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tv   Reel America  CSPAN  October 27, 2016 10:55pm-11:16pm EDT

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♪ when the nation calls on men to march ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ when the walls come tumbling down ♪
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♪ our country 'tis of thee ♪ sweet land of liberty of thee i sing ♪ friday, remarks by u.s. supreme court justice elena kagan. she speaks at the equal justice works conference and career fair live 3:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. later, president obama is on the road campaigning for hillary clinton in orlando, florida. you can see his remarks from the university of central florida live 5:00 p.m. eastern on our companion network c-span2. bobby kennedy's last words before he got off the stage were, "on to chicago." the next day he was due to chicago, due to go to chicago and meet with the very powerful mayor richard daley. daly's son bill daley, who was chief of staff to barack obama, tells me there was a 70% or
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greater chance that his dad would have endorsed bobby kennedy for president during that trip to chicago. >> sunday night on "q&a," author and former "boston globe" reporter larry tie discusses his book "bobby kennedy: the making of a liberal icon." >> had bobby kennedy beat richard nixon the way i think he would have, america would have been a different place, i think. and some of the issues we're revisiting today of racial tension and international discord might be a little bit different if we had tried to address them 50 years ago. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's "q&a." this weekend on "american history tv," on c-span3, saturday morning from 9:00 eastern till just after noon -- >> may the british empire and its commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will stay say, this was their finest hour.
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>> we're live for the 33rd international churchill conference in washington, d.c., focusing on the former british prime minister's friends and contemporaries. speakers include british historian andrew roberts, author of "masters and commanders: how four titans won the war in the west, 1941-1945." and later on saturday at 7:00, texas general land office commissioner george p. bush. state senator jose menendez. musician phil collins talk about the spanish mission the alamo at the 2016 texas tribune festival in austin. >> the memories i have, impressions of that time, were this group of people were going and they knew they were going to die but they went. or they were there. crockett went. but there was something very noble and very romantic. i've learnt that it wasn't quite as black and white. and that's one of the things i think would be good in this day
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and age, that we put it into context. >> then sunday evening at 6:00 on "american artifacts" -- >> macarthur's up front. you notice he's not wearing a weapon. he would often lead attacks carrying nothing but that riding crop that you see in his left hand. and the men looked at this and realized, hey, if the colonel, later the brigadier, if the colonel can take it, well, i can take it too. >> we visit the macarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia, to learn about the early life of douglas macarthur, who commanded allied forces in the pacific during world war ii. at 8:00 -- >> the great leaders also serve as conscience in chief. with the highest level of integrity. with their moral compass locked on true north so that we can always count on them to do the right thing when times get tough or when no one is looking. >> author talmadge boston explains his ten commandments for presidential leadership. what they are, and provides
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examples of presidents who excelled at each one. for our complete "american history tv" schedule go to cspan.org. next, "american history tv's "reel america" features a 1944 film titled "the hidden army." it looks at u.s. women who worked in war manufacturing and the impact on winning the war against germany. >> during world war ii, millions of american women contributed to the war effort by working in manufacturing jobs on the home front. next on "american history tv's" "reel america" from 1944, "the hidden army." a 17-minute war department film documenting the vital role of women in the workforce and encouraging more to contribute to the effort. ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ open up, sergeant.
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>> my experts had considered all the possibilities. and it was thought accurately. over and over we discussed the strength, actual and potential, of our probable enemies. france. confused and helpless in the hands of fascist leaders.
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england. weak, frightened. settling for appeasement. the united states. huh. no army, navy or air force. my expert in that country gave me most of its factory reports. >> i think it as mistake to underestimate america, herr eberlein. >> did you question my statistics? >> all i know is the united states is the industrial phenomenon of the world. >> i'll stick to my figures, herr schloss. to win wars we need manpower. we know how many men the united states can put into the field. this number is limited by the number of member necessary for the production of materiel with which to fight. the ratio of workers to soldiers is fixed. >> her r eberlein, have you ever
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considered the possibility of woman labor? >> ha ha! the most decadent women on the face of the earth. let me quote you statistics about the women of america. last year, 1938, they spent more for cosmetics than the united states navy did for ships. more for silk stockings than the united states spent for planes. flirts. cocktail drinkers. pleasure lovers. loafers. a race of playgirls, pampered and spoiled by their sentimental american men. how different from the women of germany, who trained like soldiers, who bred babies to wage this war and are now producing the goods for our own soldiers on the fighting fronts. and all this, herr schloss,
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without lipstick. american women, bah. >> i was to make many mistakes before my downfall. none more spectacular than my contempt that day for american women. i invaded poland. my war was begun. meanwhile in the united states there was a restless stirring. factories appeared overnight. how was it possible for america to achieve such production, and at the same time build an army? then amazing reports came in from my agents in the united states. the answer was that 20% of
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american industrial manpower was womanpower. legions of american women were massing to stop my advance across the world. forsaking the round of revelry for the grim tasks of war. it was the first time i had heard of the hidden army. >> it may have been the first time, herr hitler, but it was not to be the last time. the hidden army was going to haunt you till your dying day. tomorrow, isn't it? or the day after tomorrow? pearl harbor came and we were in the war 100%. the axis believed it was ready for us. axis statistics, careful and accurate, had forecast this army, this air force, this navy. but in the production estimate, the axis was wrong. because the forecast had miscalculated the potential
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strength of the hidden army, the women of american industry. across the atlantic to berlin, across the pacific to tokyo. millions and millions of women who had never lifted a finger outside their own homes now suddenly resolved to set the world house in order. these were the uniforms of the hidden army. these, their weapons. and these, the results they helped to achieve. it must have called for some pretty fancy explaining by the statistical expert, herr eberlein. >> it will pass, i tell you. these women are unemployed, publicity seekers, seekers of the novelty. playgirls with new toys. it's just a vogue, nothing more. it will pass. >> but it did not pass. not yet. invasion came to north africa.
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working side by side with men, women have helped weld the landing craft that disgorged equipment to american fighting men. women have helped rivet the planes that rained hell through the days and nights. women have manufactured the radio tubes that flashed the news that the first major and live invasion was plished triumphantly. in doing all this they had earned the respect of the men beside them. there were some jobs that a woman could do even better than men. jobs for instance that required a delicate touch and sensitive fingers. yes, the american woman, to every man's surprise, had won her industrial spurs. and this in addition to about 100,000 women in the army, navy, and marines, and the brave nurses risking their very lives on the battle front. by the end of 1943, the hidden army had grown to be nearly 30% of war production labor. but by that time all over the globe american arms had passed
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from defense to offense. this meant greatly increased demands for materiel and greatly increased demands for men. casualties had to be replaced. invasion forces had to be built. and as our armed forces grew, so did their demands for equipment, supplies, food, materiel of all kinds. the need for women grew desperate. and thousands of women answered the call. but then a strange thing happened. one month the hidden army, which had mushroomed, suddenly stopped growing. the following month was even more disturbing. the papers reported a slight falling-off in production.
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some were too tired in the morning to face the assembly line or the work bench. some found that defense work interfered with their shopping. a few members of the hidden army, it seemed, had earned enough for the fur coat they coveted and returned to their prewar existence. perhaps the war news looked swell and the compulsion to work was dissipated in the confident talk of victory just around the corner. others quit for sounder reasons. transportation was a problem. it was distressingly difficult to be both a house keeper and a patriot. the kids needed looking after and the house somehow refused to run itself when eight hours a day were spent at the plant. but by far the most common reason was that women were not accustomed to the long hours of hard work.
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shortages appeared. american planes found themselves lacking bearing assemblies. delicate parts for electronic equipment were low. and american wounded became american dead. of a sudden the war was right in the american home. the government regrets to inform. >> no! >> what's the matter, mommy? what's the matter? >> for every american cross driven into the foreign earth, a gold star hung in some american home. our women learned, learned in bitter tears and heartache, that in war there can be no such thing as a slight falling-off in
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production. because there's no such thing as a slight death. by early 1944, the draft boards were falling behind. demands for young men for the invasion forces was imprertive. these came from the deferred. the fathers. reclassification was called for. this at a time when stories drifted in from the cold italian mountains, the malaria-ridden pacific jungles, the watery graves. women the country over began to recognize war for what it was -- a grim, tough, unromantic battle to the death in which every man, woman and child had a stake. if the american home is to be preserved, if the tragedies of other families in tortured lands are not to be duplicated here, the axis must be brought to its knees. the hidden army drew fresh
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recruits. its ranks grew to nearly 18 million. many of these women came from walks of life not previously considered. the mothers, the young, the aged. when they were asked why they had joined the ranks of the hidden army, these women gave a variety of reasons. >> i have a daughter in the waves and i had a son on the "arizona." that's good enough reason for anyone. >> i'm an old maid and i didn't have anyone until i took this defense job. now i have a family to look after. i send them cases of these every week. they help them to get home soon. >> i go to college. but i arranged my classes so that i could help out in the war effort. this way i'll get my diploma and war bonds. >> i was too heavy for the wac so i joined up in defense work.
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yesterday was the big day of my life. the farmer told me i was worth my weight in gold. >> my husband's a prisoner of the japs in the philippines. if he'd had a few more of these shells out in bataan, maybe he'd still be fighting. whenever i get a bit tired i think of him on that death march. >> the special needs of women workers were more widely recognized in many vital defense areas. foremothers, child care nurseries. for housekeepers, stores and markets were persuaded to stay open in the evenings. hair dressers, dances, movies, sports, were more and more made available at the unaccustomed hours required by the hidden army. indeed, in some events, much of the routine of contemporary living was made easier for the woman war worker than for her stay at home sister. because it was concentrated under the one roof. there was no longer the necessity to traipse all over town for a dental appointment, a
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driver's license, ration coup coupons. they were all within a few yards of the assembly line. more and more the special needs of women workers were realized and met. oh yes, there was another girl, her reason for entering war work -- >> why did i take a defense job? it's a funny question. i never thought of that before. do you have to have a reason? we're in a jam, aren't we? i'm sorry but you'll have to excuse me, i'm too busy to answer damn fool questions like that. >> somehow that answer pleased us. no sudden emotional burst sent this young woman into war work. no loss of a loved one. no temporary economic embarrassment. no mere yearning for excitement or novelty. democracy is in a jam. there are millions like her. there will have to be. 18 million women aren't enough. as more men are called for

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