tv U.S. Women Spies in the Philippines During World War II CSPAN September 4, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT
19th-century mansion from george washington and the revolutionary war to robert e lee and the civil war. they learned about the enslaved people who lived their lives there and legacies live on. program one entire monday at 11:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m.. american history tv and holidays, too on c-span3. next on american history tv, history professor teresa talks about her book, angels of the underground. the american women who resisted the philippines in world war ii. she talks about for american women involved in espionage rings after the japanese indication -- invasion. is at aminute event conference and was hosted by the macarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia.
>> now we will go to the philippines which has lavished on the japanese rule. this will get to a subject that manilausing which is the espionage ring. many of them not knowing who they were. our guest speaker is dr. teresa. different speakers shere and different styles, has a hard time getting around because of school, but we are glad she chose to come here. the story is crazy. teresa has captured it very well.
without further do, dr. teresa kaminsky. [applause] >> good afternoon, everyone. first of all, i wanted to thank jim and everyone here as macarthur for this kind invitation. --m now on, i'm going to use for other things, this is an invitation i would never have passed up on. the chance to talk about these angels. i'm grateful for the invitation and i am working right here to do this and deliver this presentation. i am a college professor. i'm kind of used to powerpoint.
i'm not used to cameras. i'm used to audiences like this but they are usually pressman and stop wars. -- freshmen and sophomores. [laughter] i hope you will excuse any scholarly language that might escape my lips even though what i'm try to do is really to tell a story. tell a story that has not often and told about world war ii this aspect of life in the pacific theater. i know i'm in a different war here. i think most of you recognize this image. this is from one of the opening scenes of gone with the wind. we have scarlet o'hara talking
with the charleston twin just as the civil war is breaking out. what really strikes me about this, gone with the wind was published in 1936. it was made into a movie in 1939. i think you all know the basic story. in the course of the novel, margaret mitchell writes, war is men's business. then she spends about a hundred pages showing us exactly what scarlet o'hara did to survive the war and to live through the years of the rebuilding. what we know about scarlett o'hara, she lied, she cheated, she stole, and in one very famous case, she committed murder to make sure she got through the war. i keep coming back to the image and margaret mitchell's comment because i think it reflects the women's roles and
more, we as americans have tried to believe that statement that war is men's business, but as margaret mitchell also proved, that is totally not true. involvede always been in war even though they are not involved in the decision-making. they are not politicians, they are not know terry leaders. basis withn a daily the consequences of those decisions. that is why always think about margaret mitchell and scarlet o'hara as i start contemplating quite as important to know about the kinds of women i wrote about in angels of the underground. they are very complicated. they don't present us with a very black and white picture of the way people are supposed to
be behaving. with inare familiar terms of images of women during world war ii, there were opportunities for american women to participate. i think most of us have seen some of these images. we do know that this was the first time in american history where women were allowed into all of the branches of the armed services. not that they were kept out during world war i, but during the second world war, we have a much more complete form of service. all of those branches allowing women into military service. as medicalions personnel, nurses, were very much needed during the war. we also have seen lots of familiar images of rosie the riveter.
there were a lot of different opportunities for women. ofe mind'stuck in americans was even if they could participate in the various ways during the war, the one thing that was supposed to distinguish american women from all other women during this conflict was that they would never be put into harm's way unless they chose to. if they were with one of the branches of the military, especially one of the nursing course, that they understood that this was a choice that they made. other than that, women were supposed to be safe. they were supposed to be not combatants. for the most part, or american women at least, that was true. least,american women at that was true. except for the women living in the philippines. on what focuses
happened to those american women who are caught in that time period that many historians of douglas macarthur dispensed within a signal sentence. macarthur evacuated from current indoor and returned -- c oridador and then returned. what happened to other people after macarthur left? after the american and filipino forces were forced to surrender to the japanese? what was life like on those occupied islands? just in case anybody needs a reminder, i think probably most of you don't, the recent that americans were there in the first place, number into the thousands, has to do with
american imperialism. the expansion is nature of the american government in the early 20th century led to a takeover of the philippines following the spanish-american war. thereited states remained he it on a direct path of confrontation with the japanese who were also very interested in territorial expansion and occupying the philippines as well. attack atith the pearl harbor and the philippine islands, that contest came to a head. there were lots of civilians. caught in the middle of that. -- civilians who were caught in the middle of that. this is one of my favorite january,ken in early 1942, shortly after the japanese occupied the city of manila. happened, the four
women that i feature in angels of the underground were faced with a decision. one of these women is pictured here. we see here on the left. she is standing with some and loss of her. .that is not her own family. she had gone to the philippines in the late 1920's. she was trained as a nurse. she was a civilian nurse. she needed a vacation. she was widowed. she had a small sun at the time. son at the time. she thought it would be not to visit. we are not sure how she got there. she ended up there in manila. she did not want to leave. she did not have to leave because she fell in love and got married. we see pictured on the right her husband.
this is when he was much younger and serving in world war i. after the war, he settled in the philippines. he was working as a civilian engineer on the island. after he married peggy, the two of them settled there and peggy was envisioning this very happy future for them. , lots ofof leisure time to play bridge and go dancing and listen to music. comingthought what was with axa going to happen. woman -- was actually going to happen. another woman, an illustration showing her cycling past the gates were other civilians were interned. she was an american woman from
nebraska. she likes to travel. led her to travels various places in the world. she married a french man. up but wasey opened considered the best french restaurants in the city of manila. husband as a french citizen went off to join the french army and never returned. gladys remained in the city operating her restaurant for as long as she possibly could. the third woman in angels of the underground, we see her pictured all the way on the far left with a big camera. nobody needs cameras like those anymore. she was born in the united states. her mother was a philippine immigrant. her father was irish-american. she returned to the philippines
as a teenager with her first marriage. she carved out a career as a journalist. while she was working around manila, she also said she was recruited into the u.s. army intelligence. she kept a close eye on japanese immigrants and was reporting back everything she learned to her handlers. probablyh woman is come if anybody knows about occupied manila and some of the underground espionage work, they are probably more familiar with this american woman, claire phillips. to manilallips went sometime in the late 1930's. she wanted to be famous. she was a singer, and entertainer and she could not get a career going in the states
and thought she would have a better chance where americans were considered more of a novelty. -- where americans were considered more of a novelty. she did have quite a bit of a career in local nightclubs including the metropolitan theater which was a big venue for entertainment. very short haired -- marriage to a filipino while she was there. she thought she was divorced from him. that is another story in my book. in the meantime, in late 1941, claire phillips entered into a relationship with a young american soldier recently arrived in manila. his name was john phillips. a photograph with him. as far as i know, there are none that exist. this is just an image of the
31st infantry. he was with the communications division. all four of these women were living in manila when the war started. clearly remember very waking up early morning, december 8, on a monday. they still thought at the beginning of this that there was a chance that macarthur and his men were going to be able to dictate the japanese very quickly. none of these women felt panicky at this point. they thought the worst they would have to live through would be a blockade. they figured it would be a struggle but they could live with that. heard this morning, things did not go quite that
way. the japanese made significant inroads very quickly. by christmas time of 1941, general macarthur decided to designate manila as an open city letting the japanese now that the city would not be defended. there were hopes to see the infrastructure of the city -- save the infrastructure and civilians of the city. at the same time, macarthur was falling back from manila and the were heading into botanic peninsula. action to delay in help reinforcements would come in. we know the end of that story. i will say little bit more about that.
when american and filipino forces left manila, this gave the japanese the opportunity to launch their invasion. on january 2 of acting 42, the japanese moved into the city and within days they begin the process of registering and interning all allied nationals. pretty much overnight, women like peggy and claire phillips became designated as enemy nationals. in manila and the surrounding areas, and local university was designated as the internment site. this is an aerial photograph we have showing how the different campus buildings were used for interned in. of veryend to think modern university campuses and think, is a situation like this
-- if a situation like this occurs, it would not be a bad thing to be concentrated on a university campus. you have a nice buildings and dormitories. this university was a day university. was thething it lacked one thing that thousands of internees whitney -- would need. laces to sleep -- places to sleep. places to cook food. the japanese occupation authorities were not interested in providing resources to help whothe civilian internees were left on their own devices. the four women in my book made it up -- the determination early on they would not end up at an internment camp. ur american women and knew they were being rounded up. they decided that they would not
be going. while the city was being gladysd by the japanese, and peggy remained in the city. froms was exempted internment. the japanese considered that an american woman or any woman legal identity was tied to that of her husband. 1941, since germany had set up the government, france was considered to be a concord government -- conquered country and germany was an ally of japan. the japanese occupation authorities allowed gladys for freedom because of her marriage to a french national.
she downplayed the fact that her husband had gone off to fight with the free french. she did not think that would go over well. they were willing to allow her to remain out of internment. yai capitalize on her filipino heritage and put in about that she was in fact very anti-american. she was willing to work with the japanese and they recruited her to work at a radio station in manila. an occupation she eagerly took up because she is her time on -- use to try and send sendime on the air to coded messages. peggy set out in her apartment for 10 weeks hoping to abate anybody who could identify her -- evade anybody who could
identify her as an american. why gladys remained out of internment, she used her restaurant connection to start supplying the civilian internees . she was bred with most of those people. she did not like to see the situation they were in. outalso started to branch her supply network because her nephew was one of the american. pows after the fall -- after the fall of [indiscernible] as i mentioned, yai stayed in manila for a couple of months until the situation became too dangerous for her. out whatese figured she was doing while she was on the air and they actually issued
an arrest warrant for her. just a fewd of it hours before it was supposed to be served. she was working her shift. citykipped out and let the just ahead of the arrest warrant. her goal was to find a way to get the military to help. when she left manila, she headed to the east into the mountains. she figured she could find a guerrilla group. she did run into markings guerrillas. one of the largest and most well-known role of forces -- guerrilla forces. this is a post for photograph. they were lovers as well as compatriots. she did indeed spend at the duration of the war in the hills
acting as his right-handed person and running his training camp while he was out in the field. claire phillips with her relationship with john phillips, he was part of the 31st infantry which retreated from manila. packd her packer things -- her things and follow along with u.s. forces into the bataan peninsula. they both believed she would be safer the closer she stayed to the american army. she also had a small daughter. bale the first battle for bataan,s going onn, --
claire phillips was going on tried to keep track of her fiance and keep her daughter alive. the peninsula also figures into peggy's story. after spending 10 weeks hiding out in her apartment, figuring out what she wanted to do, she also decided she needed to make aan.way to bat when she emerged from her department -- apartment, she had heard about the surrender. she knew all the other americans tomas.shen santa arranged to have false identity papers made. she understood it was a danger. she capitalized on her married last name. lithuania had been occupied by german forces. it was neutralized so she figured she was safe and
claiming with the way and citizenship. click papers showing her as a lithuanian citizen she got a job with the newly constituted philippine red cross which got permission from the japanese occupation authorities to go ataan peninsula when the battle was finished to help with civilian relief. she made her way there shortly after the surrender. shortly after that death march. all around her she saw the physical evidence of that battle and the death march. everywhere she set up a clinic civilians,o nurse she was asking anybody if they had seen her husband. withade a couple of trips the philippine red cross. this made the necessary connections she would need for her own prison relief organization that she started --
prisoner relief organization that she started soon afterwards. an -- baayed on but to taan. she went out looking for phil several times. one of the times when she thought she had found him, she in fact ran into another young soldier recently separated from the 31st infantry. we see him pictured there on the left. his name was john been. -- boone. his papers are in the archive here. he was getting ready to start up his own guerrilla force. he asked claire it she would help him out. she put him off for a little while. she said she was not sure what she wanted to do. oone impressed upon earth that guerrillas could use a lot of help from the city of manila
to help organize the dispersal of both information and supplies. when claire learned the details of the death march, when she heard about the surrender of [indiscernible] this is when she decided that she would go back to manila and figure out a way to help the defeated americans. she did the same thing that peggy did. manila,ire returned to she had false identity papers made up that claimed she was an italian national. italy being the other ally of japan. claire --he name dorothy fuentes.
it was the name of her first latino husband. by having these identity papers, she claimed exception from internment as an italian national and by virtue of her marriage to a filipino citizen. heralso decided to put talents to use. she was a singer and entertainer. she figured that that would help get the two kind of information that the guerrillas were going to use and need. in the meantime, peggy was getng to figure out how to supplies into the prisoner of war camps. her connections with the red cross led her to working also through the religious manila.ies in
in her neighborhood there was a church and content which was convent -- content -- which was staffed by irish priests. it was turned into a hospital or in the work and served as a huge warehouse for supplies that were collected for both the guerrillas and pows. they would be funneled into this convent and this priest would help peggy disburse aid. for those of you who know about the death march, we know about the terrible loss of life during the process of that march. the prisoners ended up first at camp o'donnell and 10 at -- then tuwahn.a
the military prisoners had it much worse. the japanese and attitudes about people who surrendered made the situation even more horrifying. haiti was getting this information quickly about how many men were dying there each disease.starvation and she worried very much that her husband was one of those. she knew he had actually survived the surrender, she knew he had made it into o'donnell. she did not note what had happened to him after that. peggy, theird , to help help pow's the guerrillas was connected to personal issues. they had men in their lives that military,ved with the so they did feel it was their duty to help. used medical and
religious connections, claire decided to open up a nightclub with her fake identity papers. she worked with a local chinese businessman to provide backing for the tsubaki club. in 1945 --foot taken a photo taken in 1945. the woman standing in front of it is not claire phillips, it is just some random person walking around in manila and had her picture taken in front of this t chuck church it in the fall of 1942, claire phillips opened up this nightclub which was designed to cater specifically to high-ranking japanese officials, both military and civilian. while she and her staff were plying them with drink said
entertainment, the nature they were carefully listening to all the conversations that were going on in gathering all of that information and reporting through guerrilla forces. believed all of these messages did get to macarthur headquarters in australia. she was convinced while the war was going on that she was making a material contribution, especially through the intelligence that she was able to funnel. all of these activities, of by the were not welcome occupation authorities. theseing, spying, all of were offenses that the japanese kept a very close watch on. lots of civilians were rounded up, arrested and taken to fort santiago for interrogation.
that and claire both knew they were living on borrowed time. toy knew what happened people who were caught and they did know the japanese had a knack for eventually tracking down all of these people who were involved in these networks and try to get them to talk. and if they did not, then at least removing them from the situation. fear ofmen did live in being arrested and taken to fort santiago. they did their work in spite of this fear and in spite of the fact that both of them were eventually arrested. the japanese game for peggy first, they arrested her in a hospital in manila where she was working. ironically, her patient at the time of her arrest was none other than claire phillips. it is an interesting story. was taken to fort
santiago. the japanese suspected that she was really an american. they did not quite have a sense of her as the head of what was network, butmiss-u they believed she was operating under a false nationality. she was interrogated for about 30 days in force at? -- fort santiago. interrogation being a benign term fort urge or. -- term for torture. they actually let her go. she was released and she laid very low in manila after that for obvious reasons. she was certain the japanese would figure out a way to pick her up. meantime, the miss-u network did continue to operate. peggy kept a very low profile.
the rest of her operatives basically picked up the slack. claire phillips, also known as high pockets, was part of that network. it was also made up of dozens, maybe hundreds of filipinos living in and around manila. this was a vast enterprise that reached all the way to cabana. this was a long pipeline of prisoner aid. 1944, theing of japanese finally unraveled that system. they traced how these extra supplies were getting into the prisoners. these caribou cards that were used to bring supplies into the peggy i, claire and found out ways to fill them with extra supplies.
the japanese are figured all this out. some ofrted arresting the prisoners in the camp. they started arresting operatives were living around the cap. finally, claire phillips and some of her supporters back in manila in may of 1944 were also arrested. claire spent some time in fort santiago as well being interrogated. she was not let go. she was actually put on trial. she was convicted of helping to aid the prisoners and she was sentenced to 10 years hard labor in it women's prison -- in a women's prison. when peggy heard about clarie's arrest, she went to some friends who were hiding clarie's daughter, and peggy took that diane, and she
went off to some guerrillas in the hills. throughout the duration of the was a nurse with the guerrilla forces. designated a lieutenant. she had a rank, she carried a side arm, although during the course of the months up in the hills, she had to increasingly use a smaller weapon because after a while she lost so much weight that she could not carry around a big gun that drag on her. she could not hold it up. rank,e did achieve that she did achieve that distinction among the guerrillas. hills when news came that the americans had returned. book ended kind of macarthur's story, he has came back. when the americans came back,
where we our four women? peggy, in the hills with the guerrillas. hi -- ine east int he the hills. still, living, unencumbered by internment, but living in one of the manila neighborhoods so she would actually experience that battle for manila. missing?are we claire, in prison. she is in jail, and she hears about the americans arriving. the guerrillas make contact with her and let her know that they know that she is there. they are willing to spring her before the american troops get in. she says she will wait and hold on for that liberation.
but in her final days she was also worried because increasingly there were stories that the japanese were simply killing all their prisoners. you all know about the great raid, why that was carried out. days inived her last prison before liberation wondering if the japanese were, in fact, going to kill all the prisoners before the americans got to them. but this was not the case. of these angels did in fact survived the war -- i am not really giving anything away from the end of the book, so in case you like that suspense, that is not really what the suspense is. it is more how they survived. in the end, then, what did liberation main? -- mean? what did it mean to have survived this war? women hadf these nothing left at the end of the war. the men in their lives, with the
otherion of yai, but the three woman lost the men in their lives. claire phillips was reunited with her daughter. safe during the war, brought her back, reunited her with her mother. were of these four women also awarded the medal of freedom after world war ii. that had beenal inaugurated specifically as a way of honoring civilians who had helped with the american cause outside of the united states. we see claire phillips receiving her medal of freedom award. there was some public recognition for what these women had done during the war. wroteur of these women memoirs. you probably have not heard of them. probably the most best-selling was yai's.
as a professional journalist, she got a big new york publishing house to take it. it did get some good reviews. claire phillips had her book published by a very small press and oregon and she is the only women who hadour the distinction and honor of having hollywood come knocking. film versionally a from 1951, "i was an american spy," b-movie., classic if you have not seen it, you really should. it is not a terribly truthful rendition of her experiences. know period you who music, the only thing that is well known from that b-movie, this was a big hit in 1951, 1952
for tony bennett. you" was the theme song for the claire phillips story. it is an interesting pop-culture cayenne. pop-culturedid -- tie in. these women had post-traumatic stress, no way of coping with it except for writing their memoirs. when they each died, there were no military honors for them, there were no even public recognitions of what they had done during the war. they simply faded away. thank you. [applause] prof. kaminski: questions? >> i have a couple comments that
you might want to include on your future presentation. first of all, you had pictures of american women, red cross and so forth -- but there were also a number of women with oss. they did serve with distinction in europe. macarthur, because of bad blood, they would not allow oss, the predecessor of cia, in the far-east command. prof. kaminski: yes, and i -- thinkole oss-thing was i probably the subject of another separate book. very upset with the american military, who was very willing to take information from her. ,hen she wanted to evacuate
they would not let her go because they said you are a woman, you do not belong there. she said, well, i can drive this jeep, i can do anything, really. she knew the value of the intelligence work she was doing but they thought it was at an end at the point. you say a few words about how the general filipino population was treated during those four years by the japanese occupying army? prof. kaminski: not very well. the japanese had a tremendous propaganda campaign called the greater east asia: disparity -- sphere.a co-hosperity this was their attempt to create an asian brotherhood. anti-caucation and anti-american. theirpanese try to pitch
occupation of the philippines as a way of liberating the philippines from their american masters. there was independence granted to the philippine islands during the course of the war but that independence from the japanese was also not a real independence because the occupation authorities did not leave. civilians were just as --ely to be arrested probably the one big distinction was the japanese did release filipino military prisoners of war when o'donnell was shut down. there was a big show of letting the filipino man go home to their families and the japanese believed that with this gracious gesture, these men would not take up arms against the japanese, and of course they
were wrong about that. many of those men ended up, i believe, with the guerrilla forces after their release. >> [indiscernible] high pockets,: this was a euphemism for a zero. sierre.bra this goes back in history during the american resolution, the american civil war -- women who did smuggle information to opposing sides put stuff in their clothing. back in the days of the hoop skirts, they can move around a lot of information. [laughter] prof. kaminski: claire phillips
had a habit of sticking important notes, sometimes money , all of these things into her bra. she figured it was less likely to be noticeable there i guess. the name high pockets come -- came from her habit of using her brassiere. lettert used the capital u. both of these code names, i sat and read at the national letter u. and diaries letters of men who were in his prison camps. every once in a while there is a fleeting reference -- a shipment of stuff came through the
miss-u network. that is how we know at least some of what these women said they did, they did. should i talk for one more? >> i was curious if you are able to make any connections for the intelligence intended to get past and if that was received, and if they were any ramifications you have not been able to devote in their research. prof. kaminski: that is the big smoking gun question. really helpedjim me out with research. , i think, maybe worth, to someer extent, in terms of intelligence. we know a lot of stuff was coming out and getting funneled to macarthur's headquarters. we cannot as we know,
trace any direct link from her club to australia or to any of the other intelligence officers to know for sure that there is that kind of direct pipeline. i think what is very likely, -- it is clear that she gathered information. there were naval officers in her club, that she gathered -- gather this information and it got put in with all sorts of stuff that got sent. i think in one place in her memoirs she does claim that acause of some information, whole bunch of japanese submarines were sunk around robble, maybe? but there has been no way of tracing a directly. as referred to her network guerrillas without guns.
the without guns meant they focus on intelligence, and that is how they fought the world -- the war. that is what she wanted her contribution to be. one more. >> one more. part of the allure of those of us who were out there during that time -- there was another woman named edie. do you know of her? she was also called a high poc ket. prof. kaminski: i think the name is familiar. >> the story i got it she was sent to o'donnell and she was caught with information in her bra.
to extract this she was in from her, a habit of wearing boots, and they poured hot water into her boots. as a consequence of that, she lost her legs. prof. kaminski: yes, i do or herer hearing -- i think name came up in my first book. her name is very familiar but not for this book. yes. herecause of her and husband, little boys and girls like me were fed by frank buckles, he was a printer and had been in world war i.
he was the oldest living veteran in the united states when he finally died. for us, he fed us. not only his own rations, but chocolate. so, and then edie for us husband provided children, art supplies. the stories they made up, they wrote down. these people made contributions far beyond just gathering intelligence. prof. kaminski: yeah. the supplies really helps. one less thing i want to underscore here. the closest aids they had in their networks were filipino women. the ones who went out, really, to do a lot of this work because they could move around relatively undetected for longer periods of time but lived in
just as much danger. their stories are in the book as well. thank you all. [applause] let me add, my aunt who died 90's, we found up after her death she had a commendation from the united states headquarters. her friends were part of the miss-u network. yes, and there is a long list of them. thank you. [applause] thank you. we are to take a 10 minute break. join american history tv on c-span3. we will be live at 10:00 eastern from the national easy and of
african american history and culture. president obama is expected to join the opening ceremony for the smithsonian's newest museum on the national mall. ms. hill: c-span is in the mile-high city of denver to learn more about its history. you may know her as a titanic survivor, but the unsinkable molly brown actually made her mark on the silver mining industry and colorado state politics. up next, we visit the molly brown house to learn more. ms. wilms: a typical visit for visitors to the molly brown house museum takes you on a tour through the first two floors of her home. you are greeted in the entryway and you take a tour of the first floor and then head up to the residential floor on the second floor. you learn all about margaret's story, her very humble beginnings in hannibal, missouri. she came out to leadville, found love, and a millionaire, eventually. her story is much bigger and better than what hollywood could ever come up with. here we dispel the myth of molly brown and tell you the legacy of margaret brown.
margaret brown, as we call her here -- you will never hear me call her molly. she was born in hannibal, missouri. she had five other siblings at that point in time. she was born in a very small home. her parents were irish immigrants. so, the whole family pitched in. she came to colorado because her brother, daniel, sent a ticket for her to come. at the age of 18, a female at this point in time should be married. she was not. she came out and she actually went to the local catholic parish, and that is where she would meet her husband, jj brown. they married within three months of their first meeting. she was 19 at the time, he was 32. they were living in leadville here in colorado, but then came to denver. he was working on a new way to keep the walls up in the mine so they wouldn't collapse on the miners.
when he was doing that, he found the largest amount of gold in north america. after that the family became overnight millionaires. margaret decided they no longer wanted to live in leadville, colorado. so what happened was they purchased this home in 1894 who had in build in 1899 for $35,000. right now, we are standing in the library. this is my personal favorite room in the entire house. this room shows how margaret loved education. as i mentioned before, her and her siblings all had an eighth grade education, but margaret continued to learn throughout her life. besides english, she did speak five different languages. spanish, italian, french, german, and russian. and when she passed away, she was learning greek. it shows she truly had an ear for languages. in this room we also speak about the many causes that margaret worked hard for. after the massacre of 1914 in southern colorado, margaret
headed down to leadville and stood in the picket line with the striking miners. at thesacre killed 24 hands of the national guard and the company that owned them. she actually went up against the head of the company, john d. rockefeller, to change the lights of these miners. and boy, did she do it. what she did when throughout the entire country and helped changed miner's rights throughout the country. she also worked with the judgere lights of these miners. here in denver to create the first juvenile justice system. not only were children tried as children, they went to jail with other children and work homes were established so that children could work their way back into society. she also helped build the immaculate conception cathedral, which is just two blocks from us. it was completed in 1914 with over 1000 people in attendance. she worshipped there with her mother every sunday. being such a close walk, her and her mother would walk down together. titanic fits into margaret's life as one of the largest
events that would ever happen to her throughout her life. margaret actually was never supposed to be on titanic. she was traveling in europe and egypt with her daughter, helen, who was now grown, along with jj. she received a telegram from her son, larry, saying that her one and only grandson who she had never met was terribly ill. she had to jump on the first ship that was leaving, which was the rms titanic. she hopped on in france. her daughter stayed behind in europe. as they were traveling, everything was going along just fine, and then we all know what happened - that fateful iceberg. the night that the iceberg struck, margaret was relaxing in her room with a book. we have a few things -- all replicas of the time -- that do relate to margaret within titanic. in the late 1990's, of course, that james cameron movie came out, "titanic," and it threw titanic back into the spotlight.
it brought back the story of margaret brown along with those other survivors and people on the ship. very few people know that margaret actually ran for senate early in the 20th century. she ran three times for that office and unfortunately, she never did win. on the wall we do have margaret's campaign photo. as you can see she is standing there, very eloquently, standing next to a chair as a strong, western woman. she always believed that western women have the spirit to hold an office, and also have the ability to vote. colorado gave women the right to vote in 1893, we are the first state to do it by a public referendum. when visitors leave the museum, we hope they walk away with the true story of margaret and her legacy that not only rang here in colorado, but around the world. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: this weekend we are featuring the history of denver, colorado.
learn more about denver at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. announcer: the franklin d roosevelt presidential library and museum celebrated its 75th anniversary earlier this year. members of the roosevelt institute and the vibrator system spoke about his legacy and why he decided to create the first presidential library. this program is a little over one hour. happy days are here again andy. thank you all for coming. i am the director of the library. if i could please ask you all to stand, we'll have the presentation of the colors by the boy scout troop number 17.