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tv   American History TV  CSPAN  October 2, 2016 5:37pm-6:01pm EDT

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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> you're watching american history v -- american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. >> what makes movies or stories about people, and in crisis or in a crisis, and the crisis either changes them or changes everybody else, and if you don't show conflict and if you don't show flaws, and if you don't show somebody growing out of
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their flaws or something like that, you are seeing something you can't really connect to and it doesn't quite have the same impact. the editoron "q&a," of "commentary" magazine and movie reviewer for the weekly standard talks about the movies he has revered, ranging from "lincoln" to "straight outta compton." the movie as an update of the classic showbiz story about how the band got together and recorded its big hits was pretty strikingly effective. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span's "q&a." themerican history tv is in city of ludlow, colorado this week and next, we take you to the l pueblo history museum. up next, we take you to a museum to learn about the children of ludlow exhibit.
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>> we are in the children of ludlow exhibit, which commemorates the 100th anniversary of the ludlow massacre. this exhibit really resonates with visitors today, even though this story is over 100 years old. it still touches so many issues that we think about today. they are issues of gun control and gun violence, issues of labor. there are issues of immigration. all of those come to play in this exhibit. there are many ways in which the public comes in and finds an immediate modern-day connection to that. >> the ludlow massacre was a horrific time in american history. men, women, and children were killed in their defense of the ability to earn a living wage. >> one of the important aspects of the story is children.
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children died in the massacre, children where victims. they were our of the story. -- they were part of the story. we chose to tell the story of the ludlow massacre from the children's perspective. another important piece of that is that truly, the miners were fighting for their children. one of the things that they would like to note was that this was not about foreign-born miners fighting for wages. it really was about the filling -- fulfilling the dream of america for their children. throughout the exhibit, you will see photos of children spaces. -- of children's faces. the union deliberately took photos of children, partly as propaganda to say, this strike is not about foreign-born miners, but about america's children. we thought that would be a really interesting way to tell the story. right behind me, you will see a
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great photo from the united mine workers that captures many of the faces of children living in the colony. i would like to point out this little young man with a look of worry on his face. the overwhelming uncertainty that these kids faced. they were not in school at the time. they did not know when the strike was going to end, because nobody knew. they did not know when the harder way of life was going to go away. i think it really captures that feeling that little kids had at the time. one of the things we did as part of this exhibit was to create a sense of being in a tent. people were living in tampa's homes -- in kansas -- canvas homes.
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we are in the middle of a tent that looks at the life of children before the strike and during the strike. over here, we've got this great photo of mother jones, marching children down the streets of trinidad, as one of the techniques they used to gather support for the coal miners strike. here, there is even a sign that says, a bunch of mother jones children. one of the aspects of the story is that children really are used as a rhetorical technique to help the country at large really feel compassion for the miners cause, and this is one example of how they used that. over here, we talked about this lesson.
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this text panel i think is one of the best stories. we've got an oral history of a young man who talked about how the company really felt like the life of a mule was more important than the life of the people and children of the mine. it would cost the company money to replace a mule, and the cost the company nothing -- and it cost the company nothing to replace a worker. the mule was more valuable to the kind -- to the company then be -- than the people working there. this part of the story is often represented -- often misrepresented. people thought the miners were fighting against children's labor, and that is not one of the causes of strike at all. families really encouraged the young men to go work in the mines, because they knew that that was a pathway to better wages and a better life. and they knew that the young man
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who started in the mine earlier were going to be much more productive by the time they became adults. so we've got some interesting stories about what it was like for young men. sometimes, they would start out working the trap door in a mine. they would have to listen for the sounds of a mule or a car. then they would open the door to let them out, and they would shut the door very quickly. it was a very important job, because this is how they can't -- kept the air patrol within the mine. if someone did not do a good job, there would be an air explosion. it was a very important job. young boys would have to sit in the dark and do it. if you can imagine being maybe a 10-year-old boy, sitting in the dark for hours on end, it was a
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pretty hard way of living. but the families actually encouraged it. there is a great quote here of a young man who says, mother, i don't want to go into that dark hole. i am afraid. i will do anything if i did not have to work there. again, we've got some of the beautiful imagery taken by the united mine workers of the faces of these young men impacted by the strike. over here, we have some interesting bulletins from the sociological department of the colorado fuel and iron company. they would print these things to hand out. these in particular are for the women, the wives of the miners, with the idea that they want to impart an american way of being. in fact, children at the time were given grades based on how clean their mothers kept their
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homes. the principal would go to the home and assess a child's living condition, and the child was graded upon that at school. this was all part of this effort to americanize and build a future workforce for the company. we also talked about the impact of young women in the strike. what's interesting is that, during the strike, the men are not working. the young boys who worked in the coal mines were not working. but in fact, the women and their daughters, the load increased for them greatly, because they now were trying to keep things clean, keep people fed with very little resources during the strike. if you can imagine canvas tents out in the middle of nowhere, the amount of mud and filth, it was very hard to keep their living quarters clean.
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women were impacted the most by the strike on a daily basis. over here, we show a victorian doll, and it may be hard to see, but there is a great picture from one of the company's journals about christmas in kindergarten. every year, the department would hand out drums to boys and dolls to girls. you have archaeological evidence to support they had these toys at the ludlow site. this was part of the ability to insert influence over the children and had to that -- add to that americanize way of thinking, in a way to separate children from their foreign-born parent and impart this american way of life on to
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the children. so in an interesting foreshadowing of events that happened, we see tragedy occur. it occurred at one of the other colonies that were part of the colorado coal strike, where miners were living in tents as part of the strike. it was a much smaller colony, however. living there are in the and joseph. -- are emma and joseph. in march of 1913, she gives birth to twins who died at birth. she was devastated. so the tent colony, as close as they are, they all go to trinidad to bury the twins. but emma is too devastated and actually stays at the tent colony.
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when the militia comes and they see that everybody had left, they assume that everyone had gone, that the tent, and he was completely empty. -- the tent colony was completely empty. so they start trashing tents and setting them on fire. they come to the tent, and they discover that the colony was not empty, and they find emma in her tent, devastated for the loss of her children and not well. some of the militia tried to evict her from the tent so they can ransack it and earn the tent -- burn the tent. but one kind militia man stands in front of the tent and says, over my dead body will you do this to this woman. they allowed her to remain. it is the only tent that survived that fire. it was the only one left
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standing. and we have the furniture that actually was in the tent. the only reason we have this furniture is because it was saved that day. and emma told her family that every single day she would say a prayer of thanksgiving for the one man who stood up for her and allowed her to remain. so it is april 1914, and at this time, the company is very tired of the strike, and they are eager to put an end to it and get the miners back to work. so they began escalating tension with their militia, making life even harder for the miners. so the massacre story actually begins the day before the massacre, on april 19, 1914. later on that day, they are
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looking for lewis pincus, who was a greek immigrant and one of the union leaders. they accuse him of doing something that they are is no evidence that he did. this again escalates the tension. when they wake up on april 20, tensions are at an all-time high. nobody knows who or how, but shots rang out. they don't know which side they came from, but at this point, everyone is armed and ready for a battle. as the day goes on, a battle ensues. lewis is brought into custody, and he is executed by the militia. his body is left where it fell for three days. another -- a number of other union leaders are killed.
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after the battle died down, the militia go and set fire to the tents. probably the biggest tragedy of the day, there are women and children in a tent celler, and they are trapped under a burning tent, and they die of suffocation. 11 children and three women. two women are in their, and they survived, but all of their children perished. with some families, the entire family was killed. the coast of family. -- costa family. charlie costa was killed in the gunbattle, and his bury -- very pregnant wife and children are killed in the tent cellar. one of the heroes of this story is mary. she survived the tent cellar, but she is holding her infant at
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the time, and two of her other children are in the cellar with her, and they all perished in this tragedy. that really forms what we now call the logo massacre. -- the ludlow massacre. when this exhibit opened, a woman came in and looked at this large picture of children and recognized her mother. one of my favorite parts of this exhibit is that this really is the story of people of southern colorado. people who still live here today are the descendents of this story. we have so much to owe our ancestors, because they really came, and so much of the story is about what kind of america they wanted to live in. we are the beneficiaries of that. announcer: this weekend, we are
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featuring the history of pueblo, colorado. learn more about pueblo and other stops on our cities tour at you're watching american history tv, all weekend, it every weekend on c-span3. debatere the second between hillary clinton and donald trump, we are looking back to pass presidential debates saturdays on c-span at 8:00 tm eastern. this saturday, the 1992 town hall debate between president bush, arkansas governor bill clinton, and businessman ross perot. >> you can move your factory south of the border, pay a dollar an hour for labor, have no pollution control, no retirement, and you don't care about anything but making money.
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jobs were going to move south because of lower wages, there are lower wages now and they haven't done that great i have just negotiated with the president of mexico, the north american free trade agreement. >> you have to increase investment, grow the economy and reduce the deficit by controlling health care costs, prudent reductions in defense, cuts in domestic program, and asking the wealthiest americans and foreign corporations to pay their fair share of taxes. presidential debate between george w. bush and vice president al gore. >> if our national security is at stake, if we have allies, if we've tried every other course, if we are sure military action will succeed, and if the costs are proportionate to the benefits -- >> i would take the use of force very seriously. i would be guarded in my approach. i don't think we can be all things to all people in the world. i think we have got to be very
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careful when we commit our troops. between 2012 debate president barack obama and the former massachusetts governor mitt romney. >> if we do what i'm planning on doing, which is getting us energy independent, north america energy independence within eight years, he will see manufacturing jobs come back. we can't just produce traditional sources of energy. we have to also look to the future. that is why we doubled fuel efficiency standards on cars. in the middle of the next decade, any car you buy, you will end up going twice as far with a gallon of gas. >> saturday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. andh any time on listen at it a cut p.m. eastern on the c-span radio app. the cia recently released a 2500 pages of previously classified material from the richard nixon and gerald ford administrations. thedocuments were
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president's daily briefs on national security threats and issues which are seen only by the president and selected shall . this weekend on "the presidency," the richard nixon presidential library and museum hosts a discussion with historians about the changes presidents have made to the daily briefs. here is a preview. circulation for the document itself is entirely up to the president trade in the case of johnson, he had it delivered to 10 people by the time he left office. next in cut that way back to six and gradually expanded to nine. sometimes in history it has gone to as many as two and a half dozen individuals outside of the immediate circle. in other cases it has been close. again, entirely up to the president and the key point here from the relationship perspective is that the pdb underneath and lost its standalone quality. it was no longer the thing that went to the president each be it by delivery
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from the cia and with a discussion between the president and national security advisor or just president reading it himself. the way kissinger ran the intelligence process here is that he would take that document , let it sit for effectively 12 hours, constantly updating it with situation room material and other traffic, and then prepare in the morning a national security memo that he, kissinger, took to the president for a one-on-one briefing. the picture, and none of those individual items within the presidential security memo was said specifically to the pdb. we are largely red out of the process document terribly. we're also red out of the process in feedback, because there is no continual back and forth between the white house and cia. as one of kissinger's aides sa id, you are -- you and the president's work style do not lend themselves to feed act.
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you like to go in the oval office, slammed the door shut, cook up something, then spring it on the policy community. cia is not involved there, you are not telling them what you want in the book. you are taking it as it comes and going from there. as a result, the pdb is growing ever more useless overtime in the nixon administration. the entire program sunday at 8:00 p.m. or midnight eastern great american history tv, only on c-span3. >> >> the next president making appointments to the supreme court of the united states will be president donald trump. clinton in the white house, the rest of the world will never forget why they have always looked up the united states of america. >> c-span's campaign 2016 coverage continues with the vice
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presidential debate between republican governor mike pence and them or senator tim kaine --inning; 30 p.m. eastern democratic senator tim kaine beginning at seven: 30 p.m. eastern. watch live on c-span. watch live and any time on demand at and listen live on the free c-span radio app. "american artifacts" takes you to historic places to learn what artifacts reveal about american history. rock creek park covers 1700 acres. we visited peirce mill, built in the early 1800s along rock


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