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tv   The Presidency  CSPAN  October 1, 2016 12:00pm-1:46pm EDT

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president's daily briefings. they are seen only by the president and a few others. they discussed national security and issues. a discussion with john brennan and james clapper about these newly released documents. the richard nixon presidential library and foundation hosted the event. it's an hour and a half. > >> good afternoon everyone. i want to welcome you to today's event. we are delivering intelligence to presidents nixon and ford did . mr. lambert: i will be your mc for today's event. events like this take a lot of work. i want to acknowledge the whorts of the cia officers reviewed and declassified these 28,000 pages over the last year.
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they were assisted by a number of agencies, but the work of one deserves special thanks and that is the work of the and national security agency. 25thvent marks the cia's major declassification event since 2007 and our second. who we are fortunate once again to have people with us to know more about the president's daily brief than anybody else i can think of and that's john brennan and jim clapper. both have been very supportive of intelligence transparency efforts. director clapper has instituted a transparency counsel and the event today is the result of that counsel. an event would not happen without the support of director brennan. have a document like
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this on your chair with an agenda. the introduction will be very brief because the agenda has all of the biographies in it. for those of you watching home, you can see that what on the cia.gov website. --ant to thank the mexican -- nixon library for this space. director ofrect the the museum. [applause] nixonlzey: welcome to the library and museum.
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i would like to welcome those who have joined us today. on behalf of the national archives, let me extend a warm welcome to directors clapper and brennan. presidentwelcome the of the nixon foundation, board member larry higbee and elected officials including janine hernandez and 16 -- esteemed panelists. the importance of this daily briefing process to the security of our nation. i would like to recognize stacy davis, who represents the gerald ford presidential library in today's release. the the federal director of
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next in library and i am privileged to represent one of 13 presidential libraries administered by the national archives and records and restoration. they promote an understanding of the presidency in the american experience. we provide access to historical materials, support research and create interactive programs and exhibits that educated inspire. example of the presidential library system fulfilling its mission. in an overriding and overwhelming parallel, the mission of the national archives and records administration is to drive openness, cultivate public participation, and strengthen our democracy through public access to high-value government records. how are we doing on that one? today's conference addresses
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in andssion directly represents the relationship between the intelligence community and the national archives area when the time is right, the shared mission is openness and transparency of america's records. today the time is right. finally, because we have gathered at the nixon library, i would like to offer a brief note about president in. as you will note from the a story of aere is difficult relationship between richard nixon and the intelligence community. nixon's exposure to the intelligence community heightened during his years as vice president in the 1950's. his familiarity with the intelligence briefing program served the president elect very well.
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form the basis for an active role in his national security advisor henry kissinger and contributed to the tools richard nixon aggregated in becoming the most well-prepared president to assume the nation's highest office. we are going to learn so much more about the important relationship between the intelligence community and president for the nixon throughout the day. to the nixon library and to today's program. i will turn it back over to joe lambert. thank you. [applause] mr. lambert: let's get right to the program. i would like to invite director brennan up to the stage plays. -- please. [applause] mr. brennan: it's wonderful to be here this afternoon.
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it's an honor to be part of what i know will be a fascinating and enlightening event for all of us. thank you for all of your hard work on this project. this is the common nation of many months of effort from you and your team. thank you so much. thank you for your terrific work and open your doors to us today so we can have this venue of these documents. it is always a pleasure to escape washington, d.c. in the month of august. maybe more than sheer than previous years. it feels great to be out of washington. i see that we are all in the east room. it's a bit surreal. this is a remarkable library and we had a tour earlier. i am looking to the library reopening. , this is often said the greatest job in the world
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and i mean it. one of the most rewarding elements has been the chance to get across the country and give our citizens and understanding of the tremendous work performed by the cia. today is one such opportunity. we shed light on our mission for the american people. easy as it often as hoped it would be. sufficient degree of secrecy to protect our officers and sources. american people demand more of their intelligence services and deserve that are thin secrecy for the sake of secrecy. the unique authority granted to us through the representatives -- congress are a secret
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sacred trust. today's occasion is one way in which we seek to earn that trust. do,an be open about what we it does not and are current operations or hurt our national security. we are happy to contribute to the historical record. the presence daily brief represents the best picture of the world. intelligencemier product. our nation's leaders have what they need to chart a safe and successful course for our country. it is one of the most sensitive and tightly held documents the intelligence community produces. it's tailored for the president. it is an unvarnished and difficult truth about the changing and complex world. the release of these historical briefs provide a missing dimension of the historical
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narrative. most importantly, it gives us a better understanding of the international challenges facing mexican and ford. last year, i had the honor of speaking in austin, texas. that collection contained 2500 documents and over 1900 pages. today's release is no less extensive. this will delight those phd students out there looking for dissertation topics. it is 28,000 pages. far more important than the bulk, they provide us with a survey of the world as it was presented to our nation's leaders at the time. release,g through this you can envision yourself in the this paved the way
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for formal agreements on nuclear and biological pleura for asian. the vietnam war to the point when the flag of the viet cong's revolutionary government was foisted over the presidential palace, marking the end of 30 years of war in vietnam. detailed coverage of the coup against the chilean president. all that barely scratches the surface of what this service -- entails. by scrolling through these documents, we are reminded that the daily realities have always been more difficult in hindsight. ,s these documents illuminate
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they also offer a window on how the cia provided support to the oval office. it was during the nixon and ford administration that it grew in sophistication. synthesized intelligence from clandestine reporting, overhead industry, intercepted communications, and open sources. a 24/7 process. the pdb would feature estimates. they represented not only the views of cia, but also the intelligence community. despite the historical value, the record only goes so far.
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all too often, there are key anecdotes that did not quite make it to the written page. that is one of the reasons we have been so fortunate today to be joined by jim clapper. i am certain there is no one more qualified or well-versed to talk about the evolution of the pdb edit support to the president and -- president. in the 1960's, jim was a briefer for general west moreland in vietnam. some reports indicate that he was general patton's aid in world war ii. as well as a classmate of john j pershing. those reports remain uncorroborated until now. under his leadership as the director of national intelligence, it has become a product of the intelligence community, marshaling the extent of its knowledge and expertise.
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he is an officer who walks the talk when it comes to fostering the openness about our intelligence activities. he rose to the rank of and now oureneral, much beloved director of national intelligence, he has agreed to join us today for a discussion about the pdb's. i would ask you to join me on the stage so we can talk shop. [applause] mr. brennan: thanks for joining us today.
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you are better posture did anybody else to talk about how the pdb has changed since the early years. the will talk about it during the nixon and ford administration. i thought it might be worthwhile to reflect upon how the product has changed. it was a hard copy delivered with -- to the president and the process for support has changed. your perspective since you are now the one who goes into the oval office to meet with the president and talk about the pdb. do you believe it's as in terms of the president thinking on these issues? for theper: thanks honor of being on stage with you. this is the second time since i was invited to participate in the rollout at the johnson library. with myhonor to be
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close friend and great professional colleague john brennan. he will go down as one of the handful of outstanding directors of the cia in history. on these two events, i did two tours in southeast asia. we were flying reconnaissance laos and cambodia. in both occasions, i did not know there was a pdb. reading through the contemporary pdb's, i understood what a very small car i was in a large war today, what this will be
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after it's been renovated is going to be spectacular. it wedded our curiosity to come back here when it's open. i had a bar graph, a line graph on the number of troops deployed to southeast asia. that was a reminder in 1971 that people in,000 southeast asia. i was one of those. that puts in perspective where i fit in the larger scheme of things. question, i think the major change of course as john mentioned is instead of it in exclusively a cia product which it was during the time in question here, it represents now entirety of the intelligence community. to be clear, the cia is still
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the engine for the pdb. always regardless of who throughoutoordinated the intelligence community. , you won'tpriate find dissents in the pdb's that were rolled out in september or those here. it was done by one agency. , toink that's a strength register dissent and the president has said to us that he , he was surprised there was not the sent. we reflect that. are more changes occasioned by the technology.
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i may be a little biased. i think they are richer today because of the sources of information we draw on and the timeliness of the availability of those sources of information which weren't available because the technology was not available. to an ipad. president obama is very i.t. smart. we went to this a couple of years ago. that was a hard transition for some people. others did not want to give up their precious hard copy. now the ipad is the standard. to dumb them money down because they can't be interactive or wireless. someday we will figure out how to do that. it does allow for much more agility i'd say in the
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presentation of material to include graphics, videos, references to previous articles that can be done with the pointing of a finger. i think from the standpoint of the sources of the pdb, the technology that is involved in producing it and the fact that it's more broad and representing the capabilities of the representand it does the major changes. vietnam was mentioned in two thirds of the documents being released today. today's event is about history. general west moreland was a historical figure. opportunity to bring him intelligence about the war. maybe we can take advantage of this opportunity and hear your views on what it was like to brief general west moreland and
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how he received the information. mr. clapper: i had been in the air force about 2.5 years when i went to vietnam. 100 officersfirst sent on what was called a permanent change of station acis. point in late 1965, all forces that were deployed there were on a temporary duty basis. i was among the first to go every year. months, i wasour plucked out of the sea of an anonymous lieutenant and told you are going to go down to headquarters and offer assistance and help be part of a briefing team for general west moreland, who is the commander of the military systems command.
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ahad never even seen four-star general in my life, let alone talk to one. this is a very daunting experience. i was very nervous the first my specifict and briefing talk it -- topic was to correlate any single intelligence reflection of airstrikes over north vietnam. board andther a map what we call icon locks is. i took my briefing board down every saturday to the briefing. sure quite honest, i'm not what he made of it. he asked questions about the significance of a particular
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intercept, which i struggled to answer. about --der sometimes he had a great affinity for statistics and numbers. i did wonder sometimes whether we poured into the weeds at the expense of what i came to regard as the bigger picture. to be candid, that reflected my disillusionment war during my year there in 1965 and 1966. it was an interesting experience. i learned some things about how to present things to senior people, which i trust helped me later on. it was a humbling experience appreciated that
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command can be a lonely thing, particularly when you are responsible for the lives of soldiers and are watching a lot killed and wounded. wearing effect on general west moreland. this really chronicles the course of that war. there were daily developments and a lot of the pieces for focusing on the tactical developments on the ground. how do you see the balance between the strategic richer being manifest in the pdb and the process? how do you do that today in terms of making sure that we don't focus on the tactical developments, but we have a broader perspective in terms of the overall development? mr. clapper: you put your finger on one of the challenges.
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the current generation of people have.t together the pdb how do you balance the high level generality that you have to keep in perspective and present enough detail that the number one,cymaker is getting enough of a flavor and a nuance and the subtleties in the atmospherics that prevail in whatever given situation you're trying to describe. that is something we constantly wrestle with today. it is very interesting to me to go back. i did have a lot of the pdb's being rolled out during my second tour.
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just to see what was presented to the president at the time versus what i saw. i actually thought the pdb articles were a good chronicle what i recall from my vantage on the ground when i was in vietnam at the same time. well, because of the global perspective, the global responsibilities the president has, vietnam dominated as a topic those pdb's. there were other issues the president had to deal with his well. course, the cold war, access to berlin, the middle east.
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.here is haunting similarity these are many of the same concerns and conditions. we always have that challenge andow to balance the detail the broad picture. we spent a lot of time agonizing over what topics to pick. we labor over every word in the interest of doing the best we can to be objective and responsible. at the same time we are mindful of the president's time. this president devotes a lot of time to intelligence. he has a lot of other issues as you can appreciate on his platter. we have to be mindful of that. we don't inundate him with too
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much intelligence. it is in the end for us today as it was historically a balancing act. mr. brennan: this is not the only access the intelligence community has to the presidents. you can take a step back and look strategically. mr. clapper: that is exactly right. we spent a lot of time bonding in the situation room. factis a reflection of the that in the national security apparatus, intelligence drives everything. we don't get a pass when we go to these meetings. we have to present the intelligence richer. they all start with that. that drives the agenda for the meetings. forum that the
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president is involved in, it's very much driven by intelligence. be material that the president will read and our observation has been the president is eminently prepared. he has always done his homework before these meetings. president has the ipad, he reads that. pdbon't actually brief the per se. we have meetings where we will brief other items, either that supplement or augment or update what is in the pdb or other that we think he should
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be familiar with. the cia very much as a part of that process as well. mr. brennan: it will frequently bring to the president news that is not always pleasing in terms of policy course, challenges. i was struck at looking at some of them from president nixon's administration. less than a month after he 14,med office, february 1969, the pdb said there were only a handful of politicians in south vietnam with whom a small fraction of the people identified the government is likely to acquire a broader political base by bringing new faces in the are the cure is president nixon whose legacy was the vietnam war and he needs to deal with the issue supporting the self the emmys government here is intelligence bringing that news. bringing information to be
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-- the president that really challenges options and courses. mr. clapper: yes. [laughter] mr. clapper: first of all, the quote that you read from the pdb way back then was accurate. that was one of the great personal dissolution months i had -- disillusionments i had when i got to vietnam and found that with united states were propping up a series of dictators that were interested in preserving their own positions and lesser interest in leading their country in a very, very difficult time. both john and i have had the experience of being the bearer of bad news to the president. i think the worst chastisement i ever got was a comment about, sometimes the intelligence community has a very elegant sense of timing.
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i remember that. i have to say as well, president obama has insisted, has insisted that we always tell it straight, we be as objective as we possibly can, and to not color things, politicize things, not shade things, letting them know what the truth is. we always try to do that. that is certainly always been the objective. i can certainly recall some unpleasant visits to the oval, which i will not go into, but it is a part of the deal.
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it is almost a writ in intelligence to always tell the truth to a par. it is something i have the occasion to do with general westmore were in airstrikes did not go so well, or airstrikes missed the target. and he did not like that, but i learned early on that is one of the, i think, fundamental obligations of professional intelligence officers. mr. brennan: jim is famous for saying, there are only two conditions of washington. do you want to point that out. mr. clapper: you learned there are only two conditions in life, policy success, intelligence failure. no other conditions in life. [laughter]
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mr. brennan: as you point other some of the analysis looks like impression as to what actually happens. a lot of times policymakers are surprised. sometimes it can be without foundation, but a lot of times with good reason. this pdb release covered the 1973 israeli war, which broke out in october 6 of 1973. on october 5 of 1973, the pdb says the military exercises in egypt seem to be on a larger scale and conducted more realistically but they do not appear to be preparation against israel. [laughter] mr. clapper: just kidding, you know? [laughter] mr. clapper: i think the serious point here is there is intelligence about distinguishing between mysteries
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and secrets. secrets are normal fax that, if you have the access, you can glean them. mysteries are unknown. i think a lot of times, and this may sound defensive but i will say it anyway, i think too often the intelligence community is held to the same standard for mysteries and secrets and being clairvoyant. in this case, and there are many others, but we did not make the right call for every one of those, there are ten calls that we made that were correct that never get publicized and where the intelligence community saved lives because of our ability,
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our foresight, are anticipatory abilities, and it is to the great and if it and safety of these people. i say that over a span of 53 years, whatever years it has been, and i have been in the intelligence business. mr. brennan: we just watched the olympics in rio de janeiro. these pdb's covered a time when we had the tragic attacks in munich that led to the deaths of israeli athletes, which had only briefed treatment in the pdb's.
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today, terrorism is much more of a prominent feature of the landscape. how do you see the pdb being the vehicle for making sure the president is kept up-to-date on what might be coming down the pike is worst terrorist are concerned? mr. clapper: we focused a great deal of effort across the intelligence community and certainly in the cia on terrorism and our efforts to counter it. this is usually complicated dimensions in our intelligence community, manifested in the intelligence in 2004 which created the position of dni. it also, importantly, represented the marriage, if you will, of both foreign and domestic intelligences,
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something which having grown up in the intelligence community i have learned the firewall, it always prevails for foreign and domestic intelligences. now we have to marry those two up the best weekend. we have been at the foreign intelligence a lot wonder, it is more mature, but i think we have made great progress in linking our foreign intelligence capabilities with responsibilities to support local, tribal, state, private sector. it actually imposes a perhaps greater burden on the pdb given the time constraints the president has in the responsibility that is incumbent upon us to be as succinct as we possibly can but to keep the insights that we have on individual plots and how they affect this country.
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regrettably, you know, pdb articles on terrorism began to appear during this period. i found it frankly chillingly haunting to read those articles which talked about the same forces we were contending with, also regrettably we will be in the business with suppressing terrorists for some time to come. that points out, highlights, emphasizes the importance of that portrayed as accurately and completely as possible in the president's daily briefing. mr. brennan: the coup that to the austrian death was a prominent event during this time. at that time, we had stark separation inside the cia between analyst in operation officers. the analysts were writing pdb at the time were unaware of all of the covert action. as you know, right now, we have
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an effort to better integrate the capabilities, so that our collectors and analysts and technologies are able to work together more effectively and efficiently. do you worry at all about analytic objectivity and integrity as a result of this process? mr. clapper: no, i do not, at all. in fact, one of the features of the provision is a requirement that my office have an analytic integrity office whose omission is to assess and monitor analytic integrity throughout the intelligence community. we do that through a number of mechanisms including surveys and analysts which are anonymous. every year, thousands of analysts respond to these
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questionnaires about objectivity and whether or not they feel pressured. an important question is whether they had an outlet or did they achieve a satisfactory outcome when they saw help from management? with specific respect to what john has mentioned with the transformation of modernization which basically calls for the amalgamation of analysts and collectors in the same organization, which i strongly support, only because it has a huge impact on strengthening the agency, but it has a tremendous spillover and influence on the best of the intelligence community. my mantra during my six years has been "integration." that is what the 9/11 commission said was needed and that has
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found its way into the law through the irotpa. the fact that analysts and collectors worked together does not mean that analytic integrity is in any way compromised. i would comment that what john has done at the headquarters of the cia is simply congruent with the way things operate in the field. today, just about any embassy you go to, you will have of course a cia contingent but representatives from many of the components of the intelligence community are there and they operate as an integrated team, capitalizing on the talents and capabilities in contributions of everybody who is represented there. always under the leadership of a chief that wears a second hat
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for me as the dni presented of who reinforces the chief of station's role as the intelligence leader and promote integration, and that is what is happening at the cia. other components of the intelligence community are doing the same. the dia, nsa are in the throes of organization and restructuring the greater theme of integration. to be sure, to be clear, we do have to safeguard and required by law to oversee analytic integrity. as well, each agency has an independent arm somewhere in its organization, those producing intelligence products also -- who also watch for safeguarding analytic integrity. mr. brennan: i want to open up questions from the audience. the pdb was a unique product during president ford and nixon. the entire u.s. intelligence agency is the gold standard worldwide.
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a lot of foreign intelligence services seek to emulate what the u.s. intelligence community is doing it, how we do our work, how we collect, how we analyzed but also how we provide the head of state and government. we have had a number of conversations with our government counterparts. do you know of any other similar type of products or services to their head of state that comes anywhere close to the pdb? mr. clapper: no. there is no other country on the planet that it goes to the lengths as we do. this is a very serious endeavor. it is seven by 24.
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it takes the effort of a lot of people. now even more than is reflected here because it involves the entire intelligence community. my view is it is a great strength of our system. others have looked at it and i think made some effort to have some system for informing their head of state, but i know no one there goes to the lengths we do. mr. brennan: let's open it up. we are going to get right into questions. i am going to do one quick commercial. this is cia week at the nixon library. not only do we have these two great gentleman on stage, but tomorrow evening we have david preece who will talk his book "the president's book of
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secrets" which chronicles the daily briefings from kennedy all the way up to obama. please go online and go ahead and sign up and we hope to see you back here tomorrow night. the first question, i would like to ask. can you tell us about the presidential daily briefings regarding resident nixon's trip to china and the influence it had? mr. clapper: well, actually i cannot say much about it because as i say, i was a young pup at the nsa at the time. i think the pdb in the run-up to the, it is my understanding there were a lot of discussions about interests outside the pdb because it was certainly a tremendously historic event as we were reminded during our tour today.
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it "reset" the relationship with china, and the legacy continues today. i think pdb treatment in the run-up served as a tutorial, if you will, but i also believe that the president was receiving inputs from other sources, national security advisor, secretary of state, beyond what was in the pdb. >> differently was a seminal event that continues to resonate to this day. mr. brennan: president obama is leaving for china next wednesday attending the g 20 summit out that. president nixon's to go to china was significant and it is a good example of how to keep secrets before something takes place. this is part of the lexicon,
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something that will reference unexpected and needing to have someone who has taken such a strong line on an issue to try to resolve the problems and overcome the obstacles. unless we had the opening then, i think the course of events would have been much different. president nixon deserves a lot of credit to recognize china as a global presence, global power, and we needed to have the dialogue that can sometimes be tense but incredibly important for national intelligence. >> the next question, back of the room to your right, gentlemen. all of southern california, clay baxter.
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>> thank you, sir. thank you gentlemen for your service to our country. one of the questions i have is, what contribution to the presidential daily briefing comes from the military? mr. clapper: well, today, the, as i indicated, one of the major changes that is occasioned by the terrorism prevention act was the involvement of the entire intelligence community. the arm for the military is the defense agency and intelligence agency which will serve as a drafter, particularly on articles, as you would expect, direct military reference. dia in turn can draw on the
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entirety of the military and intelligence community which includes the intelligence arms and arms serving the command. military plays a prominent part of the process, and that is one of the benefits of opening it up, the preparation of the pdb to the entirety of the intelligence committee. mr. brennan: most of that falls within the department of defense in terms of all of the agencies, national security agency, others in the intelligent services of the various services. there is regular input from all of them. they share reporting. obviously the united states military is actively engaged in places like afghanistan, iraq, so begin regular reports. >> back to the right, gentlemen.
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>> you mentioned general westmoreland, sometimes seeming to get lost in the weeds, and the influence of president nixon. we also know president kennedy had hired secretary of defense from before company to streamline the military, etc. my question, do you think the combination of the two balanced out nixon's view? mr. clapper: well, that is probably a take-home question. [laughter] mr. clapper: i really cannot say whether, how much that influenced the president at the time. it did seem to me, and moore of a contemporary observation, that we did get awfully deep into
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facts and stats, body count, how many viet cong, north vietnamese were killed, how many were flown, how many bombs were dropped? that is what general westmore thought was important at the time. i cannot say to what extent the preoccupation with details, numbers, statistics had a vary on the president. i guess it did, but i cannot answer that specifically. mr. brennan: many times jim and i found ourselves in the white house room and were pummeled with questions about the situation. we would look back-and-forth at each other, who has the answer and who takes this is a take-home answer.
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mr. clapper: just like we are doing now. [laughter] mr. brennan: the intelligence community is a repository for those facts. policymakers trying to figure out and making sense of very confusing, complex situations want to have as much input as possible and they do look at the intelligence community to provide them that inside. mr. clapper: i do think, something john said that i will key in on, while intelligence is, we think, it is quite important and we try to tee it up for policymakers, they have the option of accepting or rejecting it or biting into some of it or not of it or drawing other sources. that is their option. and so, gauging to what extent a given piece of intelligence will influence policymakers -- most of them are drawing on many sources for influence into their decision calculating.
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>> did patton focus on details? mr. clapper: he did. yes, john. >> thank you very much for this event. this is a question for cia director mr. brennan. they were reports that they had infiltrated dianne feinstein's e-mails. there was also a cia report that stated such application did occur. can you please clarify this for us? mr. brennan: i am trying to understand that in the pdb released today, quite frankly. i have talked about this. we carried out our responsibilities and we had an
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obligation to make sure they were secure and we found out there was some vulnerability, we carried out our responsibilities to investigate that, and it was fully informing the senate about it, and some believe it or not, there are some things that come out from the press that are not exactly a reflection of reality, and so i stand behind with the cia did during that time, and i have no problems in terms of explaining our work at the time with what we get it to the congress in them a full report, so i can sleep comfortably, very comfortably at night. mr. clapper: i stand behind that. >> the center section just to your left, gentlemen. >> my question is, how do you communicate with each other in members of the administration? do you use e-mails? that is the first question. the second part of that, when you send an e-mail or received
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an e-mail do you know whether it is classified or not? the last part of it, if you think it is important enough for national security and it is leaked intentionally or by accident, do think that will harm security and therefore it is illegal? [laughter] mr. brennan: jim and i can to mitigate regularly in a number of ways, phone calls, we spent a lot of time in the vietnam days talking as buddies. we do communicate in different fashions. u.s. intelligence officials are different means in terms of e-mails, unclassified e-mails that we send to one another and then there are classified networks that the intelligence
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community really relies upon to do its work, to maintain the data and retain seekers. when information comes out for the public, a lot of times it is done with various purposes and agendas. all of the hackings that have taken place whether they be government e-mails, personal e-mails. i have had my personal e-mails hacked and personal e-mails put out publicly. this is one of the real challenges of our country, to be able to deal with the tremendous capabilities, unfortunately of those that want to do us harm. whenever jim and i communicate, we try to make sure we put on the high side and on the low side, unclassified information. we all have an obligation to do that. mr. clapper: one of the, my wife
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is not wild about it, but we do have small areas in her home with the ability to comedic is securely either at home or on the road. it is actually very important. i am very, very proud of the trust and confidence and the bond between the cia and my office. >> next question, very back of the room, center section. >> hi. you spoke earlier about the defense intelligence agency, and what i want to know, what kind of percentage come are using their information, 10%, 30%, 50% of the daily briefings?
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mr. clapper: to be quite honest, we do not keep statistics like that. it is actually pretty hard to do that. i would not want to wager a guess on what percentage that we draw on any one of the ic components because we use it all. what commonly occurs is we will use several sources to portray one-story. it isn't a question of it being an exclusively a cia article or exclusively an nga article one we try to do is put them together so we draw on geospatial intelligence. their tremendous capabilities in graphics and imagery. we drawn at james -- attaches and the nsa for intelligence which we try to fuse together
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into one product so we sort of don't try to do that anymore because it is kind of a he said thousands and thousands of muslims in new jersey celebrated the twin towers collapsing, wants to ban and restrict muslims from entering. says a federal judge has a conflict of interest in considering a case against trump university because of his mexican heritage. and i could go on and on. you get the point. this is demagoguery. this is wielding anxiety and frustration and pointing it at them. this is hatemongering. this is undermining the social fabric of the united states. so it's not just that donald trump is a problem. the problem is that donald trump has already poisoned the well, and we have got to all of us here tonight and elsewhere, get rid of him. [applause]
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rudyard: two very strong opening statements. we will next go to you, laura a grand jury -- ingraham. your six minutes is on the clock. please start. ms. ingraham: i want to thank everyone here for coming tonight. it's such a great privilege to be with all of you, and i can't believe 14% of the people in this room actually support the proposition. i will buy margaritas for all of you, all of you at the fun table. i am honestly thrilled to be here to support the proposition and i would like to begin with a quote from march of this year. here it goes. "i have seen first-hand how excessive wall street and the big corporations are at wielding influence using lobbyists, campaign donations and subtle
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promises of future jobs to get the global deals they want. deals like a transpacific partnership will boost the profits of wall street's corporations and make the richest 1% even richer, but they will conjure you to the steady shrinkage of the american middle class." that quote was posted by robert reich, former secretary of labor for the clinton administration, and our opposition tonight. next i would like to quote a 2000 article about the decision of electrolux. we have had electrolux vacuums
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we keep these things up. white houses in the situation room or the session. >> i had a question -- after giving intelligence briefings, i am curious -- did you discover that was not accurate, or had to go in the back and eat some crow? jim has, i have not. >> absolutely. we never represented -- 100% right on the time. we are not. i have made errors in the course of my briefings in the oval office and i was quick to correct them. and because i just think that is important from the credibility standpoint. sometimes you didn't have the facts.
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there are lots of reasons that can happen. you are doing this on a fairly tight time schedule and you are trying your best to make sure you are complete and accurate -- errors are going to occur but we weren't always i think conscientious about making sure that we corrected them. >> the next question is from jean hernandez. >> thank you for coming to yorba >> the next question is from jean hernandez. >> thank you for coming to yorba linda. knowing yorba linda politics, i am sure you are in a political situation. i convinced somewhere along the line, some staffer will try to say, you do not want to brief the president on that. when that occurs, do you say,
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thanks, but no thanks? >> i am pleased to say that doesn't happen. i cannot think of a case where somebody said for a substantive reason, that is bad news. i do not recall an occasion for that. i think that is a holy writ for the professional of intelligence, knowing truth in power no matter how unwelcome or that truth may be. >> i have been a participant in some intense discussions as a briefer where there are questions about the assessment over the intelligence and maybe sometimes the reader -- those arguments are very healthy because whether or not you are assisting the president, you want to make sure the president gets the best intelligence possible and so sometimes those discussions that take place
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really help to refine and make the briefing that are. >> next question, back of the room. >> thank you for coming today. very pleased to have you. i spoke to admiral rogers previously and the person in charge of cyber defense and he often talks about the idea of a cyber pearl harbor and now we need to pay attention to that as well as the kinetic issues that confront us as well. this past week, we appeared to i spoke to admiral rogers previously and the person in charge of cyber defense and he often talks about the idea of a cyber pearl harbor and now we
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need to pay attention to that as well as the kinetic issues that confront us as well. this past week, we appeared to have a cyber pearl harbor in which the nsa was hacked and all of its information that shows everybody on the internet how to get into the back door of the nsa or the tools with which they use to find that information about our enemies and/or our friends -- how big an issue is this? how monumental hack is this? if you are giving the president the briefing, to what extent do you cover this issue? >> this is a bothersome development. i do not know if i would call it a cyber pearl harbor.
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others before admiral rogers have spoken to this possibility. the former secretary of defense, mike mcconnell, have all spoken about the notion of a cyber pearl harbor. when i think of that, i think of a massive cyber attack on the country that would affect our infrastructure and financial sector, electrical system -- this is what comes up as a so-called cyber pearl harbor. the case that you bring up is a serious one. we are still sorting this out. i think chris inglis of the nsa said it best when he said, we have to march on and recover from this. given the contemporary period of
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these tools that were the in 2013, as a result of presidential group that was assembled after the edwards noted regulations, we have a better process for making decisions about informing providers of a deficiency, a potentially exploitable versus the national security implications of doing that. that is a difficult process but that has changed since the contemporary -- the time in question that is at least indicated in the hack and it is
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still under investigation. we do not know exactly the extent of or the understanding of what happened. to answer your question, yes, the president is aware of those kinds of happenings. >> in terms of the vulnerability of this country, to these types of attacks or expectations, i think it is probably the most serious issue that we face as a country looking forward because this environment is the new domain that most human interaction takes place in and i do not think we have come to terms with what is the appropriate role of government in one is mainly a private sector environment and how are we going to ensure that we can safeguard the prosperity of this nation when things are happening in that environment and that the government does not even have the authority at this point to do certain things in order to protect our infrastructure, or
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privacy, over civil liberties? there have been a number of issues in terms of what is the role of government and how can technology help or hurt that governments ability to take care of what it is -- and so, this administration, the intelligence community is focused on this in the next administration needs to take this up early on as the most important issue that they will grapple with. >> gentleman on the right wall. >> thank you for being here. my question is similar. i hear that cyber terrorism is our biggest threat and how it can affect our infrastructure. would you agree with that? >> i am always reluctant to grade threats.
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which one is the most serious and prioritize them. the reason for that is, we do not get a pass on any of them. the scenario you suggest is a scary one and i think i can probably conjure other scary scenarios in the biological warfare realm. we have to attempt to maintain vigilance and anticipate any of these scary scenarios so that is certainly a bad one and that is kind of fitting the definition to a certain extent of what was previously referred to as a cyber pearl harbor.
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i completely agree with what john said about the whole nature of cyber which the classic technology of having a two-edged sword. our lives are completely dependent on it. at the same time, it poses a threat to our society and our way of life and one of the ways that specific ways that threat could manifest itself is exactly along the lines you suggest. mr. brennan: as a move toward having the internet of things when everything is going to be connected to that environment, there is a national dependence on the vitality and reliability mean to imply -- there are other uses of it that are on phone to this country. the power grid, transportation systems, medical centers rely on having that reliable connectivity in that cyber
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domain and so, what i'm saying is that we now are experiencing more of attending logical revolution, a lot of our practices and processes which were developed in the 20th century have not kept up and cyber is something unlike anything else. we know the responsibility of the police on the streets. we know what the responsibility of the government is. we have not figured out what the role of government is to optimize civil liberties while optimizing security whether it be nationstates, adversaries, terrorist groups, or individuals
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that want to hack into something and destroy it -- this is something that we as a nation need to understand the potential vulnerability unless we take the steps necessary -- it is going to require an unprecedented partnership between the public sector in the private sector and i believe that the national commission news to be established to look at what we need to do as a country and cyber doesn't respect boundaries, either, so it is also been a we can do think that this is the issue that we are going to have to deal with the future aside from all the other ones -- terrorism, proliferation. >> thank you for your service. who ultimately decides what is going to be in the data briefing? when the president refused to briefing and he is looking at the intelligence, does he know that intelligence comes from the
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cia or some other intelligence agency? does the president need to have somebody personally briefed him on the daily briefings or visit his prerogative to read them without -- mr. clapper: he does know the sources of every article, who the drafter or drafters were will often have more than one component to write an article and where he was drawn on, what i do components. that is reflected at the bottom of every article. the process for selecting articles is a collective one. we have a dedicated staff of people who do this on a 24-hour
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basis. we have seasoned professionals who make these decisions which gets a light touch from me. i tried to stay out of it. we are always careful about the people that we pick to manage this activity. in this case, i know president bush did have his process was to read the pdb and have somebody to ask questions. that is the process that president obama uses. we know he reads it because of comments and questions he has about it and when we are in the oval with him, we either -- he may ask a question or give us a task from an article that he has read and/or we will supplement what was in there with updates since there is a production
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process so you have to cut it off at a certain time or other items that perhaps do not make the threshold that which we think he should know about. and as i indicated earlier there are others who participate in this. we are not the exclusive source of intelligence for the president which is a good thing. this is a crucial role that john played in the white house and was great because of his service in the intelligence community and he played an important role in supporting the president. the important thing is that this is clearly a team sport. there is the engine represented by the intelligence community to turn this out day after day but that is not to say that that is the exclusive source of input for the president. >> frequently, they will be generated by experts that are watching the situation develop and think that the president is to be updated on something but also, jim may see an issue and
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tell our folks we need to make sure the president is aware of the changing dynamics as well as the recipients themselves. we will say, we need to make sure that the president is updated on this. a lot of times, articles are drafted to coincide with meetings or travel, so he is going to china next week. we try to make sure that he is as fully informed as possible. >> another feature was what we call expert briefs. the process is to bring in a pair of experts from across the community to brief the president on a particular topic common either he is going on a trip or some other issue that we think he needs to be up to speed on so we will bring in the exports and we had some wonderful talent to do that. the president invariably engages with him. the bottom line is that this is
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we try to make sure that he is as fully informed as possible. mr. clapper: another feature was what we call expert briefs. the process is to bring in a pair of experts from across the community to brief the president on a particular topic common either he is going on a trip or some other issue that we think he needs to be up to speed on so we will bring in the exports and we had some wonderful talent to do that. the president invariably engages with him. the bottom line is that this is a team effort and we use many different methods for conveying the intelligence. -- >> thank you
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for being here today. my question is piggybacking on the previous question. is there any backstop in the plans or an elevated concern for private companies that are facing an advanced threat from these government state and nations -- can you speak to that? mr. clapper: if you mean, do we try to warn them, the answer is absolutely yes. the department of homeland security has an important role in engaging with the private sector to as we learn -- if we do learn of potential for rims -- attacks in whatever form it may take and of course the first challenge then is if you can is attribution -- is it from a foreign source? and then, what is it we can share on a timely basis without compromising sources or methods and there is a mechanism for
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attempting to warn -- four warning industry and the entire commercial sector of a potential threat. mr. brennan: we have a collaborative relationship in terms of making sure to share information with each other, putting the pieces together and as these threats emerge and if private sector companies are under threat, the appropriate offices will be in touch. >> our next question is in the back row, to your left. >> you mentioned earlier about getting the intentions of the egyptian army wrong. can you give us some examples or anecdotes and the other side of the coin where you see that the
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daily briefing was particularly on point? mr. clapper: i think there are any number of plots which are terrorist plots which we get onto, get some insight into -- i can't -- i'm not -- i can't -- i won't stipulate particular examples or how we knew about them but there has been many of those that have been thwarted because of work of the intelligence community at large which i count as a success. that is often the case heard where we also do very well is when the president has foreign engagements and in preparing him for what the issues are, what is
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on the mind of his foreign counterpart, that sort of thing. again, do not want to go into specifics but those are two examples where i think it has worked on the other side of the coin. >> most successes are still secrets because we might have intelligence that a country is going to do something and we get that insight in advance in the president will take action or there are certain things we can do to stop something from happening and those are the successes when something does not go off the rails whether it be a terrorist attack or invasion and if that insight in advance of the situations that really the president is looking for that advantage -- and, we
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know of many instances over the course of this administration where we were able to bring something not just the president but a lot of other people at the seniormost levels of the government that allow them to stop a perforator from requiring a certain type of technology or frustrating some efforts on the part of terrorism to move finances or material. these are things that we do on a regular basis. sometimes we do not have the same type of success rate on these issues but i am proud of what the intelligence community and the cia has done to keep the country safe. >> our next question comes to us live from twitter. >> have we achieved ordination and intel sharing capabilities from agency to agency to avoid intelligence blind spots?
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mr. clapper: i think that is a great question and i think it is a journey, it is not something that we will be through with by next friday. it is the reason why the position i occupy was established. in my dotage, i can unequivocally say that when i think back 50 years ago and the way intelligence was where cia and nsa might as well have been on two different planets and it is much different now. this is an acknowledgment of some hard learned lessons, not the least of which was 9/11 and i think there is a dedication throughout the community to work as a team and to share and
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collaborate. you mentioned over foreign partners -- i do not know of a time in my professional lifetime where we share as much with foreign partners as we do today. there is an obvious reason for that. that has induced or stimulated a great deal of sharing. what we do work at the cause that is largely on a bilateral basis -- many countries are pleased to share with us and do willingly and freely. when we try to promote is sharing between other countries and this is particularly true in europe given the challenges they have and they have certain
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obstacles, both legal and others, that prevent free sharing as much as they might like. i do think we have come a long ways is 9/11 but that is not a say that there is not more than we can do. mr. brennan: we have come light wears -- light years. people that complain they do not share enough information with one another, do not have any idea of putting together an infrastructure where you will connect many departments and agencies, many different authorities and responsibilities and be able to move the information and pull data sets out there so you can move the information in hand in people at the speed of light. something can happen, we can get intelligence in a different part of the world that would have importance speaking of a window.
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-- the streets of yorba linda. how do you move that very quickly to the system? you have national, state, local government, the cop on the street. i think americans would be impressed with what the country is done with americans like you that work in different public-sector areas, working around the clock to try to make sure that if it comes in, the data, we are being overwhelmed, not just data secretly but also that data available in open sources. how do you make sense of that, and how do you interact with one another? putting together that system has really been a challenge, and i will give jim clapper additional making sure we all interact with each other as optimally as we can, but there is an engineering issue that you want to make sure you are able to interact with each other as effectively and efficiently as possible. more had time for two
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questions, but i want to remind you all we have david priest tomorrow night at 7:00 p.m. i encourage you all to attend. it will be interesting. >> i wonder if there is a difference between the briefings provided to a presidential nominee, president-elect, and finally, the sitting president. thanks. >> well, not a great deal of difference. we are, of course, in the throes right now, this year with more media attention and since wesy than ever started this in 1952. the briefings for the candidates are probably a bit more general, more topically focused, and do not go into operational considerations or covert actions
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or those kinds of sensitive issues. after the election and when the president-elect is known, it is pretty much a parallel, so that the oncoming president is essentially getting for the most part the same as the incumbent president. i think this is a great strength of this country that we do this, and of course, the intelligence community, as always, attempts to do this and as a political -- a fashion as possible. but we do our part to ensure as smooth a transition and does smooth handoff -- as smooth a handoff as possible. >> one more question before we turn over for closing. >> i was curious how many man hours it takes to develop the presidential daily brief. >> that's a great question, and
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the fact is i really don't know because it is situational and .rticle dependent many times, articles take a great deal of research. we will occasionally do what we call standout features which are longer, take more research. sometimes the coordination process can be a little painful. we have todissents, accommodate those. we don't really keep track of , and it time it takes is not a profit-making thing, so there is not really the need to. is whatever it takes to make these products, these articles with as high .uality as possible
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>> i would say that you can have experts who are going to put together a pdb, and it might take six hours to draft something, and it might take more hours to work it through the system, but the six hours of drafting other flexion of many years of investment and understanding the issues, and that expertise really comes with a tremendous amount of effort. what we try to give the president is the accumulation of that knowledge, that capability so that he gains the fruits of .hat effort looking at the drafting and coordination is just a small part of the investment of time that goes into producing quality products. please join me in thanking director brendan, director clapper. [applause] we have come up on time for a
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break. when we return, the archivist of the united states will take the stage. >> this weekend on american history tv, tonight at 8:00 eastern, westfield state university criminal justice professor george michael describes the relationship between the extreme right and current collegians. >> they did not know enough about due to categorically suggest -- reject the support, but a couple days later, trump disavowed support from duke and relevant parties. nothat as it may, that has
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stopped the media from characterizing trump and his s andrters as racist bigots. quayledebate between dan and lloyd bentsen. >> we would be pushing very hard to open up those markets and stand up for the american farmer and see that we recapture those foreign markets. >> come in and tell our farmers not to grow corn, not to grow soybeans, that is the kind of policy you will get under the dukakis administration and what i think the american farmer will rightfully reject. >> henry kissinger, as he said, one to make sure no agency had particular entree to president-elect nixon. he and kissinger wanted to control all of the intelligence and did not want the agency trying to sell itself as the
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premier actor in the intelligence community. >> with the recent release by the cia and some 2500 presidential daily briefs of richard nixon and gerald ford, historians at the nixon presidential library and use and discuss changes president made to the daily brief. for a complete american history tv schedule, go to .ww.c-span.org >> a weekend long, we are joining cable partners to showcase the history of pueblo, colorado. to learn more about the six -- the cities on our tour, visit us online. we continue now with our look at the history of pueblo. >> pueblo gets its start as an adobe trading post back in 1842, as a commercial enterprise. a small group of people come together and see the success they are having on the santa fe trail, on the house trail and decide to form their own adobe
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.rading post there have been people here for thousands of years. pueblo just gets its start when these anglo and european settlers move in and start tilting this trading post. cheyenne, arapaho. they have been here thousands of thes and they recognize utility of having those two large bodies of water come together. when the founders of the trading post filled it, they see the success of other places in the previous decade and want to capitalize on that and make money while they still can. the santa fe trail has all sorts of different kinds of people going from santa fe to st. louis, and they follow these wagon trails, these horse trails, and they need places where they can stop, get their supplies, trade, get the things they need, and be on their way
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on the trail. was, at least in colorado, the biggest of those trading posts, very large were all sorts of goods are being traded between all sorts of people. ,ou have native american tribes trappers, american and european trappers, spanish-speaking traders coming up from the south , american pioneers and settlers coming from the west. it is almost like a truck stop that people could stop that and rest, get the things they need and continue on their trip to wherever they are going. what we have here is a sort of offshoot, not directly on the santa fe trail, but people see the success and want to sort of capitalize on that while they still can. the old pueblo trading post starts at the tail end of the first trade, so the age of the beaver is sort of passed by the
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trading post comes into fruition. people love still trading furs, but the trade is on its way out with the development of silk making and things like that. what they continue trading our buffalo robes, one of the main items that are traded. grow corn, and then they could trade that with the so they could grow their own food, bring things up from tau's, dried vegetables, whiskey, and the natives could bring things in like deer, bison meat, things like that, but the main thing i would say that would be traded would be whiskey and buffalo robes. lasts from 1842 to 1854, and ultimately what happens is there is a conflict andeen the unit -- the ute the people living at the trading
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post. the fact of that are much disputed, but what we do know is that on christmas day 1854, almost everybody at the trading post had been killed. after that, the trading post is abandoned. people do not live at the trading post and it ultimately gets washed away, buried deep underground until people do not .ind it the city itself does not start to be inhabited again until the mid to late 1860's when the railroad starts coming in. they realize this is a place where -- a natural place to get everything you need to make steel. it is really the railroad and the steel industry and the coal industry that brings pueblo as a city to where it is today. people still keep coming back
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because it is sort of a natural place to build a city. >> this weekend, we are featuring the history of pueblo, colorado, together with our comcast cable partners. learn more about pueblo and other stops on our cities tour /citiestour.n.org you are watching american history tv all weekend every .eekend on c-span3 >> the next president making appointments to the supreme court of the united states will be president donald trump. >> with hillary clinton in the white house, the rest of the world will never forget why they have always looked up to the united states of america. >> c-span's campaign 2016 continues on the road to the white house with the vice presidential debate between republican governor mike pence and democratic senator tim kaine tuesday night live from longwood university in farmville, virginia, beginning at 7:00 p.m. eastern with a preview of the
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debate. then the pre-debate preview for the audience, and then live coverage of the debate followed by viewer reaction. the 2016 vice presidential debate -- watch live on c-span. watch live and any time on andnd at www.c-span.org listen live on the free c-span radio app. this weekend on american , we visit pierce mill, built in the early 1800s along rock creek park in washington, d.c. here is a preview. >> i am standing in front of peirce mill in rock creek park, one of the last vestiges of the rural past of washington. it is the only one of its type left. it was part of a way of life of farming and milling that happened in the early 1800s. was aner of the mill
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quaker -- a former quaker from pennsylvania named isaac pierce. he came to the early 1790's and bought a lot of land, ultimately 160 acres along park. there was an old mill he bought, and he built this mill in about 1820. he had a whole farmstead here. there was a farmhouse, a house that may have been -- a building that may have been a distillery, , an entireinghouse farm area here. watch the entire program sunday at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. eastern on c-span3's american history tv. the battle of chickamauga in september 1863 is widely considered to be the union army's worst defeat in the civil war's western theater, ranked
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only second to gettysburg in terms of total tragedies. the battle turned an assault by confederate troops by general james long street, which drove troops from the field. next, historian james ogden argues there is a difference between the formation long street had planned for the assault and how confederate troops lined up out of necessity during the heat of the action. the top was part of a symposium hosted by the emerging civil war blog, focusing on great attacks of the civil war. it is about an hour and 10 minutes. >> at this time, it is my pleasure to introduce jim. i'm not sure you will even remember this story, but i first met him years ago when i was attending a civil war journalism university ofthe tennessee. fantastic event. jim was one of the organizers at that event.

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