branch as well as a lot of financial assistance.
11:13 pm
we'll take it. an arms race is now a byproduct of the cold war. you have this weapon and we have to have another weapon. all of which brings me to dr. seuss. you all read dr. seuss growing up, right? anybody read "the butter battle" book? it's about the cold war. i'm not talking about "the foot book" and the "abc" book and all those classics. dr. seuss wrote a book about the cold war. "the butter battle book." i don't have time to read it to you. the library has a copy and i have got it in my office. classic. it's about two groups. the zooks and the yooks. they don't like each other. why? because one group butters their bread butter side up and the other is butter side down. now there is a reason to go to war.
11:14 pm
how you butter your bread. but it's a children's story about the cold war and the escalation of it. i said i wasn't going to read to you, but i'm just going to read the end of it, the very end, because it's about developing weapons and one side getting something and the other side responding with a bigger weapon. but at the very end, they have developed the big boy boomeroo. okay? and right here at the very end, the yooks and the zooks are clashing. they are coming to the wall that separates them and both have the big boy boomeroo. here's how dr. seuss ends the book. grandpa, i shouted, be careful. oh, gee, who's going to drop it? will you or will he? be patient, said grandpa. we'll see, we'll see. it's a cliff hanger. dr. seuss, right there. who is going to drop the big boy boomeroo?
11:15 pm
it's the cold war. we have atomic weapons and the soviet union has atomic weapons. we have an atomic bomb. they get one. we have to have a hydrogen bomb that takes an atomic bomb to detonate it, to set it off. dr. seuss. anyway. it's an arms race now. what is the soviets' response? here we go. it's not enough. they want to have the largest standing army in the world. they are going to develop one that encompasses nearly 3 million men. that's a lot of folks. they are going to escalate their atomic weapons program, if we're working on a hydrogen bomb, then they're going to work on it as well, or something else.
11:16 pm
the most interesting thing in terms of the soviet response is this. support for their satellites. i use that term in quotes because i mean not only their countries. they're going to ensure that their control of eastern europe is solid, solidified. no threat of being overthrown. but satellites in terms of technology. the soviet union is going to pour a lot of money into their weapons development program, as well as their space technology program. and they will put into space rockets and satellites, and in 1957, they are going to do something that absolutely terrified us. what is launched in 1957? >> sputnik. >> sputnik, this little thing,
11:17 pm
ball-looking device that is orbiting the earth, beeping as it's going across the horizon. it absolutely terrified us. we don't have that. we have not yet successfully put a satellite into space, and yet they have. the shock, the realization is they are ahead of us in this space race. so we've got to catch up. sputnik is a drop kick to nasa. we are going to push and put a lot of money into rocket technology, space technology, and eventually we will win this race and put a man on the moon before they do, but that's another lecture for another day. you need to understand there are suspicions and paranoias on both sides. when we do something, the soviet union responds. when they do something, it affects us, and the cold war is not done yet. it's not just the fall of china
11:18 pm
and it's not just the united states cozying up to japan, but it's going to explode. the cold war is going to heat up, if you will, in korea. now remember the last lecture of world war ii. we talked about korea being occupied by japan. once the war is over, the united states and the soviet union decide to divide korea with the united states being in control of the southern part of korea and the soviet union is going to be administering the northern part of korea. eventually, both u.s. and ussr agree we will withdraw and allow the koreans to have some degree of self-determination. we're going to pull out, the soviet union is going to pull out. the koreans will be able to determine their future and their fate. and we both did. the difference is, when we pulled out, we took everything
11:19 pm
with us. when the soviet union pulled out, they left behind a stockpile of weapons. the most modern military technology that they had at the time. that's a temptation that was going to be used. the following summer, 1950, north korea with the use of soviet military armaments, they will invade south korea and try to take possession of the entire country. this is exactly what kennan had warned us about, truman says. soviet union is not content. they're going to expand now, you know, into other areas. this is a classic example of expansion and trying to take over the southern part of korea. we must respond. but he doesn't go to congress to ask for a declaration of war. he thought it might set a bad precedent. whenever i need to send troops someplace, i don't want to have
11:20 pm
to go to congress and ask them every time. so what he does is he goes to the united nations, the united nations, and asked for a force to be sent to prop up and support and defend the people of south korea. now, the united states is going to do all the heavy lifting here. we will have more men and more equipment, we'll spend more money than any other country in the world defending south korea. that's what's going to happen. since it is technically speaking korea is a police action, as the united nations called it, it's not an officially declared war because only congress can do that and of course truman didn't go to congress. what's going to happen is most of the fighting in 1950 is a back and forth. the red arrow shows you the penetration of the north koreans deep into south korea and then general mcarthur, general douglas mcarthur is going to
11:21 pm
land over here on this eastern coast. he's going to land there and cut off the north korean forces in the southern part of the country. be very successful with that and then ac-arthur decides not to be satisfied with just simply driving the north koreans out of south korea. he decides to invade, move northward into the northern part of the country. if you follow that blue arrow, he's headed north. what's the country on the other side of the dotted line right there? that's china. you are mao. it's the summer of 1950 and you have been in power less than a year. you know the policy of the united states that is to contain communist expansion and all of a sudden here at your backdoor, you've got a well-decorated united states general leading united nations forces and they are getting closer and closer and closer. if you are mao, you are as
11:22 pm
paranoid as stalin has always been. if you're mao, you're probably thinking this is all a means to an end. the war in korea is a means to an end. that is, to drive mao and the communists from power in china. we're using the korean conflict as an excuse to invade china. and so his response is to send flood after flood of chinese troops across the border to support the north koreans to stop the americans. by 1950, we get bogged down. the united states is not only fighting north korean communists but now we're fighting chinese communists, and this war is going to go on until 1953. but the most significant military action occurs here in the first year. and by the summer of '53, we
11:23 pm
agree to end this conflict with a permanent division of the country at the 38th parallel. south of the 38th parallel, south korea will be a free democratic and capitalistic state. north of the 38th parallel, north korea will be a totalitarian communist state, and it's still that way today. it's a divided country today and one of the great flash points, i mean, you have this lunatic in north korea who every now and again threatens nuclear warfare against somebody waiting for countries around the world to pay him off. well, it's a flashpoint today. its origins are here in the middle of the cold war. and one other area to move into. it's not just korea, it's not just in china. outlined in red, what is that country? >> vietnam. >> that's vietnam.
11:24 pm
this is an area that we talked about called french indochina. back in the world war ii lecture we talked about how the japanese invaded french indochina and there was nothing france could do about it because france had already been knocked out of the war and the japanese had moved in and took over. well, now that the war is over, the vietnamese would like to have their own right to determine their nation and their status. this guy wants to do that. that is ho chi minh. he wants to lead an independence movement in vietnam in 1945 and in fact declared vietnam, drafts a vietnamese declaration of independence in 1945 that is modeled after our own united states declaration of independence. if you put the two documents side by side, they are eerily similar. you would think that the united states would support a nation who wants to be free and independent, self-determination.
11:25 pm
we don't. why not? we are not really going to support france in this. it's more of ho chi minh's political tendency. he is a communist. as much as we would like to support the independence of a nation, we are not going to support the independence of vietnam under communist control. we're going to contain it, as best we can. that's next week's lecture for another day. vietnam gets a whole day. there is an awful lot going on in terms of the cold war abroad. the mediterranean, western europe, western hemisphere, china, korea, vietnam. all of these things are a part of the cold war. shift gears now. while all of that is going on
11:26 pm
overseas, what effect does that have at home? the cold war on the home front. well, one of the things we are suspicious of are communists. if you want to get anything done, you give it to congress to do. so we are going to flush them out with a congressional committee called hoaac. the house on americans activity committee, huac. one of the interesting things is, we are going to investigate hollywood. hollywood turns out all kinds of movies about world war ii, movies in which the enemy are the japanese, the enemy are the germans. why is it that hollywood is not producing movies in which the enemy are the russians or the communists? is it possible that the communists have infiltrated our film industry and that's the reason why we're not producing these kinds of movies? we are going to investigate. so we're going to have all kind
11:27 pm
of subpoenas. we're going to have movie stars come to washington, d.c., raise your right hand, i am not now nor have i ever been a member of the communist party. you deflect attention from yourself and profess your undying loyalty and devotion to all things american, mom, apple pie, hot dogs, whatever the slogan is. chevys? what is that? yeah, anyway. ronald reagan. not president yet. gary cooper, iconic actor. they called all kinds of folks to come and talk about whether or not communism has infiltrated the movie industry. if you decided, i'm not going to play this game, i'm an american, i have rights. we don't do this sort of thing in this country. suspicion, innuendo.
11:28 pm
well, we do. but there were ten folks who said, i will invoke my fifth amendment rights. self-incrimination. i'm not going to answer your questions. well, you know what that means, don't you? you're a communist. exactly. if you're going to invoke your fifth amendment rights, well, that must mean you're a communist. so we draw up this blacklist. you don't hire these people. they didn't stand up and profess loyalty to this country, therefore, they must be a communist. don't hire them. because if you do, you know what that means, you're a communist. and then it goes and it goes and it goes. and then it goes and goes. it's like that ripple effect. remember the soviet union has an atomic bomb, 1949? we need to figure out how that happened. it couldn't have been that they developed a technology themselves. they had to have help. where did the help come from? it had to come from within the
11:29 pm
united states. one of the classic examples of searching through and figuring out who was involved in espionage activities focuses on the husband and wife team ethyl and julius rosenberg. >> i have a question. >> yes. >> why is the woman's name first? >> i decided to put it first, alphabetically. they will be charged separately and both convicted of espionage, passing along atomic secrets to the soviet union in 1951 and executed for espionage in 1953. this is serious business now. the united states has been infiltrated by soviet spies.
11:30 pm
nothing more serious than the atomic weapons program and the rosenbergs paid the price. what we have then in the united states is a full-fledged red scare. we talked about this after world war i, in the 1920s. this is really a second red scare. we are afraid that the united states, here on our own shores, had been infiltrated. every aspect of american life. we are suspicious of everyone and everything. your next door neighbor might be a spy. it's your american responsibility, your duty to report suspicious activity. the band leader synonymous with the red scare and flushing out the communists, wherever they might be, is this fellow. recognize him? joseph mccarthy, senator from wisconsin. the united states senator from wisconsin.
11:31 pm
what he is going to do is gain a lot of attention in 1950 and he's going to go to wheeling, west virginia, and he's going to deliver a speech. in part of that speech, he is going to hold up a piece of paper and he says, i hold here in my hand a list of 205 names of known communists working in the state department. you see i have a piece of paper in my hand? see this writing on it? see the names, things on here? i'm joseph mccarthy. i'm a united states senator, i'm waving a piece of paper in my hand and i'm saying i have a list of 205 known communists working in the state department. don't you think that got a little bit of attention? we are not in the news cycle 24/7 like we are today, but it is still going to get a lot of attention in 1950. all of a sudden the questions. who's on that list? how did he get the list?
11:32 pm
are there other communists other than in the state department? all of a sudden a junior senator from wisconsin is going to be the darling of the news media. who is he and how did he get the information? a clue that maybe some of his claims and charges were not necessarily on the up and up is that when he would repeat the claim that he knew of communists in the state department, the numbers kept changing. they go from 205 to 56 and the numbers just kept changing. nonetheless, he is going to conduct hearings in washington, d.c., where individuals would be subpoenad, come to testify as to what they know about communism infiltrating the federal government. this is the day and age of television. television is brand-new into the 1950s.
11:33 pm
what the radio was to the 1920s, the television is to the 1950s. there is no better show on tv in the 1950s than the mccarthy hearings. people are glued to the set. i want to see who the communist is. when it's all said and done, he didn't get a single conviction. yet his legacy still lives on to this day. when there are charges and accusations that are filed that a certain group doesn't necessarily like, they'll say, oh, that's just mccarthyism. well, it's a part of the cold war, and it's a part of the times in the early '50s in which we are paranoid and suspicious of all kinds of things. and generally we look to the president in those days of leadership. >> would that be considered the same thing as yellow journalism that we saw before? >> i'm not sure we're trying to sell newspapers so much in this
11:34 pm
regard. it's -- i'd say you're in the general area but with a slight difference of intent. less -- more political, less economic. all right. while all of this red scare is going on, we generally look to the president for leadership. harry truman, who'd taken this very tough stand against the soviet union, he's got a very difficult time by the early '50s. we're bogged down in korea. we are at a stalemate in terms of the soviet union, and the slide said his hands are tied by politics. and by that i mean harry truman is a democrat, and yet members of his own party are pulling away from him by the early '50s because he is starting to push for civil rights.
11:35 pm
that's another lecture for another day. southern democrats, conservative southern democrats, are going to push back against truman, who wants to push forward a civil rights agenda. so he loses support from his own democratic party, and the republicans aren't going to help truman anyway. they're just playing politics. truman's popularity plummets. and by the early '50s, there's sort of a change in the political atmosphere. remember i talked about a 30-year cycle. the 1920s, conservative and republican. 1930s, liberal and democratic. the 1940s, a transition, if you will, because of the war. we're back to our 30-year cycle. the 1950s are going to be more conservative and republican and dominated by these two guys, dwight d. eisenhower and richard nixon, elected in 1952 and '56.
11:36 pm
republicans regain the white house. >> republican and what? >> republican and much more conservative. >> who better to lead a cold war than a general? dwight d. eisenhower. one of the most decorated generals in world war ii. he wasn't really a politician, yet, and in fact no one really knew if he was a republican or a democrat, not even interested in politics, but he decided to get involved. the republicans got him, and everybody seemed to like ike, as he was known. he was just a very personable gentleman. well, the popularity of eisenhower is not just because of his military record of world war ii. it also has to do with the economy of the day.
11:37 pm
when you take a look at how the united states emerged from world war ii, we're going to have this dramatic boon. and when things are good, when people have jobs and they're having more income than they've ever had before, they tend to like the party. the republicans are going to be the benefactors of that in the 1950s. i'll give you three things here that are part of this postwar prosperity. simply because of world war ii, the united states is going to have a tremendous trade surplus, not a trade deficit but a trade surplus. we're going to be sending a lot of american-made goods overseas, to europe, to other parts of the world that have been devastated because of the war. that is going to fire up american factories. remember, when we were talking about the great depression and i said the new deal did an awful lot of good, it put a lot of people back to work, but it didn't completely pull us out of the depression, only world war ii does, this is what i'm talking about now.
11:38 pm
we are -- americans are back to work as never before, and that continues into this postwar period. another part of the prosperity is simply the cold war itself. just the dramatic increase in the defense budget. we're building a lot of new weapons and armaments for war. if you are in a defense-related industry, you've got a job, literally a gravy train to keep that job. and then finally, the prosperity is due to something called the baby boom. sounds ridiculous, i know. if you were born between 1946 and 1964, let me see a show of hands. anybody? anybody? yeah. i'm a proud member of the baby boom generation. soldiers come back, get married, start families. there is this tremendous demographic called the baby
11:39 pm
boom. what does that have to do with economic prosperity? well, you know what? when you start having kids, you start having to buy all kinds of things that you don't usually use as an adult. okay? i mean, all of a sudden the size of your family has increased so you've got to buy baby clothes. you've got to buy a bigger car. you've got to have a bigger house. you've got to have this and that. it's going to drive the american economy. the american consumer drives the american economy. these are very prosperous times for us as a people and us as a nation. and the prosperity benefits the republican party. my favorite word? and you knew it was coming. not everybody in america is happy. not everybody's content.

27 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on