tv Reel America CSPAN September 25, 2016 4:00pm-5:07pm EDT
accomplishing the development of this museum. i couldn't feel better. >> congressman, thank you very much. >> thank you. announcer: you're watching american history tv all weekend every week and on c-span 3. to join the conversation, >> next on american history tv's , "reel america," "why we fight," a series of films created during world war ii, created by director frank capra. the films were intended to explain to the troops the reasons behind the war effort, but were eventually shown to the american public as well. it gives a brief history from the declaration of independence
children: i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. >> ♪ [gunfire] [plane engines] narrator: in the jungles of new guinea, on the barren shores of the on the barren shores of the aleutians, in the tropic heat of the
pacific islands, in the subzero cold of the skies over germany, in burma and iceland, the philippines and iran, france, in china and italy, americans fighting. fighting over an area extending 7/8 of the way around the world. men from the green hills of new england, the sun-baked plains of the middle west, the cotton fields of the south, the close-packed streets of manhattan, chicago, the teeming factories of detroit, los angeles, the endless stretching distances of the southwest, men from the hills and from the plains, from the villages and
from the cities, bookkeepers, soda jerks, mechanics, college students, rich man, poor man, beggar man, thief, doctor, lawyer, merchant, chief. now veteran fighting men. yet two years ago many had never fired a gun or seen the ocean or been off the ground. americans, fighting for their country while half a world away from it. fighting for their country, and for more than their country. fighting for an idea, the idea bigger than the country. without the idea, the country might have remained only a wilderness. without the country, the idea might have remained only a dream. >> ♪
narrator: over this ocean, 1607, jamestown. 1620, plymouth rock. here was america -- the sea, the sky, the virgin continent. we came in search of freedom, facing unknown dangers rather than bend the knee or bow to tyranny. out of the native oak and pine we built a house, a church, a watchtower. we cleared a field, and there grew up a colony of free citizens. we carved new states out of the green wilderness -- virginia, massachusetts, rhode island, carolina. then came the first test in the defense of that liberty, 1775, lexington. our leaders spoke our deepest needs. "colonists are by the law of
nature free-born, as indeed all men are!" "it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government." "these are the times that try men's souls." "but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!" in the midst of battle, it happened. the idea grew, the idea took form. something new was expressed by men, a new and revolutionary doctrine, the greatest creative force in human relations -- all men are created equal, all men are entitled to the blessings of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. that's the goal we set for ourselves. defeat meant hanging. victory meant a world in which americans rule themselves. 1777, valley forge.
we fought and froze, suffered and died, for what? for the future freedom of all americans. a few of us doubted and despaired. most of us prayed and endured all. 1781, yorktown. now we were a free independent nation. the new idea had won its first test. now to pass it on to future americans. the constitution, the sacred charter of "we the people," the blood and sweat of "we the people," the life and liberty and happiness of "we the people." the people were to rule. not some of the people, not the best people or the worst, not the rich people or the poor, but "we the people," all the people.
in this brotherhood america was born, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. we began as 13 states along the atlantic seaboard. we pushed across the alleghenies, the ohio river, the mississippi, the last far range of the distant rockies. we carried freedom with us. no aristocratic classes here, no kings, no nobles or princes, no state church, no courts, no parasites, no divine right of man to rule man. here humanity was making a clean fresh start from scratch. behind us we left new states, chips off the old blocks welded together by freedom. chorus: ♪ my country, 'tis of thee sweet land of liberty of thee i sing land where my fathers died
land of the pilgrims' pride from every mountainside let freedom ring! ♪ narrator: until finally we were one nation, a land of hope and opportunity that had arisen out of a skeptical world. a light was shining, freedom's light. from every country and every clime, men saw that light and turned their faces toward it. give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, i lift my lamp beside the golden door! as strangers to one another we came and built a country, and the country built us into americans. the sweat of the men of old nations was poured out to build
a new. the sweat of our first settlers -- the english, the scotch, the dutch, building the workshop of new england, of the italian in the sulfur mines of louisiana, of the frenchmen and the swiss in the vineyards of california and new york state, of the dane, the norwegian, the swede, seeding the good earth to make the midwest bloom with grain, of the pole and the welshman, of the negro harvesting cotton in the hot southern sun, of the spaniard, the first to roam the great southwest, of the mexican in the oil fields of texas and on the ranches of new mexico, of the greek and the portuguese, harvesting the crop the oceans
narrator: yes, the sweat of the men of all nations built america -- and the blood. for the blood of americans has been freely shed. five times in our history have we withstood the challenge to the idea that made our nation -- the idea of equality for all men, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
the idea that made us the people we are. let's take a look at ourselves before we went into this war. narrator 2: well, first of all we're a working people. on the land, at the work bench, at a desk. and we're an inventive people. the lightning rod, cotton gin, the telegraph, the blessed anesthesia of ether, the rotary printing press, the telephone, electric welding, the incandescent lamp, submarine, steam turbine, the motor-driven airplane, the x-ray tube, the gyroscope compass, the sewing machine, television -- all these and countless more bear witness to our inventiveness. and this inventiveness and
enterprise, plus our hard-won democratic ideal of the greatest good for the greatest number, created for the average man the highest standard of living in the world. 32.5 million registered automobiles, 2/3 of all the automobiles there are in the entire world. we demand the highest standards in sanitation, purity of food, medical care. our hospitals are models for the world to copy. we want the best for the average man, woman, or child -- particularly child. we have reduced the hazard of being born. from then on we protect, foster, and generally spoil the majority of our children. but it doesn't seem to hurt them much. they go to school, all kinds of schools -- to kindergartens, public schools, private schools, trade schools, high schools -- to 25,000 high schools -- and to
college. and in the last war, 20% of all the men in the armed forces had been to high school or college, in this war, 63%. we're a great two weeks vacation people. we hunt, and we fish. up north, down south, back east, out west -- when the season opens, we hunt and fish. we're a sports-loving people.
and we're probably the travelingest nation in all history. we love to go places. we have the cars, we have the roads, we have the scenery. we don't need passports, but sometimes we need alibis. we sleep by the road, we eat by the road. the foreigner is enchanted and amazed by what we like to put on our stomachs. ♪
narrator 2: and we're a great joining people. we join clubs, fraternities, unions, federations. shove a blank at us, we'll sign up. radios -- we have one in the living room -- >> when you think okf re -- of refreshment -- narrator 2: the dining room, the bedroom, the bathroom, in our cars, in our hands, and up our sleeves. radio announcer: does your cigarette taste different lately? narrator 2: music -- we couldn't be without it. >> ♪
♪ ♪ ♪ narrator 2: the press? yes, it's the biggest, but most important it's the freest on earth. over 12,000 newspapers of all shades of opinion, books on every conceivable subject, and more than 6,000 different magazines, not counting the comics. churches? we have every denomination on earth. 60 million of us regularly attend, and no one dares tell us which one to go to. we elect our own neighbors to govern us.
we believe in individual enterprise and opportunity for men and women alike. we make mistakes. we see the results. we correct the mistakes. we skyrocket into false prosperities and then plummet down into false needless depressions. but in spite of everything, we never lose our faith in the future. we believe in the future. we build for the future. narrator: yes, we build for the future, and the future always catches up with us. before we're done building, we've developed something new and have to start rebuilding. that's roughly the kind of people we are -- boastful, easy-going, sentimental. but underneath, passionately dedicated to the ideal our forefathers passed on to us -- the liberty and dignity of man. we've made great material
progress, but spiritually we're still in the frontier days. yet deep down within us there's a great yearning for peace and goodwill toward men. somehow we feel that if men turn their minds toward the fields of peace as they have toward the fields of transportation, communication, or aviation, wars would soon be as old-fashioned as the horse and buggy days. we hate war. we know that in war it's the common man who does the paying, the suffering, the dying. we bend over backwards to avoid it. but let our freedoms be endangered, and we'll pay and suffer and fight to the last man. that is the america, that is the way of living for which we fight today. why? is that fight necessary? did we want war? ♪ narrator: in 1917, before most
of you fighting men were born, our fathers fought the first world war to make the world safe for democracy, for the common man. they fought a good fight and won it. there was to be no more war in their time or their children's time. faithful to our treaty obligations, we destroyed much of our naval tonnage. our army went on a reducing guide until it became little more than a skeleton. for us, war was to be outlawed. for us, europe was far away. and as for asia, well, that was really out of this world, where everything looked like it was torn from the national geographic. yet in this remote spot in asia in 1931, while most of you were playing ball in the sandlots, this war started. without warning, japan invaded manchuria.
♪ narrator: once again, men who were peaceful became the slaves of men who were violent. in washington, d.c., our secretary of state made a most vigorous protest, "the american government does not intend to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement which may be brought about by means of aggression." but we, the people, hadn't much time to think about manchuria. we were wrestling with the worst depression in our history. some of us were out of jobs. some of us stood in bread lines. some of us suffered homemade aggression. some of us were choked with dust. some of us had no place to go. two years later, in 1933, while most of you were graduating from
high school, we read that a funny little man called hitler had come into power in germany. ♪ narrator: we heard that a thing called the nazi party had taken over. ♪ narrator: "today we rule germany, tomorrow the world." what kind of talk was that? it must be only hot air. in 1935, about the time you had your first date, we read that strutting mussolini had attacked far-off ethiopia.
a disease seemed to be spreading, so congress assembled to insulate us against the growing friction of war. senator hiram johnson: we want no war, we'll have no war, saving defense of our own people or our own honor. narrator: toward this end, our chosen representatives passed the neutrality act. no nation at war could buy manufactured arms or munitions from the united states. in 1936, when you were running around in jalopies, we were disturbed by news from spain. in our newsreels, we saw german and italian air forces and armies fighting in spain and wondered what they were doing
there. for the first time, we saw great cities squashed flat, civilians bombed and killed. in november, 1936, the american institute of public opinion, known as the gallup poll, asked a representative cross-section of american people, "if another war develops in europe, should america take part again?" no, 95%. we, the people, had spoken. 19 out of 20 of us said "include us out."
to further insulate ourselves, we added a cash and carry amendment to the neutrality act. not only wouldn't we sell munitions, but we wouldn't sell anything at all, not even a spool of thread, unless warring powers sent their own ships and paid cash on the line. in 1937, the press services received a flash from asia. yes, the japs were turning asia into a slaughterhouse, but for us asia was still far away. in september, 1937, the gallup poll asked us, "in the present
fight between japan and china, are your sympathies with either side?" we answered -- with china, 43%, with japan, 2%, undecided, 55%. we hadn't made up our minds about china. our neutrality act barred sales of armaments only to nations at war. the japanese had not declared war, so we went right on selling scrap iron and aviation gasoline to japan. in march, 1938, hitler had not declared war either, but his goose-stepping army suddenly smashed in and occupied all the soil of austria. six months later, hitler and his stooge met the anxious democracies at munich. hitler promised peace in our time, if britain and france would give him that part of czechoslovakia known as the sudetenland. britain and france gave him that part of czechoslovakia, hoping
to avert war. now we had his word, peace in our time. at home we began to hear strange headlines. newspaper man: extra! extra! fbi captures german agent. read all about it! nazi spy gang captured. narrator: we sat in our theaters, unbelieving, as motion pictures exposed nazi espionage in america. nazi speaker: as germans we know that if america is to be free, we must destroy the chain that ties the whole misery of american politics together, and that chain is the united states constitution! nazi sympathizers: sieg heil! narrator: could these things really be? yes, these subversive acts were happening in real life every day. german-american bunds organized for the purpose of destroying us marched under our very noses. nazi speaker 2: i pledge
undivided allegiance to the flag of the united states of america, and the republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. narrator: in our press, we read the news from abroad that nazis were spending millions, arming germany to the teeth. we read that the tokyo diet was appropriating tremendous sums, converting japan into one vast munitions plant.
we watched these supposedly poor, have-not nations spend huge sums for armament and we wondered why. arrogantly, they told us why -- they had declared war on us long before the shooting started. >> we have actually been at war since the day when we lifted the flag of our revolution against the democratic world. >> the germans are a noble and unique race to whom the earth was given by the grace of god. >> the world must come to look up to our emperor as the great ruler of all nations. >> when the people of these three nations elected to follow
their leaders, they organized to equalitysonal freedom, speech,freedom of freedom of religion, organized smash in schools that made us the very people who we are. so, in december, 1938: the gallup poll asked should the united states increase the strength of its army, navy, and air force, we answered yes 85%. it was time to look to our defense. >> gentlemen, this is the military prize committee of the s.s. house of representative meeting for the purpose of considering national defense. >> the navy is asking for an increase of 25% in authorized
naval landing in view of the grave international situation narrator: congress appropriated largest sum for military use ever quoted during military history. we did not dream that a few years later it would look like peanuts. march 14th, 1939, 8 ller broke the pledge he made in munich. he took over all the rest of czechoslovakia. there would be no more piece in our time. 1939 -- as we in merica observed good ride a, italy attacksa albania. narrator: the picture was becoming clear. the conquering forces were being
set loose in the world where would they stop mark in a last dust and effort to avoid a world war, president roosevelt messages to hitler's and mussolini and their respect the independence of 33 countries. to adolf hitler, this message with a huge joke as he repeated the names. [reading country names in german ] narrator: this was the only answer the president receive. fourth, 1939,he the nazi army smashed in:.
-- smashed into poland. england and ran had retreated. with a act now mark at home, we look at spence. >> adolf hitler's all out attack on: makes the threat of war all but a certainty. the prime minister gave the nazi to cater a zero hour were withdrawing his troops from poland. that zero hour and now for at this time, we pass to london for
an announcement from the british prime minister. to the very last, it would have been quite possible to have arranged a useful and honorable andlement between germany poland, but himmler would not have it. the situation in which no word given by germany's ruler could be trusted and no people or country could be safe and become intolerable -- may god bless you all. may he defend the right, for it is evil things we shall be fighting against. and i am certain the right will great andhis hour, declared war on nazi germany. classes have sold in act. begun.ar ii has
>> at home, we were asked what country do you consider responsible for causing this war mark germany, 82%. we americans have no doubt you started. we began to fear this war was going to concern us. president roosevelt called a special session of congress to reconsider the embargo against selling munitions for >> i have asked the congress to reassemble an extraordinary session in order that it may can utter and act on changes in our neutrality law. narrator: the men of congress wrestled with their futures. >>y debated and argued for the orange embargo is far too great a security for american peace to its surrender with ellen asked -- with the last ditch fight. cited asembargo act works entirely to the advantage
of one side. therefore, the embargo act be modified. narrator: we the people argued whether we should sell arms and munitions. when the western was put to us, we had an answer -- should we change the neutrality act so we can help more supplies and mark yes. 57%. shortly thereafter, our representatives changed the neutrality act. we lifted the embargo on arms and musicians. now we would sell purchasers would pay and take the stuff away in their own ship. american ships were still barred from combat zones. meanwhile, on the other side of the globe, japan was busy trying to on, shoot, and terrorized chinese in to submission. we began to realize is japan conquered 400 and chinese commission might become so strong as to run us right out
you will remember two years earlier, in some timber, and team 37, when we were asked in the present height between japan and china are your sympathies with either side? only 43% were with china. most of us were undecided in june, 90 39, when we were a same question, 74% said we were with china. now, our minds are made up. when we loaded our scrap iron onto japanese ships, our citizens protest. of 19 80,he middle the restriction of exports to 1940, the restriction of exports japan to the form of lanes and munitions.
then congress passed the export control act and increasing cut off of aviation gas lean and other strategic items followed for exports were curtailed the limit is responsible for our defense were willing to risk. it was a fearful responsibility. on one side was the probability that one day, these materials might be used against us. on the other side was the possibility of ability that to cut them off would provoke an attack which we were not prepared to resist. there and was1 turning her back upon every possibility of working in and was determined upon her great gamble of conquest all caps. 30, the: on april 9 19
nazi shifted into high gear and on a 1940, they go into harlem in belgium. marching theare marching army in history. numbers countless thousands of women and children. >> good evening. tonight clearly the first great a of work in the last one i dailyy army of the french suffered to retreat. some part of it will be evacuated. next mechanized forces are racing toward paris as french resistance collapses. june 1940,s day of struck in a dagger
>> adolf hitler today is in his arms friends. it is 3:15 p.m.. adolf hitler strides clearing. i can see his face. it is great: you remain with you. to one side is that you are hitler's here to see it. the.e french walking down learn the other german leaders rise. the general reads the preamble to the german term. this whole ceremony is over anerful -- in a quarter of hour.
narrator: congress army scouts to the shores of the. -- of the antic. danger was suddenly close. countries conquered by the nazis had possessions outside of europe. some of these possessions are in america. with the nazis demand the french naval units or move into the dutch oil fields? would they these the french naval base? already in brazil, there were over one million germans who lived exactly as they did in germany. german schools with nazi textbooks and nazi teachers, not the newspapers.
in brazil, there were 260,000 japanese taking orders from japan. easy bombingithin range of the panama canal, german airline had been established. german pilots were reserved pilots of lawful with bomb racks already built in. in argentina, german athletic clubs similar to the hitler's youth movement had been organized exclusively for germans. waiting a fifth column to take over. in havana, we met with 20 other american republics. >> there must not be a shadow of a doubt anywhere as to the determination of the american permit the to invasion of their hemisphere by or arm forces of any power any possible combination of power.
20 nations stood firm. they would not allow any colony to be transferred to a non-american power. we keep out and we meant it. >> we must increase production facilities for everything needed for the army and navy national defense. i believe this nation should plan at this time a program that 50,000ovide us with military and naval planes. shores,: to protect our we authorized a two ocean navy -- the rest the world has ever known. at least that would be the greatest when can. only a paperit was navy. our fighting forces consisted of an army of 140,000 man, a navy of 120,000, and this dock was the air car. all told, 330,000 men.
we had makeshift supplies, makeshift equipment, stovepipes for cannons, bags of flour for bombs, and huts were labeled tanks. our infantry had exactly 488 zynga and. discussed 10 light and 18 medium tank. that was the army of the united states in may of 1940, the month in which the knot sees overran france. we called on the minutemen and the national guard state and placed them into federal service. most important, congress passed the selective service act. for the first time in our history, we began mobilizing an army while the. >> the first number is serial
narrator: it wasn't too soon. time was running out. the nazis begun their shattering let's on written. hello, america. this is edward murrow speaking from london. there were more german planes over the country today than at any time during the war. narrator: back on main street, we follow written off life struggle because it is written died, we would be in great peril. british fleet might go to nazi
germany and we would be unprotected -- our shores and our people and homes in danger. ourain must not fall in harbors, and rotting, laid ancient destroyers. but this was world war ii. 50 tired destroyers were revitalized and transferred to great britain. we acquired further protection of our shores and received a chain of bases stretching from newfoundland to british guyana. braces -- these bases for deal wall gave new safe to the panama now. it was now clear to the aggressors we were conscious of the threat they represented to our country. secretary of state will tell us how they got together and tried to scare us off. 1936 on, it became
increasingly clear to the world that germany, italy and japan were pursuing a common pattern of aggression, both in europe and in the far east. on september 27, 1940, three hours signed the pact of berlin. the tree was a far-reaching alliance. by that treaty, it was provided the three countries would assist one another with medical, economic and military means when one of the powers was attacked, particularly the use of the word attack by a power not been involved in the european war or the chinese or japanese conflict. the last of these provisions was aimed directly at the united
states. narrator: tokyo celebrated. berlin piled itself forth. countriesar the axis against us. we watched the life-and-death struggle for possession of the skies over great britain. >> despite the propaganda and confusion of recent months, it is obvious england is losing the war. >> england will not only
survived, england will win. ♪ narrator: so when we were asked out of work for a written, aid britain at the risk of war, 68%. mad -- the march of conquest change our attitude from 1936 when only one out of 20 americans thought we would be involved in war 21941 when 14 out of 20 americans were willing to risk or if war was necessary to ensure defeat. congress fored authority and for funds sufficient to manufacture additional new munitions and war supplies of a kind to be turned nations which are
now in actual war with aggressor nations. our most useful and immediate role is to act as an arsenal for them as well as ourselves. in ever-increasing numbers ships, planes, tanks, guns. purpose and our pledge. narrator: by and overwhelming majority, congress passed land lease. then another declaration of independence -- independence from tyranny, 1941 style. 1941, the nazi juggernaut overran into yugoslavia and greece. on june 22, 1941, the knot sees took their longest that toward
conquest. without any declaration of war, we weretzed into russia determined not to let down any nations defending themselves against unprovoked attacks, so we extended when lease to these new victims. now, the lend lease products of our factories were being unloaded in the bomb court of , at the red sea ports for british and africa. lend lease was being hauled over the government road to china. it was piling up in iran for russia. why did we supply war materials to the country defending themselves against axis aggression? was it our sympathy for people unwilling to use -- to lose principally, it
american people had become certain they were on the list of free nations to be conquered. >> two philosophies of life. one of these two worlds must break. narrator: we were the example of that free world is committed to breaking asunder. then ourd have position if the aggressors had succeeded in conquering britain, russia and china? german conquest of europe and africa would bring all their raw materials plus their entire industrial development under one console. of the 2 billion people in the world, the nazis would rule 500 millionquarter, people of europe and africa forced into slavery to labor for germany. german conquest of russia would
add the vast raw materials and production facilities of another of the world industrial areas and of the world's, another 200 million would be added to the massive labor piles. japanese conquest of the orient would pour in to their factory supplies ofnlimited that area and 1000 million would, under their slaves to their industrial machines. americarth and south would be left with the raw materials of 3/10 of the earth's of the against the axis won -- we would have industrial region for three of theirs. we would have 18 of the world's population against their 7/8. if we, together with the nations of north and south america could mobilize 30 million fully
equipped men, the axis could mobilize 200 million. thus, and axis victory would leave us alone and virtually surrounded, face enemies 10 times stronger than ourselves. he the reasons that led us to the american people, to change act, to send aid to written, to russia to china, to make ourselves the arsenal of democracy. nowe are the reasons why the first american troops that forth in the atlantic to occupy new bases in greenland and ice and with consent of their local government. in our hands, faces of defense -- in nazi hands, bases of offense. the german open unrestricted submarine there.
-- submarine warfare. >> if today, the navy should make secure the seas for the delivery of our munitions to great britain, will render as great a service to our country and to the preservation of american freedom as it has ever rendered in all its glorious history. >> we want those cargoes protected. narrator: the aroused congress repealed the entire neutrality act. we armed our merchants and for the first time, they sped into
combat zones. while this was going on in the onantic, the japs moved in indochina. there were now only two threats to their plans for conquest of greater east asia. first was there northern neighbor, russia, the only military power in strikingly -- striking distance of 10. the second threat to japanese conquest was us. japanese southward expansion was too dangerous to attempt with our bases still standing in the levine's and supply lines open to wake. we were in their way. we had removed, but in the japanese way for off to washington when the special aps saidor on what the j
was a mission of peace. jet task force not on a mission of the. he arrived in go smiling his toothy the japanese were a peaceloving people. their policy was devoted to the establishment of permanent peace in asia. delayingo china was the establishment of that piece. refusal to sell the oil and scrap was interfering with the establishment of that piece. our objections to their taking over the east indies am a any just -- greater east asia was an interruption of that piece. 17, mr. caruso and japanese masseter worsted by the president in the presence of the secretary of state. it quickly became clear that the japanese had brought no new proposals and that the japanese
intended to continue their campaign to conquer china and all of east asia. however, on november 26, our secretary of state presented the japanese with a basis for peaceful agreement between the two nations. the proposal went to tokyo. the japanese had to stall for time, but only a short time. the task force was nearing the goal. 7, 1941, --mber
1:00 p.m., eastern standard time, the japanese emissaries are expected at the state department to keep it 1:00 appointment they had requested in order to present their answers to our proposals. p.m., the japanese planes are purchased hawaii. -- approaching hawaii. one: 10:00 p.m., the japanese emissaries telephone to postpone their appointment until 1:45. -- 2:00 p.m..
have been selling death and destruction. when the japanese envoy present their memorandum. whiche is the memorandum was sent to me. as you can see, it is quite a lengthy documents. sparingly. discovering that it contained a accusation against the united states. charging among other things with the extension of the war. repairing to attack germany and italy, two powers striving to establish a new order.
sacrificesng japan's in china. and, disparaging the honor of the japanese empire. after reading the notes, i said to the japanese emissaries, i have never seen a document that withore crowded distortions on a scale that i never imagined that ever -- any government on this planet was capable of uttering them.