tv Killing of Native Americans in California CSPAN October 31, 2016 9:05pm-9:56pm EDT
in it's importance. i'd like to thank patti for all the work that she did. and all the people at the california historical society and all the people that work here for making this event possible. >> before we begin i just want to remind you that you are in indian country. you are sitting in indian country right now. when you walk out these doors after this presentation you'll be in indian country. no matter where you go in this hemisphere you will be in indian country. why? because virtually every square inch of the americas is the homeland of an american people. the ceremony continues until
just before dawn. women's clam shell necklaces clicking gently against their dresses. ma birds, deer or hunters supported their females meanwhile they raised their voices skyward. between songs the singers offered prayers of thanks for the creation and the renewal of the world. finally they stopped and walked addway under a full moon. and outside it's gently from the shore and inside people slept
and unaware that crescent city men had established their own branch of california's expanding killing machine. coast rangers and mountain rangers had been well armed by california governor and january 1854 california's state quarter master general had sent the judge 20 muskets. 10 rifles and 1,000 rifle cartridges. and 2,000 rifles and heavily armed militia men prepare to do one thing and one thing only. kill californians. in the predawn hours of december 3 1st, 1854, as many as 116
militia men accompanied by an unknown number of auxiliaries surrounded the village and took it up in the brush. and as men, women and children emerge to begin their day they open fire on men, women and children. possesses three guns the indian people were unable to resist. they swam across the lake they encountered a second group of killers. sharp shooters lying in wait. when the firing stopped perhaps hundreds were dead. not more than five indian people survived this massacre. the attackers apparently suffered but a single casualty in the state of california later paid these militia men for their
so-called work. between 1846 and 1870 california's indian population plunged from 150,000 people to 30,000. diseases, dislocation and starvation were important causes of these many deaths. however abduction, unfree labor and masked death on federal reservations, individual homicides battle and massacres took thousands of lives and hindered reproduction. this was genocide. an attempt to destroy national ethical racial or religious group as such including killing
members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group. deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to break apart their physical destruction in hole or in part. imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group and forcibly transfer people of the group to another group. the convention provides a clear internationally recognized rubric for evaluating instances of genocide including historical cases not subject to jurisdicti jurisdiction. they must commit at least one of the five genocide acts. following the formulation of this new international treaty scholars began reexamining the
colonelization by the united states. more than 20 scholars deemed california a case of genocide. still relatively little has been written about the california genocide. at least compared to other genocides in world history. building on previous scholarship an american genocide is the first year by year comprehensive recounting of the genocide that took place against california indians under u.s. rule. the stakes are high for scholars and california indians and all citizens of the united states. scholars will need to reevaluate current interpretive accents and
address new questions. they could reexamine the assumption that indirect effects of colonization like diseases were the leading cause of death in encounters between native californ californians. they lose validity as they compare genocide in california to others around the world. where they documented genocide it would be necessary to evaluate what roles local governments and private individuals played and whether or not the killings were part of a larger recurring regional
patte pattern. >> who ordered and carried out the killing. why do we not know more about these events. did democracy drive the process of masked murder? did genocide play a role in the making of modern canada, mexico, united states or other western hemisphere nations. >> should they press for government apologies or control of land where events took place cases involving sovereignty and
federal recognition. how should they commemorate victims of mask murder while also accommodation, resistance and survival and on going cultural renewal. what happens if a tribal member learns he or she is the desen debit of perpetrators and victims. how might california indian people reconcile increased knowledge of the genocide that took place here. sometimes at the hands of agents at the federal government where their often intense patriotism. what role might acknowledgment of genocide have on intergenerational historical trauma? something so prevalent in many communities today and that trauma's connection to present day physical illnesses and the
question also poses explosive questions for all u. s. citizens. should government officials tender public apologies as presidents ronald reagan and george h.w. bush did in the 1980s. with the forcible relocation and internment of some 120,000 japanese americans. many of them california citizens during the second world war. should federal officials offer monetary compensation along the lines of the more than $1.6 million that congress paid out to 82,210 of these japanese americans. and $3 billion. and a better understanding here in california might also impact the federal governments.
and committed and with the same monuments museums and state legislative days of remembrance that today commemorate the genocide and the holocausts. will genocides join these mask murders in public school curriculum and public discourse. these questions are important that can only be addressed in very limited ways. and understanding of relations between california indians and newcomers sporadic mass killings
punctuated the initial years of u.s. rule here but james marshall's 1848 gold strike precipitated it. they played a leading role in increasing violence against california indian people. and the society in which indigenous people sought a dangerous impetment to the acquisition of wealth. in 1849 attacks on california indians increased in frequency. particularly in the northern clans where the northern mines were already booming. one 1849er explained and i quote, oregon people had been used to shooting indians and
they did shoot them freely. that april, theodore johnson entered the epicenter of this local genocide. >> and people murdered by heights in and around 1849 and early 1850s. and it's clear to contemporary observers is the nature but in their intent and in their impact. the slaying of two anglo ranchers in december 1849 marked the turning point toward a
larger statewide genocide in response to this double homicide vigilantes and united states army soldiers killed as many as 1,000 indian people or more between december 1849 and may 1850. first murdered and massacred large numbers of indigenous people in the napa and sonoma valleys. then after they were arrested california's supreme court let them go on bail. it was in fact our state's first supreme court case. they also sought to avenge the deaths of these two white ranchers. in an article titled horrible slaughter of indians one described a massacre committed by the u.s. army clearly using information provided by an army captain.
upon men, women and children they fell, said the informant as grasp before the sweep of the side. little or no resistance was encountered and the work of butchery was of short duration. neither age nor sex was spared. it was the order of extermination fearfully obeyed. other killings followed and the officers involved were promoted. a new factor was important. large scale extended vigilante and u.s. army killing campaigns tolerated by both state and federal authorities. they counted over 360,000. they came primarily in search of
wealth. in seeking to access and acquire labor and satisfy their sexual desires immigrants place immense pressure on the california indian communities. they triggered an explosion of ranch hunting, mining and perhaps slave labor. they generated shockwaves with a devastating impact upon california indians. u.s. army officers made them into second class citizens. california's 1849 constitution then made it nearly impossible for california indians to vote. in 1850 california's first legislature banned all indians from voting, barred indians with 1-half of indian blood or more
from getting evidence for or against whites in criminal cases and ban indians from serving as jurors. they later barred indians from serving as attorneys. in combination these laws shut indians out of participation in and protection by the state's legal system. abduction played a major role in the decline. the government and protection venues which legalized white custody of indian minors while allowing koucourts and jurors t reject indian system. indians could thus be forced into unpaid work on trumped up charges. here we see an ad. a 16-year-old southern california indian female at the price of a pound of gun powder
and a bottle of brandy. in 1860 legislators legalize indenture whether children or grown persons including prisoners of war. these laws triggered a boom in violent kidnappings of ibd juans while separating men and women during peak reproductive years. both of which accelerated the california indian population some indians were treated as disposable laborers. one los angeles lawyer recalled los angeles had it's slave mart and thousands of honest useful people were absolutely destroyed in this way. the population fell from 3,693 to 219. escape was one way that california indian people defied
servitude but whites sometimes responded with legal force. for example, lieu i can young here that escaped servitude many times. she would tie up with cotton dress. others were less fortunate. after one california indian fled her, woquote, lord and master, whites massacred an entire village of some 15 california indians. 15 years later a rancher became so incensed that he quote slaughtered the whole family of six persons boy and all.
despite such reports state and federal policy makers failed to intervene while almost all law enforcement officials turned a blind eye. congress made california indians vulnerable. in 1851 and 1852 federal agents signed 18 treaties with 119 california indian communities. however, u.s. senators in washington d.c. repuniated these treaties. they authorized military operations and no legal recognition or land titles on california indian nations. the results, first, reservations were not patented and jurisdiction over indian reservation land was left
uncertain. second they did not become explicit wards of the federal government. third because jurisdiction remained uncertain confusion and conflict between and among state and federal authorities prevail. finally the united states army major general 1857 interpretation of california reservations legal status denied them full army protection and i quote until these reservations are perfected united states troops have no right to exclude whites from entering and occupying the reserves or even to prevent them from taking indians. federal officials made california indian people particularly vulnerable to kidnapping slavery assault and masked murder. the establishment of the state m
militia system. 3,414 militia men enrolled in 24 separate volunteer state militia expeditions killing at least 1,342 california indians. however, their impact transcended these numbers. they served as a widely publicized state endorsement of indian wran killing. a public grant for indian killing and inspiring many more vigilante killings. in january of 1851, california governor peter burnett declared that a war of extermination will continue to be waged until the indian race becomes extingt. soon there after state legislatures put the power of the purse behind antiindian
militia campaigns. in february they voted to borrow $500,000. a great deal of money at that time. and meanwhile, the state began building you an arsenal of arms donated by the united states army. then in may of 1852 following anticalifornia operations, even as killings of indians multiplied. and what we see here is a copy of one of the bonds issued and this is a investment guaranteed by the state of california. and the pattern of discriminatory attacks was now
all too clear after attacks by militia men in the year 1854 one announced we have lived here in peace but we can't get along with these white people. they come and they kill my people for nothing. not only men but they kill our wives and children. he concluded they will hunt us down like we hunt the deer and the antelope. provided a rare california indian eyewitness account of a massacre that took place in the 1850s. they'll remember and i quote about 10:00 in the morning some white men came. they killed my grandfather and my mother and my father. i saw them do it. they killed my baby sister and cut her heart out and threw it in the brush where i ran and hid.
just crawling around. i did not know what to do. i was so scared. i guess i just hid there a long time with my little sister's heart in my hands. it was a terrifying time to be a california indian. united states congress endorsed such killings. they allocated $924,000,000 and a new surge of killings followed even as state leaders and pictured here a book of tactics and distributed to his militia officers that became increasingly efficient indian killers. and then state legislators
appropriated an additional $410,000 for militia operations with predictable results. finally in 1861 congress appropriated an additional 400,000 to pay the expenses of nine state militia expeditions that killed at least 766 california indian people. u.s. congressmen indirectly sanctioned the masked murder of california indian people. although indians resisted civilians and officials carried out operations to con seb trait california indians on federal reservations. they massacred 55 indian people in the process of forcibly removing one group to the california. during the forced removal of her people to fresno reservation
soldiers killed a dozen indians. andrew freeman explained when they took the indians to round valley reservation they drove them like stock and shot the peel that couldn't make the trip. they would shoot children who are getting tired. and encountered institutionalized malnutrition. they recollected that after volunteers had forcibly removed his people from the reservation we were very hungry. and reservations were a little better. they relocated to the roubd valley reservation where he explained that there was even less to eat. indeed, in 1860 officials provided 480 to 910 calories per
day to working round valley reservation indians. daily rations fell to 160 to 390 calories per person per day. those that did not work were infrequently fed if at all. and according to one official the indians were allowed no meat. if some california reservation inmates died malnutrition weakened the immune systems of others making them more susceptible to diseases. starvation and malnutrition increased miscarriages and still births. according to one columnist about 300 died on the reservation
during the winter of 1856 to 1857 from the effects of packing through the mountains and the snow and mud. they were generally naked and packed 50 pounds if able. willful negligent took an untold number of lies. it's also pulled large numbers at 4:27 a.m. april 12th, 1861, shells exploded in the darkness over the stars and stripes at fort sumpter in south carolina. u.s. civil war begun. by the war's end 15,725 californians would enlist in the union army dwarfing all previous military organizations in history. many of these men remained in california and soon transformed
the state's killing machine. as u.s. troops, these so-called california volunteers we placed relatively small short-term militia campaigns with longer, larger u.s. army on asians. they then flourished along side them but the genocide was now primarily a federal project. u.s. army forces killed substantial numbers. the first california army campaign in the year 1862 killed at least 120 california indian people. hundreds more would die in succeeding campaigns directed by men like colonel henry m. black. california volunteers also killed prisoners in mass on multiple occasions. the u.s. captain proudly reported how in 1863, quote, i had all the bucks collected
together and 35 were either shot or savored. none escaped. he concluded with a statement of genocideal intent. they will soon either be all killed off or push so far into the surrounding area of desert that they will perish by famine. the u.s. army continued killing california indians through the late 1860s and con lewded large scale operations against them with the close of the 1872-1872 war. it fits the two part legal definition set forth in the convention. first perpetrators demonstrate in word and deed their intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethnical racial or religious group as such.
second examples of all five genocidal crimes. it occurred in 370 separate massacres as well as hundreds of smaller killings. individual homicides and executions they killed at least 9,492 to 16,094 california indians and probably more. by way of contrast sources indicate that california indians killed puer than 1,500 nonindians during this same
period. and the policy of driving surviving indians into inhospitable alpine regions mounting to and inflicting on the group conditions of life calculating to bring about it's fiscal destruction in whole or in part. some u. s. office of indian affairs and employees administering in california which one scholar at least called concentration camps committed the same crime. further, because mal nutrition and exposure predictably lowered it some state and federal policy makers appear guilty of imposing measures to prevent births within the group. finally the state of california, slave raiders and federal officers were all involved in
forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. >> 3,000 to 4,000 or more california indian children suffered such force transfers. by breaking up families and communities. force removals also constituted imposing measures in the group. in effect the state of california legalized abduction and slaifrs exploited these laws. and intervening to protect the victims and in some cases slaifrs followed in the wake of army campaigns to capture indian minors for enforced servitude. sufficient evidence of a case of genocide according to the united nations definition. california officials with it,
and which california indian people have almost no rights. thus granting those of attacking them impunity. they threatening. and killed a minimum of those and also passed three bills that raised up to 1.5 and million to fund these operations usually after the fact. by demonstrating that the state would not punish indian killers but instead reward them and expired a greater number of vigilante killings. and finally after the united states army had the primary
state sponsored they passed another bill allowing the state to raise an additional $600,000 to encourage more men to join the california volunteers. seem to have been guilty of genocide and conspiracy to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide and complicity in genocide. yet despite their leading role, california officials did not act alone. the u.s. army played a crucial role in these events. then setting genocide precedence and participating in the killing and finally taking direct control of it. in total u.s. army soldiers killed at least 1,688 to 3,741 california indians during this period making the army actually more lethal than the state
militias. ultimately some members of the u.s. army were also guilty of genocidal crimes. but federal officials helped to lay the ground work and became the final arbiters of its design and ultimately paid for most of its official execution. u.s. senators played a pivotal role making victims california indians. in 1852 they reputed and the remaining land as well as they're negotiating rule and increasing their vulnerability by denying them land rights and full federal protection.
they could have simply withheld federal funding for them. instead it passed two major funding bills allocating to reimburse california for its past expedition. retroactively enforcing them and financially supporting them and thus fuelling additional genocidal operations. the federal government had given california more than 1 million dollars for its militia campaigns. they approved the genocide after the fact by paying the state of california by the killings carried out. by 1863 the u.s. army had taken over as the primary state sponsored killing and congress controlled that institutions budget as well. indeed, federal legislators paid for some or all of the many lethal campaigns against
california indians that began in 1846 and concluded in 1873. thus several officials are also guilty of genocidal crimes. and perhaps 5 million or more indigenous people inhabited what is now the continental united states. 250,000 survivors. what caused this catastrophe. diseases, colonialism and war all played important roles but something more sinister also to blame? they have long debated whether or not native americans or any groups of them suffered genocide during conquest and colonization
of the united states. given that it remains one of the formative events many this nation's history. the native american population here in the united states played a foundational role in facilitating the conquest and the colonization of millions of square miles. the real estate upon which this country was built. thus how we explain the native american population directly informs how we understand the making of these united states. the stakes include public acknowledge m, preparations, control of natural resources, land, native american sovereignty and ultimately
national character. despite the high stakes the question became unresolved in part because the american genocide debate is deadlocked. two factors polarize the debate. only two participants use it as their definition even though 147 countries signed parties to it. growing body of international case law supports it and it remains the only legal definition. they render a verdict of genocide or not genocide from the entire americas from patagonia to the arctic and up until the present day. across the united states though american indian population declines took place at different rates over millions of square miles and across multiple centuries. colonial state and federal policy making personnel changed
overtime as did their government policies toward indians people. winners of hundreds of different stri tribes are involved. they changed overtime. thus despite the fact that histories of violence against peoples in the americas abound, the details reviewed by the california case suggest the need for more local and regional case studies to provide data that will permit an assessment of genocides occurrence, variability and frequency or absence in other regions in the united states and throughout the americas. assessing the question of genocide in the u.s. and beyond without an agreed upon definition where a substantial number of robust detailed case studies makes it very difficult if not impossible to reach comprehensive conclusions. the direct and deliberate
killings of indians in california between 1846 and 1873 was more lethal and sustained than anywhere else in the united states or it's colonial a antacedents. the variables present in california genocide didn't occur in precisely the same combination. and in other cases disease was the overwhelming cause of mortality but state and federal or colonial at the situation makers were not come police sit in any case. very different resistant strategy. and finallyht[ in other cases lonizers may have committed
fewer or no genocide crimes while the causes and in order to understand the full picture for the united states, north america and the western hemisphere. i hope this book prevents a workable in the united nations and beyond. it provides with a standardized internationally recognized rubric and coherent legal definition that may be consistently applied. this book suggests that scholars should rigorously consider every potential case in these consistent terms. we should consider each on a case by case or region by region basis. to create a scholarly precision
in our use of what is undoubtedly an explosive turn and to seriously consider the balance between variables like disease and the five thus without claiming the universality of the california case, this book points the field towards clear and conventional standards of application. detail case studies are an important element of genocide studies, a field often dominated by theoretical and especially definitional debates. because case studies provide a powerful tool with which to understand genocide and combat its recurrence around the world. native americans experienced and reacted to conquest and colonization in a wide variety of ways. rigorously examining this range of races using the genocide convention to evaluate both
genocidal intent and genocidal acts will help to move the discussion of genocide in the united states toward clarity. unbraiding each region's story from the tapestry of american indian history, and bringing each into sharper relief will play a clearer, more vivid portrait of native american experiences and of united states history as a whole. such investigations may be painful but they will help all of us both indian and non-indian to make more accurate sense of our past and ourselves. thank you. [ applause ] >> american history tv continues all this week with programs and events in prime time. on tuesday, a look at african american history will begin at 8:00 p.m. eastern with the
discussion on how harriet tubman was selected to be on the new $20 bill, replacing president andrew jackson. and then we'll visit several african american historical sites around the united states, and learn how many of them are being preserved for future generations. you can watch all this at 8:00 p.m. eastern tuesday here on c-span3. c-span's road to the white house coverage continues tuesday a donald trump campaign rally in wisconsin. he'll be speaking with supporters in eau claire. wisconsin is considered a swing state and has ten electoral votes. shortly after that hillary clinton will hold her own rally in florida. she'll be in ft. lauderdale with the event set to begin at 8:45 eastern over on c-span2. florida, also a swing state, has 29 electoral votes.
as the nation elects a new president on tuesday, november 8th, will america have its first foreign born first lady since louisa adams, or will we have a former president as first gentleman? learn more about the influence of america's presidential spouses from c-span's first ladies, now available in paper back. first ladies gives readers a look into the personal lives and impact of every first lady in american history. first ladies is a companion to c-span's well regarded biography series and features interviews with the nation's leading first ladies historians. each chapter also offers brief biographies of 45 presidential spouse and archival photos from their lives. first ladies in paper back, published by public affairs is now available at your favorite book seller and also as an ebook. next, a george mason university history professor teaches a class on post civil
war westward expansion and how it affected native americans and federal indian policy. we heard about how native americans strived to protect their lands by working with the u.s. government following the civil war. but how they lost their land anyway because of the large number of western settlers. this is an hour and 15 minutes. >> today we're going to pick up with u.s. federal tribal relationships as we've been talk about over the last couple of classes, although you will notice and i did warn you we are jumping forward lightly. last class we were talking about removal and the establishment of reservations in the 1830s and 1840s, early 1850s. we're actually going jump forward just a little bit directly into the civil war and after. one of the things that i want to try and do here is think about
the ways that native history and the development of the west were directly connected to the civil war and reconstruction, even though we don't always think of those things as related to one another. in our minds i think this we kind of separate westward expansion and the civil war from one another. but for the people who lived through that, i don't think they would have separated it in their minds. they would have seen a lot of connections between those things. so we're going to try to get into that mind-set today. when we think about the term "reconstruction," we usually conventionally use it to describe a series of policies and developments in the south between like 1863 and 1877. these were policies that were designed to integrate freed slaves into a mainstream population and readmit seceded states backo