tv U.S. Women Spies in the Philippines During World War II CSPAN September 4, 2016 11:00pm-12:02am EDT
the japanese in the philippines in world war ii. she talks about four american women involved in espionage rings in the capital after the japanese invasion and occupation of that country. this >> now we take it to the philippines which lavished under japanese rule for a few years. this one gets into a very confusing subject in time and manila sb nice ring going around. our guest speaker is dr. teresa kaminsky.
she teaches at the satellite university of wisconsin. she has a hard time getting around because of school but we're so glad she chose to come here. it is that element that ties them all together and that is the research at macarthur memorial. crazy and she has captured it very well. without further it do, dr. teresa kaminsky. >> good afternoon, everyone. is this working ok? thankof all, i wanted to jim and everyone here for this very kind invitation.
i think from now on i'm going to use jim's excuse, i'm working here, but for other things. this is an invitation i would never have passed up, the chance to talk about these angels, so i'm very grateful for the invitation, and i am working right here today to do this. and to do this presentation. i am a college professor. ,'m kind of used to powerpoint i'm not used to cameras. i'm used to audiences like this that they are usually freshmen and sophomores. so i hope you will excuse any scholarly language that might sort of escape my lips, even though what i'm trying to do this afternoon really is to tell a story, and the story that has not been told very often about world war ii, and this
particular aspect of life in the pacific the other. i know i am in a different more here. i think most of you recognize this image. this is from one of the opening scenes of gone with the wind. talkingscarlett o'hara with the tarleton twins, just as the civil war is breaking out. what really strikes me about this, gone with the wind was published in 1936. 1939s made into a movie in and i think you all know the basic story there. in the course of the novel, margaret mitchell writes, war is men's business. then she spends about 800 pages showing us exactly what scarlett o'hara did to survive the war
and to live through the years of the rebuilding. what we do know about scarlet ,'hara, she lied, she cheated she stole, and one very famous she committed murder to make sure she got through the war. i keep coming back to the image and margaret mitchell's comment because i think it reflects the fact that for women's roles and more, we as americans have tried to believe that statement that war is men's business, but as margaret mitchell also proved, that is totally not true. women have always been involved in war even though they are not involved in the decision-making. they are not politicians, they are not the military leaders, but they live on a daily basis with the consequences of those decisions. that is why always think about
margaret mitchell and scarlet o'hara as i start contemplating quite as important to know about the kinds of women i wrote about in angels of the underground. they are very complicated. they don't present us with a very black and white picture of the way people are supposed to be behaving. what we are familiar with in terms of images of women during world war ii, there were opportunities for american women to participate. i think most of us have seen some of these images. we do know that this was the first time in american history where women were allowed into all of the branches of the armed services.
not that they were kept out during world war i, but during the second world war, we have a much more complete form of service. all of those branches allowing women into military service. their positions as medical personnel, nurses, were very much needed during the war. we also have seen lots of familiar images of rosie the riveter. there were a lot of different opportunities for women. what also stuck in the mind's of americans was even if they could participate in the various ways during the war, the one thing that was supposed to distinguish american women from all other women during this conflict was that they would never be put into harm's way unless they chose to. if they were with one of the branches of the military, especially one of the nursing
ps, that they understood that this was a choice that they made. other than that, women were supposed to be safe. they were supposed to be not combatants. for the most part, or american women at least, that was true. -- for american women at least, that was true. except for the women living in the philippines. my story focuses on what happened to those american women who are caught in that time period that many historians of douglas macarthur dispensed within a signal sentence. macarthur evacuated from current indoor and returned -- coridador and then returned. what happened to other people after macarthur left? after the american and filipino forces were forced to surrender
to the japanese? what was life like on those occupied islands? just in case anybody needs a reminder, i think probably most of you don't, the recent that americans were there in the first place, number into the thousands, has to do with american imperialism. the expansion is nature of the american government in the early 20th century led to a takeover of the philippines following the spanish-american war. the united states remained there he it on a direct path of confrontation with the japanese who were also very interested in territorial expansion and occupying the philippines as well. in 1941, with the attack at pearl harbor and the philippine
islands, that contest came to a head. there were lots of civilians. caught in the middle of that. -- civilians who were caught in the middle of that. this is one of my favorite photos taken in early january, 1942, shortly after the japanese occupied the city of manila. when that happened, the four women that i feature in angels of the underground were faced with a decision. one of these women is pictured here. we see here on the left. she is standing with some in-laws of hers. that is not her own family. she had gone to the philippines in the late 1920's. she was trained as a nurse.
she was a civilian nurse. she needed a vacation. she was widowed. she had a small son at the time. she thought it would be not to visit. we are not sure how she got there. she ended up there in manila. she did not want to leave. she did not have to leave because she fell in love and got married. we see pictured on the right her husband. this is when he was much younger and serving in world war i. after the war, he settled in the philippines. he was working as a civilian engineer on the island. after he married peggy, the two of them settled there and peggy was envisioning this very happy future for them. and life of leisure, lots of time to play bridge and go dancing and listen to music. nobody thought what was coming
with axa going to happen. another woman -- was actually going to happen. another woman, an illustration showing her cycling past the gates were other civilians were interned. she was an american woman from nebraska. she likes to travel. some of her travels led her to various places in the world. she married a french man. together they opened up but was considered the best french restaurants in the city of manila. in 1939, her husband as a french citizen went off to join the french army and never returned. gladys remained in the city
operating her restaurant for as long as she possibly could. the third woman in angels of the underground, we see her pictured all the way on the far left with a big camera. nobody needs cameras like those anymore. she was born in the united states. her mother was a philippine immigrant. her father was irish-american. she returned to the philippines as a teenager with her first marriage. she carved out a career as a journalist. while she was working around manila, she also said she was recruited into the u.s. army intelligence. she kept a close eye on japanese immigrants and was reporting back everything she learned to her handlers. the fourth woman is probably come if anybody knows about occupied manila and some of the underground espionage work, they
are probably more familiar with this american woman, claire phillips. claire phillips went to manila sometime in the late 1930's. she wanted to be famous. she was a singer, and entertainer and she could not get a career going in the states and thought she would have a better chance where americans were considered more of a novelty. -- where americans were considered more of a novelty. she did have quite a bit of a career in local nightclubs including the metropolitan theater which was a big venue for entertainment. she also had a very short marriage to a filipino while she was there. she thought she was divorced from him. that is another story in my book.
in the meantime, in late 1941, claire phillips entered into a relationship with a young american soldier recently arrived in manila. his name was john phillips. i don't have a photograph with him. as far as i know, there are none that exist. this is just an image of the 31st infantry. he was with the communications division. all four of these women were living in manila when the war started. they all remember very clearly waking up early morning, december 8, on a monday.
they still thought at the beginning of this that there was a chance that macarthur and his men were going to be able to dictate the japanese very quickly. none of these women felt panicky at this point. they thought the worst they would have to live through would be a blockade. they figured it would be a struggle but they could live with that. as we all heard this morning, things did not go quite that way. the japanese made significant inroads very quickly. by christmas time of 1941, general macarthur decided to designate manila as an open city letting the japanese now that the city would not be defended. there were hopes to see the infrastructure of the city -- save the infrastructure and civilians of the city. at the same time, macarthur was
falling back from manila and they were heading into the botanic peninsula. this was a delay in action to help reinforcements would come in. we know the end of that story. i will say little bit more about that. when american and filipino forces left manila, this gave the japanese the opportunity to launch their invasion. on january 2 of acting 42, the japanese moved into the city and within days they begin the process of registering and
interning all allied nationals. pretty much overnight, women like peggy and claire phillips became designated as enemy nationals. in manila and the surrounding areas, and local university was designated as the internment site. this is an aerial photograph we have showing how the different campus buildings were used for interned in. -- four internment. we all tend to think of very modern university campuses and think, if a situation like this occurs, it would not be a bad thing to be concentrated on a university campus. you have a nice buildings and dormitories. this university was a day university. the one thing it lacked was the one thing that thousands of internees would need. places to sleep. places to cook food. all of that was lacking. the japanese occupation authorities were not interested in providing resources to help out the civilian internees who
were left on their own devices. the four women in my book made it up -- the determination early on they would not end up at an internment camp. they were four american women and knew they were being rounded up. they decided that they would not be going. while the city was being occupied by the japanese, gladys, ya pan, and peggy remained in the city. gladys was exempted from internment.
the japanese considered that an american woman or any woman legal identity was tied to that of her husband. by 1941, since germany had set up the government, france was considered to be a concord government -- conquered country and germany was an ally of japan. the japanese occupation authorities allowed gladys for freedom because of her marriage to a french national. she downplayed the fact that her husband had gone off to fight with the free french. she did not think that would go over well. they were willing to allow her to remain out of internment. yai capitalize on her filipino heritage and put in about that she was in fact very anti-american. she was willing to work with the japanese and they recruited her
to work at a radio station in manila. an occupation she eagerly took up because she is her time on the air to try and send -- use her time on the air to send coded messages. peggy set out in her apartment for 10 weeks hoping to abate anybody who could identify her -- evade anybody who could identify her as an american. she figured she would just decide what to do at some point in the near future. why gladys remained out of internment, she used her restaurant connection to start supplying the civilian internees. she was bred with most of those people. she did not like to see the situation they were in. she also started to branch out
her supply network because her nephew was one of the american. abuse after the fall -- pows after the fall of [indiscernible] as i mentioned, yai stayed in manila for a couple of months until the situation became too dangerous for her. the japanese figured out what she was doing while she was on the air and they actually issued an arrest warrant for her. she got word of it just a few hours before it was supposed to be served. she was working her shift. she skipped out and let the city just ahead of the arrest warrant. her goal was to find a way to
get the military to help. when she left manila, she headed to the east into the mountains. she figured she could find a guerrilla group. she did run into markings guerrillas. one of the largest and most well-known role of forces -- guerrilla forces. this is a post for photograph. they were lovers as well as compatriots. she did indeed spend at the duration of the war in the hills acting as his right-handed person and running his training camp while he was out in the field. claire phillips with her relationship with john phillips, he was part of the 31st infantry which retreated from manila. he had her packer things -- pack her things and follow along with u.s. forces into the bataan
peninsula. they both believed she would be safer the closer she stayed to the american army. she also had a small daughter. while the first battle for bataamn was going on, -- bataan, claire phillips was going on tried to keep track of her fiance and keep her daughter alive. the peninsula also figures into peggy's story. after spending 10 weeks hiding out in her apartment, figuring out what she wanted to do, she also decided she needed to make her way to bataan. when she emerged from her apartment, she had heard about the surrender. she knew all the other americans were now in santa tomas. she arranged to have false
identity papers made. she paid for this. she understood it was a danger. she capitalized on her married last name. she knew that lithuania had been occupied by german forces. it was neutralized so she figured she was safe and claiming with the way and citizenship. click papers showing her as a lithuanian citizen she got a job with the newly constituted philippine red cross which got permission from the japanese occupation authorities to go into the bataan peninsula when the battle was finished to help with civilian relief.
she made her way there shortly after the surrender. shortly after that death march. all around her she saw the physical evidence of that battle and the death march. everywhere she set up a clinic and works to nurse civilians, she was asking anybody if they had seen her husband. she made a couple of trips with the philippine red cross. this made the necessary connections she would need for her own prison relief organization that she started -- prisoner relief organization that she started soon afterwards. claire stayed on but to an -- bataan. she went out looking for phil several times. one of the times when she thought she had found him, she in fact ran into another young soldier recently separated from the 31st infantry. we see him pictured there on the left. his name was john been. -- boone.
his papers are in the archive here. he was getting ready to start up his own guerrilla force. he asked claire it she would help him out. she put him off for a little while. she said she was not sure what she wanted to do. boone impressed upon earth that guerrillas could use a lot of help from the city of manila to help organize the dispersal of both information and supplies. when claire learned the details of the death march, when she heard about the surrender of [indiscernible] this is when she decided that she would go back to manila and figure out a way to help the defeated americans.
she did the same thing that peggy did. when claire returned to manila, she had false identity papers made up that claimed she was an italian national. italy being the other ally of japan. she used the name claire -- dorothy fuentes. it was the name of her first filipino husband. by having these identity papers, she claimed exception from internment as an italian national and by virtue of her marriage to a filipino citizen. she also decided to put her talents to use. she was a singer and entertainer. she figured that that would help get the two kind of information that the guerrillas were going to use and need.
in the meantime, peggy was trying to figure out how to get supplies into the prisoner of war camps. her connections with the red cross led her to working also through the religious communities in manila. in her neighborhood there was a church and content which was staffed -- content -- convent which was staffed by irish priests. it was turned into a hospital or in the work and served as a huge warehouse for supplies that were collected for both the guerrillas and pows. they would be funneled into this convent and this priest would help peggy disburse aid. for those of you who know about the death march, we know about the terrible loss of life during the process of that march.
the prisoners ended up first at camp o'donnell and 10 at -- then at cabana tuwahn. the military prisoners had it much worse. the japanese and attitudes about people who surrendered made the situation even more horrifying. peggy was getting this information quickly about how many men were dying there each day from starvation and disease. she worried very much that her husband was one of those. she knew he had actually survived the surrender, she knew he had made it into o'donnell. she did not note what had happened to him after that.
for claire and peggy, their desire to help pow's, to help the guerrillas was connected to personal issues. they had men in their lives that were involved with the military, so they did feel it was their duty to help. while peggy used medical and religious connections, claire decided to open up a nightclub with her fake identity papers. she worked with a local chinese businessman to provide backing for the tsubaki club. this was a foot taken in 1945 -- a photo taken in 1945. we see what most people believe are the remnants of the club. the woman standing in front of it is not claire phillips, it is just some random person walking
around in manila and had her picture taken in front of this bomb down structure. in the fall of 1942, claire phillips opened up this nightclub which was designed to cater specifically to high-ranking japanese officials, both military and civilian. while she and her staff were plying them with drink said entertainment, the nature they were carefully listening to all the conversations that were going on in gathering all of that information and reporting it back mostly through guerrilla forces. claire always believed all of these messages did get to macarthur headquarters in australia. she was convinced while the war was going on that she was making a material contribution, especially through the intelligence that she was able to funnel. all of these activities, of
course, were not welcome by the occupation authorities. smuggling, spying, all of these were offenses that the japanese kept a very close watch on. lots of civilians were rounded up, arrested and taken to fort santiago for interrogation. peggy and claire both knew that they were living on borrowed time. they knew what happened to people who were caught and they did know the japanese had a knack for eventually tracking down all of these people who were involved in these networks and try to get them to talk. and if they did not, then at least removing them from the situation. these women did live in fear of being arrested and taken to fort santiago.
they did their work in spite of this fear and in spite of the fact that both of them were eventually arrested. the japanese game for peggy first, they arrested her in a hospital in manila where she was working. ironically, her patient at the time of her arrest was none other than claire phillips. it is an interesting story. peggy was taken to fort santiago. the japanese suspected that she was really an american. they did not quite have a sense of her as the head of what was known as the miss-u network, but they believed she was operating under a false nationality. she was interrogated for about 30 days in fort santiago. interrogation being a benign term for torture.
she refused to tell them anything. without a confession, they actually let her go. she was released and she laid very low in manila after that for obvious reasons. she was certain the japanese would figure out a way to pick her up. so, in the meantime, the miss-u network did continue to operate. peggy kept a very low profile. the rest of her operatives basically picked up the slack. claire phillips, also known as high pockets, was part of that network. it was also made up of dozens, maybe hundreds of filipinos living in and around manila. this was a vast enterprise that reached all the way to cabana. this was a long pipeline of prisoner aid. in the spring of 1944, the japanese finally unraveled that system.
they traced how these extra supplies were getting into the prisoners. these caribou cards that were used to bring supplies into the pow camp, claire and peggy i found out ways to fill them with extra supplies. the japanese are figured all this out. they started arresting some of the prisoners in the camp. they started arresting operatives were living around the cap. finally, claire phillips and some of her supporters back in manila in may of 1944 were also arrested. claire spent some time in fort santiago as well being interrogated. she was not let go. she was actually put on trial.
she was convicted of helping to aid the prisoners and she was sentenced to 10 years hard labor in it women's prison -- in a women's prison. when peggy heard about claire's arrest, she went to some friends who were hiding claire's daughter, and peggy took that little girl, diane, and she went off to some guerrillas in the hills. throughout the duration of the war, peggy was a nurse with the guerrilla forces. she was designated a lieutenant. she had a rank, she carried a side arm, although during the course of the months up in the hills, she had to increasingly use a smaller weapon because after a while she lost so much weight that she could not carry around a big gun that drag on her. she could not hold it up.
but she did achieve that rank, she did achieve that distinction among the guerrillas. she was in the hills when news came that the americans had returned. now we have kind of book ended macarthur's story, he has came back. when the americans came back, where we our four women? peggy, in the hills with the guerrillas. yai to the east in the hills. gladys, living, still unencumbered by internment, but living in one of the manila neighborhoods so she would actually experience that battle for manila. and, who are we missing?
claire, in prison. she is in jail, and she hears about the americans arriving. the guerrillas make contact with her and let her know that they know that she is there. they are willing to spring her before the american troops get in. she says she will wait and hold on for that liberation. but in her final days she was also worried because increasingly there were stories that the japanese were simply killing all their prisoners. you all know about the great raid, why that was carried out. claire lived her last days in prison before liberation wondering if the japanese were, in fact, going to kill all the prisoners before the americans got to them. but this was not the case. all four of these angels did in fact survived the war -- i am not really giving anything away from the end of the book, so in
case you like that suspense, that is not really what the suspense is. it is more how they survived. in the end, then, what did liberation mean? what did it mean to have survived this war? all four of these women had nothing left at the end of the war. the men in their lives, with the exception of yai, but the other three woman lost the men in their lives. claire phillips was reunited with her daughter. peggy kept diane safe during the war, brought her back, reunited her with her mother. three of these four women were also awarded the medal of freedom after world war ii. this was a medal that had been inaugurated specifically as a way of honoring civilians who
had helped with the american cause outside of the united states. we see claire phillips receiving her medal of freedom award. there was some public recognition for what these women had done during the war. all four of these women wrote memoirs. you probably have not heard of them. probably the most best-selling was yai's. as a professional journalist, she got a big new york publishing house to take it. it did get some good reviews. claire phillips had her book published by a very small press and oregon and she is the only one of these four women who had the distinction and honor of having hollywood come knocking. there is actually a film version from 1951, "i was an american spy," a classic, classic b-movie. if you have not seen it, you
really should. it is not a terribly truthful rendition of her experiences. for those of you who know period music, the only thing that is well known from that b-movie, this was a big hit in 1951, 1952 for tony bennett. "because of you" was the theme song for the claire phillips story. it is an interesting pop-culture tie-in. these women had post-traumatic stress, no way of coping with it except for writing their memoirs. when they each died, there were no military honors for them,
there were no even public recognitions of what they had done during the war. they simply faded away. thank you. [applause] prof. kaminski: questions? >> i have a couple comments that you might want to include on your future presentation. first of all, you had pictures of american women, red cross and so forth -- but there were also a number of women with oss. they did serve with distinction in europe. macarthur, because of bad blood, they would not allow oss, the predecessor of cia, in the far-east command. prof. kaminski: yes, and i --
the whole oss-thing was i think probably the subject of another separate book. yai was very upset with the american military, who was very willing to take information from her. when she wanted to evacuate, they would not let her go because they said you are a woman, you do not belong there. she said, well, i can drive this jeep, i can do anything, really. she knew the value of the intelligence work she was doing but they thought it was at an end at the point. >> could you say a few words about how the general filipino population was treated during those four years by the japanese occupying army? prof. kaminski: not very well.
the japanese had a tremendous propaganda campaign called the greater east asia: disparity -- east asia co-prosperity sphere. this was their attempt to create an asian brotherhood. anti-causation and anti-american. the japanese try to pitch their occupation of the philippines as a way of liberating the philippines from their american masters. there was independence granted to the philippine islands during the course of the war but that independence from the japanese was also not a real independence because the occupation authorities did not leave. filipino civilians were just as likely to be arrested -- probably the one big distinction
was the japanese did release filipino military prisoners of war when o'donnell was shut down. there was a big show of letting the filipino man go home to their families and the japanese believed that with this gracious gesture, these men would not take up arms against the japanese, and of course they were wrong about that. many of those men ended up, i believe, with the guerrilla forces after their release. >> [indiscernible] prof. kaminski: high pockets, this was a euphemism for brassiere.
this goes back in history during the american resolution, the american civil war -- women who did smuggle information to opposing sides put stuff in their clothing. back in the days of the hoop skirts, they can move around a lot of information. [laughter] prof. kaminski: claire phillips had a habit of sticking important notes, sometimes money, all of these things into her bra. she figured it was less likely to be noticeable there i guess. the name high pockets came from her habit of using her brassiere. margaret used the capital letter u.
both of these code names, i sat and read at the national archives the letters and diaries of men who were in his prison camps. every once in a while there is a fleeting reference -- a shipment of stuff came through the miss-u network. that is how we know at least some of what these women said they did, they did. should i talk for one more? >> i was curious if you are able to make any connections for the intelligence intended to get past and if that was received, and if they were any ramifications you have not been able to devote in their
research. prof. kaminski: that is the big smoking gun question. this is where jim really helped me out with research. claire phillips, i think, maybe overestimated her worth, to some extent, in terms of intelligence. we know a lot of stuff was coming out and getting funneled to macarthur's headquarters. but as far as we know, we cannot trace any direct link from her club to australia or to any of the other intelligence officers to know for sure that there is that kind of direct pipeline. i think what is very likely, though, is -- it is clear that she gathered information. there were naval officers in her
club, that she gathered -- gather this information and it got put in with all sorts of stuff that got sent. i think in one place in her memoirs she does claim that because of some information, a whole bunch of japanese submarines were sunk around robble, maybe? but there has been no way of tracing a directly. she referred to her network as guerrillas without guns. the without guns meant they focus on intelligence, and that is how they fought the war. that is what she wanted her contribution to be. one more? >> one more. >> part of the allure of those of us who were out there during that time -- there was another
woman named edie. do you know of her? she was also called a high pocket. prof. kaminski: i think the name is familiar. >> the story i got it she was sent to o'donnell and she was caught with information in her bra. then in trying to extract this information from her, she was in a habit of wearing boots, and they poured hot water into her boots. as a consequence of that, she lost her legs. prof. kaminski: yes, i do or number hearing -- i think her name came up in my first book. her name is very familiar but not for this book. yes.
>> because of her and her husband, little boys and girls like me were fed by frank buckles, he was a printer and had been in world war i. he was the oldest living veteran in the united states when he finally died. for us, he fed us. not only his own rations, but chocolate. so, and then edie and her husband provided for us children, art supplies. the stories they made up, they wrote down. these people made contributions far beyond just gathering intelligence.
prof. kaminski: yeah. the supplies really helps. one less thing i want to underscore here. the closest aids they had in their networks were filipino women. they were the ones who went out, really, to do a lot of this work because they could move around relatively undetected for longer periods of time but lived in just as much danger. their stories are in the book as well. thank you all. [applause] >> let me add, my aunt who died in her 90's, we found up after her death she had a commendation from the united states headquarters. her friends were part of the miss-u network. prof. kaminski: yes, and there is a long list of them. thank you. [applause]
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teleprompter cable company, that you could use a portable earth station to distribute the signal. you could get that cable tv signal from the satellite. that totally changes the business. with satellite distribution, that's how you get the programming our. uncutgets better with the commercial free entertainment of the premium channels. >> you get the start of the , and from there you get all the niche networks. third-generation, the start of the broadband era. internet --d internet services, that was the big thing in the mid to late
1990's and phone service, voice was starting to come in as well. is the fourthow generation coming as the technologies converge? level of the lower cable center. we have about 2500 items here. is is a unique arrangement. the equipment is in signal order. what does it mean? collected,ignals are and the head of the equipment is at the front and then he moves to the line equipment. actual co-exthe cable, some old-style latter and then it goes to the
set-top box. and then i've got the test equipment. so there is an overarching arrangement to this. some of my favorite pieces, we have some coffee can amplifiers, homemade. we have all this great old analog tube equipment. we have home a test equipment like this piece right here. amp have added a volt and meter to the top. this material right in front of , we are scanning for a virtual reality project. in the future you can look at these, handle them and interact with them in our virtual reality online experience. >> pay tv and cable tv companies
are seeking the right to charge you for the very programs you now get free. >> the cable industry has always of challenges.ot early on the broadcaster thoughts are signals were being cable tod did not want exist, basically. so you had to overcome regulatory hurdles. poll to theh the cable? just to build our plan. then there were vcrs. always are the phone companies going to come into our business. you had more competition coming then the satellite providers. at each time they had to face these huge challenges that kind of affect the core of the business, and announces it's the same thing with the over-the-top.
as you track those changes and see how people responded and what cable has brought to society. >> personal choice, that is what cable tv is about. imagine world with just three or four networks. people brought change to the television landscape. .hat is next is a lot of change a lot of changes are currently going on. there is a movement with some of the smaller cable companies. they are talking about they want to be broadband companies. they want out of the television business and they want to offer great customer experience. they provide you with technology . they don't want to be the one passing it on from espn or whatever. it's up to you to negotiate the price.
a lot of regulatory changes are , with title ii coming in regulating the cable companies and network writers. >> this weekend we're featuring the history of denver, colorado. together with our comcast cable partners. learn more about denver and the .ther stops on our cables tour you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend, on c-span3. announcer: the franklin d roosevelt presidential library and museum celebrated its 75th anniversary earlier this year. members of the roosevelt institute and the presidential library system spoke about his legacy and why he decided to create the first presidential library. this program is a little over